Reconstructing the history of lineages

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Reconstructing the history of lineages"

Transcription

1 Reconstructing the history of lineages

2 Class outline Systematics Phylogenetic systematics Phylogenetic trees and maps

3 Class outline Definitions Systematics Phylogenetic systematics/cladistics

4 Systematics Study of evolutionary relationships between organisms Classify biodiversity (Taxonomy) Unravel ancestor-descendant relationships (Phylogenetics)

5 Phylogenetic systematics How can we reconstruct the history of evolution without seeing speciation events? Identification of key characters that represent evolved (derived) traits Construct a tree (cladogram) based on the observed similarities between species Clade: Any monophyletic evolutionary branch in a phylogeny using derived characters

6 Monophyletic taxon/clade - includes all descendant species and their ancestor (natural taxa)

7 Vertebrate Lineage

8 Paraphyletic taxon group that includes an ancestral taxon and some, but not all of its descendent taxa (artificial)

9 Vertebrate Lineage

10 Polyphyletic taxon group of organisms that does not include their most recent common ancestor (artificial) need to pass through one or more ancestors before arriving at a common ancestor for the group.

11 Vertebrate Lineage

12 Let s test our knowledge!

13 Let s test our knowledge!

14 Let s test our knowledge!

15 Phylogenetic Systematics/Cladistics Based on Willi Hennig work (1950) Modern approach that investigates how evolution occurred to generate the observed similarities between species Objective deduce ancestry through observations of the changes in characteristics Method construction of phylogenetic trees

16 Phylogenetic Systematics How can the history of evolution be reconstructed without seeing speciation events? 1) Identification of key characters (heritable parts or attributes of an organism) 2) Transform characters into transformation series 3) Compare these characters to an outgroup 4) Construct a cladogram based on the observed similarities between species Outgroup: a related taxon used to infer primitive and derived character states

17 Characters Heritable traits with different states that can be used to infer evolutionary relationships Morphological Physical measurements General form Molecular

18 Characters Heritable traits with different states that can be used to infer evolutionary relationships Morphological Molecular DNA sequencing

19 Phylogenetic systematics Why bother to know if the trait is primitive or ancestral? Structures and functions usually not created de novo (but are modified)

20 Phylogenetic systematics Homology Character state shared by two or more taxa due to inheritance from a common ancestor Homoplasy Character state shared by two or more taxa due to convergent evolution (independent origin) Can only use homologous characters to understand evolutionary relationships

21 Phylogenetic systematics Praying mantis Lacewing Only homologies should be used to understand evolutionary relationships and create phylogenetic trees

22 Phylogenetic systematics What kind of characters are used to construct phylogenetic trees? Classes of Homologous traits Plesiomorphic (primitive) Apomorphic (derived)

23 plesiomorphic apomorphic

24 Phylogenetic systematics What kind of characters are used to construct phylogenetic trees? Classes of Homologous traits Plesiomorphic (primitive) Apomorphic (derived) Symplesiomorphic (primitive-shared) More inclusive than focal clade Synapomorphic (derived-shared) Includes only focal clade

25 Let s test our knowledge! synapomorphic synplesiomorphic

26 Hennig s Rules for Phylogenetic Systematics 1. Assume homology, not homoplasy in absence of evidence 2. Homologies found within a monophyetic group that are shared with members of sister groups are pleisiomorphic while those found only in the ingroup are apomorphic 3. Only synapomorphies provide evidence of common ancestral relationships (not symplesiomorphies or homoplasies) 4. Can combine multiple transformation series

27 Phylogenetic Systematics Constructing a cladogram 1) Identification of key characters (heritable parts or attributes of an organism) 2) Transform characters into transformation series 3) Compare these characters to an outgroup 4) Construct a cladogram based on the observed similarities between species Outgroup: a related taxon used to infer primitive and derived character states

28 Ancestral Monophyletic descendent taxa

29

30

31

32

33 What about trait E? Trait E must be a homoplasy!

34

35

36 Molecular Systematics (molecular phylogenetics) Can include hundreds/thousands of characters in a phylogenetic study Morphological characters still useful Partition characters rates of evolution

37 Molecular clocks Can we know when speciation occurred? Some DNA and proteins evolve at known and constant rates used as a molecular clock to date evolutionary steps Ongoing debate on the reliability of molecular clocks How are molecular clocks calibrated?

38 Molecular clocks How are molecular clocks calibrated? Comparing known rates of molecular change with speciation in the fossil record

39 Molecular clocks

40 Fossils Provides direct factual evidence of evolution Provide evidence of character evolution and ancestral traits Document divergence times Document localities of past occurrence (distribution)

41 Fossil limitations Incomplete Biased preservation Only remains Trace fossils Destroyed/inaccessible Less known further back in time Transported from original distribution

42 Why are fossils and phylogenies important to biogeography? Evolutionary histories Influences of vicariance and dispersal events Biogeographic history of a place Changes in dispersal barriers How these barriers influenced the biotas

43 Taxon vs. Area approaches Taxon biogeography Reconstructs the history of lineages across areas at a single lineage at a time Area biogeography Reconstructs the relationships among the areas and the biotas living on those areas

44 Taxon biogeography The goal is to reconstruct the biogeographic history of just one taxon. However, it could be to compare several taxon and see if there is any congruence across them.

45 Area biogeography The goal is to reconstruct the biogeographic history of a set of areas based on the relationships of taxa distributed across those areas

46 Area biogeography

47 Modern Historical Biogeography Emphasis on rigorous logic and hypothesis testing. Reliance on robust phylogenetic hypotheses. Use of taxon-area cladograms based on the delineation of areas of endemism.

Anatomy of a tree. clade is group of organisms with a shared ancestor. a monophyletic group shares a single common ancestor = tapirs-rhinos-horses

Anatomy of a tree. clade is group of organisms with a shared ancestor. a monophyletic group shares a single common ancestor = tapirs-rhinos-horses Anatomy of a tree outgroup: an early branching relative of the interest groups sister taxa: taxa derived from the same recent ancestor polytomy: >2 taxa emerge from a node Anatomy of a tree clade is group

More information

Classification, Phylogeny yand Evolutionary History

Classification, Phylogeny yand Evolutionary History Classification, Phylogeny yand Evolutionary History The diversity of life is great. To communicate about it, there must be a scheme for organization. There are many species that would be difficult to organize

More information

Phylogeny and systematics. Why are these disciplines important in evolutionary biology and how are they related to each other?

Phylogeny and systematics. Why are these disciplines important in evolutionary biology and how are they related to each other? Phylogeny and systematics Why are these disciplines important in evolutionary biology and how are they related to each other? Phylogeny and systematics Phylogeny: the evolutionary history of a species

More information

8/23/2014. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

8/23/2014. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Objectives Explain the following characteristics of the Linnaean system of classification: a. binomial nomenclature b. hierarchical classification List the major

More information

Macroevolution Part I: Phylogenies

Macroevolution Part I: Phylogenies Macroevolution Part I: Phylogenies Taxonomy Classification originated with Carolus Linnaeus in the 18 th century. Based on structural (outward and inward) similarities Hierarchal scheme, the largest most

More information

Lecture V Phylogeny and Systematics Dr. Kopeny

Lecture V Phylogeny and Systematics Dr. Kopeny Delivered 1/30 and 2/1 Lecture V Phylogeny and Systematics Dr. Kopeny Lecture V How to Determine Evolutionary Relationships: Concepts in Phylogeny and Systematics Textbook Reading: pp 425-433, 435-437

More information

Classification and Phylogeny

Classification and Phylogeny Classification and Phylogeny The diversity of life is great. To communicate about it, there must be a scheme for organization. There are many species that would be difficult to organize without a scheme

More information

Name. Ecology & Evolutionary Biology 2245/2245W Exam 2 1 March 2014

Name. Ecology & Evolutionary Biology 2245/2245W Exam 2 1 March 2014 Name 1 Ecology & Evolutionary Biology 2245/2245W Exam 2 1 March 2014 1. Use the following matrix of nucleotide sequence data and the corresponding tree to answer questions a. through h. below. (16 points)

More information

Classification and Phylogeny

Classification and Phylogeny Classification and Phylogeny The diversity it of life is great. To communicate about it, there must be a scheme for organization. There are many species that would be difficult to organize without a scheme

More information

Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Phylogenies Show Evolutionary Relationships

Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Phylogenies Show Evolutionary Relationships Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life You Must Know The taxonomic categories and how they indicate relatedness. How systematics is used to develop phylogenetic trees. How to construct a phylogenetic

More information

How should we organize the diversity of animal life?

How should we organize the diversity of animal life? How should we organize the diversity of animal life? The difference between Taxonomy Linneaus, and Cladistics Darwin What are phylogenies? How do we read them? How do we estimate them? Classification (Taxonomy)

More information

Historical Biogeography. Historical Biogeography. Systematics

Historical Biogeography. Historical Biogeography. Systematics Historical Biogeography I. Definitions II. Fossils: problems with fossil record why fossils are important III. Phylogeny IV. Phenetics VI. Phylogenetic Classification Disjunctions debunked: Examples VII.

More information

Phylogeny 9/8/2014. Evolutionary Relationships. Data Supporting Phylogeny. Chapter 26

Phylogeny 9/8/2014. Evolutionary Relationships. Data Supporting Phylogeny. Chapter 26 Phylogeny Chapter 26 Taxonomy Taxonomy: ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences Carolus Linnaeus developed binomial nomenclature,

More information

Need for systematics. Applications of systematics. Linnaeus plus Darwin. Approaches in systematics. Principles of cladistics

Need for systematics. Applications of systematics. Linnaeus plus Darwin. Approaches in systematics. Principles of cladistics Topics Need for systematics Applications of systematics Linnaeus plus Darwin Approaches in systematics Principles of cladistics Systematics pp. 474-475. Systematics - Study of diversity and evolutionary

More information

ESS 345 Ichthyology. Systematic Ichthyology Part II Not in Book

ESS 345 Ichthyology. Systematic Ichthyology Part II Not in Book ESS 345 Ichthyology Systematic Ichthyology Part II Not in Book Thought for today: Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else,

More information

Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter focus Shifting from the process of how evolution works to the pattern evolution produces over time. Phylogeny Phylon = tribe, geny = genesis or origin

More information

Outline. Classification of Living Things

Outline. Classification of Living Things Outline Classification of Living Things Chapter 20 Mader: Biology 8th Ed. Taxonomy Binomial System Species Identification Classification Categories Phylogenetic Trees Tracing Phylogeny Cladistic Systematics

More information

Fig. 26.7a. Biodiversity. 1. Course Outline Outcomes Instructors Text Grading. 2. Course Syllabus. Fig. 26.7b Table

Fig. 26.7a. Biodiversity. 1. Course Outline Outcomes Instructors Text Grading. 2. Course Syllabus. Fig. 26.7b Table Fig. 26.7a Biodiversity 1. Course Outline Outcomes Instructors Text Grading 2. Course Syllabus Fig. 26.7b Table 26.2-1 1 Table 26.2-2 Outline: Systematics and the Phylogenetic Revolution I. Naming and

More information

Phylogenetic Analysis

Phylogenetic Analysis Phylogenetic Analysis Aristotle Through classification, one might discover the essence and purpose of species. Nelson & Platnick (1981) Systematics and Biogeography Carl Linnaeus Swedish botanist (1700s)

More information

Phylogenetic Analysis

Phylogenetic Analysis Phylogenetic Analysis Aristotle Through classification, one might discover the essence and purpose of species. Nelson & Platnick (1981) Systematics and Biogeography Carl Linnaeus Swedish botanist (1700s)

More information

Phylogenetic Analysis

Phylogenetic Analysis Phylogenetic Analysis Aristotle Through classification, one might discover the essence and purpose of species. Nelson & Platnick (1981) Systematics and Biogeography Carl Linnaeus Swedish botanist (1700s)

More information

Lecture 6 Phylogenetic Inference

Lecture 6 Phylogenetic Inference Lecture 6 Phylogenetic Inference From Darwin s notebook in 1837 Charles Darwin Willi Hennig From The Origin in 1859 Cladistics Phylogenetic inference Willi Hennig, Cladistics 1. Clade, Monophyletic group,

More information

Phylogenies & Classifying species (AKA Cladistics & Taxonomy) What are phylogenies & cladograms? How do we read them? How do we estimate them?

Phylogenies & Classifying species (AKA Cladistics & Taxonomy) What are phylogenies & cladograms? How do we read them? How do we estimate them? Phylogenies & Classifying species (AKA Cladistics & Taxonomy) What are phylogenies & cladograms? How do we read them? How do we estimate them? Carolus Linneaus:Systema Naturae (1735) Swedish botanist &

More information

UoN, CAS, DBSC BIOL102 lecture notes by: Dr. Mustafa A. Mansi. The Phylogenetic Systematics (Phylogeny and Systematics)

UoN, CAS, DBSC BIOL102 lecture notes by: Dr. Mustafa A. Mansi. The Phylogenetic Systematics (Phylogeny and Systematics) - Phylogeny? - Systematics? The Phylogenetic Systematics (Phylogeny and Systematics) - Phylogenetic systematics? Connection between phylogeny and classification. - Phylogenetic systematics informs the

More information

Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Biologists estimate that there are about 5 to 100 million species of organisms living on Earth today. Evidence from morphological, biochemical, and gene sequence

More information

Biologists have used many approaches to estimating the evolutionary history of organisms and using that history to construct classifications.

Biologists have used many approaches to estimating the evolutionary history of organisms and using that history to construct classifications. Phylogenetic Inference Biologists have used many approaches to estimating the evolutionary history of organisms and using that history to construct classifications. Willi Hennig developed d the techniques

More information

--Therefore, congruence among all postulated homologies provides a test of any single character in question [the central epistemological advance].

--Therefore, congruence among all postulated homologies provides a test of any single character in question [the central epistemological advance]. Integrative Biology 200A "PRINCIPLES OF PHYLOGENETICS" Spring 2008 University of California, Berkeley B.D. Mishler Jan. 29, 2008. The Hennig Principle: Homology, Synapomorphy, Rooting issues The fundamental

More information

AP Biology. Cladistics

AP Biology. Cladistics Cladistics Kingdom Summary Review slide Review slide Classification Old 5 Kingdom system Eukaryote Monera, Protists, Plants, Fungi, Animals New 3 Domain system reflects a greater understanding of evolution

More information

Integrating Fossils into Phylogenies. Throughout the 20th century, the relationship between paleontology and evolutionary biology has been strained.

Integrating Fossils into Phylogenies. Throughout the 20th century, the relationship between paleontology and evolutionary biology has been strained. IB 200B Principals of Phylogenetic Systematics Spring 2011 Integrating Fossils into Phylogenies Throughout the 20th century, the relationship between paleontology and evolutionary biology has been strained.

More information

CHAPTER 26 PHYLOGENY AND THE TREE OF LIFE Connecting Classification to Phylogeny

CHAPTER 26 PHYLOGENY AND THE TREE OF LIFE Connecting Classification to Phylogeny CHAPTER 26 PHYLOGENY AND THE TREE OF LIFE Connecting Classification to Phylogeny To trace phylogeny or the evolutionary history of life, biologists use evidence from paleontology, molecular data, comparative

More information

Introduction to characters and parsimony analysis

Introduction to characters and parsimony analysis Introduction to characters and parsimony analysis Genetic Relationships Genetic relationships exist between individuals within populations These include ancestordescendent relationships and more indirect

More information

Chapter 10. Classification and Phylogeny of Animals. Order in Diversity. Hierarchy of taxa. Table Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature

Chapter 10. Classification and Phylogeny of Animals. Order in Diversity. Hierarchy of taxa. Table Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 10 Classification and Phylogeny of Animals Order in Diversity History Systematic zoologists have three

More information

Biology 211 (2) Week 1 KEY!

Biology 211 (2) Week 1 KEY! Biology 211 (2) Week 1 KEY Chapter 1 KEY FIGURES: 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7 VOCABULARY: Adaptation: a trait that increases the fitness Cells: a developed, system bound with a thin outer layer made of

More information

PHYLOGENY & THE TREE OF LIFE

PHYLOGENY & THE TREE OF LIFE PHYLOGENY & THE TREE OF LIFE PREFACE In this powerpoint we learn how biologists distinguish and categorize the millions of species on earth. Early we looked at the process of evolution here we look at

More information

Integrative Biology 200 "PRINCIPLES OF PHYLOGENETICS" Spring 2018 University of California, Berkeley

Integrative Biology 200 PRINCIPLES OF PHYLOGENETICS Spring 2018 University of California, Berkeley Integrative Biology 200 "PRINCIPLES OF PHYLOGENETICS" Spring 2018 University of California, Berkeley B.D. Mishler Feb. 14, 2018. Phylogenetic trees VI: Dating in the 21st century: clocks, & calibrations;

More information

Lecture 11 Friday, October 21, 2011

Lecture 11 Friday, October 21, 2011 Lecture 11 Friday, October 21, 2011 Phylogenetic tree (phylogeny) Darwin and classification: In the Origin, Darwin said that descent from a common ancestral species could explain why the Linnaean system

More information

SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION. Using Anatomy, Embryology, Biochemistry, and Paleontology

SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION. Using Anatomy, Embryology, Biochemistry, and Paleontology SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION Using Anatomy, Embryology, Biochemistry, and Paleontology Scientific Fields Different fields of science have contributed evidence for the theory of

More information

CHAPTERS 24-25: Evidence for Evolution and Phylogeny

CHAPTERS 24-25: Evidence for Evolution and Phylogeny CHAPTERS 24-25: Evidence for Evolution and Phylogeny 1. For each of the following, indicate how it is used as evidence of evolution by natural selection or shown as an evolutionary trend: a. Paleontology

More information

Chapter 22: Descent with Modification 1. BRIEFLY summarize the main points that Darwin made in The Origin of Species.

Chapter 22: Descent with Modification 1. BRIEFLY summarize the main points that Darwin made in The Origin of Species. AP Biology Chapter Packet 7- Evolution Name Chapter 22: Descent with Modification 1. BRIEFLY summarize the main points that Darwin made in The Origin of Species. 2. Define the following terms: a. Natural

More information

What is Phylogenetics

What is Phylogenetics What is Phylogenetics Phylogenetics is the area of research concerned with finding the genetic connections and relationships between species. The basic idea is to compare specific characters (features)

More information

(Stevens 1991) 1. morphological characters should be assumed to be quantitative unless demonstrated otherwise

(Stevens 1991) 1. morphological characters should be assumed to be quantitative unless demonstrated otherwise Bot 421/521 PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS I. Origins A. Hennig 1950 (German edition) Phylogenetic Systematics 1966 B. Zimmerman (Germany, 1930 s) C. Wagner (Michigan, 1920-2000) II. Characters and character states

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

More information

Biology 1B Evolution Lecture 2 (February 26, 2010) Natural Selection, Phylogenies

Biology 1B Evolution Lecture 2 (February 26, 2010) Natural Selection, Phylogenies 1 Natural Selection (Darwin-Wallace): There are three conditions for natural selection: 1. Variation: Individuals within a population have different characteristics/traits (or phenotypes). 2. Inheritance:

More information

Chapter 19: Taxonomy, Systematics, and Phylogeny

Chapter 19: Taxonomy, Systematics, and Phylogeny Chapter 19: Taxonomy, Systematics, and Phylogeny AP Curriculum Alignment Chapter 19 expands on the topics of phylogenies and cladograms, which are important to Big Idea 1. In order for students to understand

More information

Reconstructing Evolutionary Trees. Chapter 14

Reconstructing Evolutionary Trees. Chapter 14 Reconstructing Evolutionary Trees Chapter 14 Phylogenetic trees The evolutionary history of a group of species = phylogeny The problem: Evolutionary histories can never truly be known. Once again, we are

More information

The practice of naming and classifying organisms is called taxonomy.

The practice of naming and classifying organisms is called taxonomy. Chapter 18 Key Idea: Biologists use taxonomic systems to organize their knowledge of organisms. These systems attempt to provide consistent ways to name and categorize organisms. The practice of naming

More information

Biology 2. Lecture Material. For. Macroevolution. Systematics

Biology 2. Lecture Material. For. Macroevolution. Systematics Biology 2 Macroevolution & Systematics 1 Biology 2 Lecture Material For Macroevolution & Systematics Biology 2 Macroevolution & Systematics 2 Microevolution: Biological Species: Two Patterns of Evolutionary

More information

C3020 Molecular Evolution. Exercises #3: Phylogenetics

C3020 Molecular Evolution. Exercises #3: Phylogenetics C3020 Molecular Evolution Exercises #3: Phylogenetics Consider the following sequences for five taxa 1-5 and the known outgroup O, which has the ancestral states (note that sequence 3 has changed from

More information

PHYLOGENY WHAT IS EVOLUTION? 1/22/2018. Change must occur in a population via allele

PHYLOGENY WHAT IS EVOLUTION? 1/22/2018. Change must occur in a population via allele PHYLOGENY EXERCISE 1 AND 2 WHAT IS EVOLUTION? The theory that all living organisms on earth are related and have a common ancestor. These organism have changed over time and are continuing to change. Changes

More information

The Tree of Life. Phylogeny

The Tree of Life. Phylogeny The Tree of Life Phylogeny Phylogenetics Phylogenetic trees illustrate the evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms, or among a family of related nucleic acid or protein sequences Each branch

More information

PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS

PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS AP BIOLOGY EVOLUTION/HEREDITY UNIT Unit 1 Part 11 Chapter 26 Activity #15 NAME DATE PERIOD PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS PHYLOGENY Evolutionary history of species or group of related species SYSTEMATICS Study

More information

How to read and make phylogenetic trees Zuzana Starostová

How to read and make phylogenetic trees Zuzana Starostová How to read and make phylogenetic trees Zuzana Starostová How to make phylogenetic trees? Workflow: obtain DNA sequence quality check sequence alignment calculating genetic distances phylogeny estimation

More information

Patterns of Evolution

Patterns of Evolution Patterns of Evolution A tree that represents an estimate (hypothesis) of evolutionary relatedness is a phylogeny Classifications can be based on groupings within a phylogeny Groupings can be categorized

More information

Many of the slides that I ll use have been borrowed from Dr. Paul Lewis, Dr. Joe Felsenstein. Thanks!

Many of the slides that I ll use have been borrowed from Dr. Paul Lewis, Dr. Joe Felsenstein. Thanks! Many of the slides that I ll use have been borrowed from Dr. Paul Lewis, Dr. Joe Felsenstein. Thanks! Paul has many great tools for teaching phylogenetics at his web site: http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/people/plewis

More information

Systematics Lecture 3 Characters: Homology, Morphology

Systematics Lecture 3 Characters: Homology, Morphology Systematics Lecture 3 Characters: Homology, Morphology I. Introduction Nearly all methods of phylogenetic analysis rely on characters as the source of data. A. Character variation is coded into a character-by-taxon

More information

Chapter 16: Reconstructing and Using Phylogenies

Chapter 16: Reconstructing and Using Phylogenies Chapter Review 1. Use the phylogenetic tree shown at the right to complete the following. a. Explain how many clades are indicated: Three: (1) chimpanzee/human, (2) chimpanzee/ human/gorilla, and (3)chimpanzee/human/

More information

Classifications can be based on groupings g within a phylogeny

Classifications can be based on groupings g within a phylogeny Patterns of Evolution A tree that represents an estimate (hypothesis) of evolutionary relatedness is a phylogeny Classifications can be based on groupings g within a phylogeny y Groupings can be categorized

More information

Cladistics and Bioinformatics Questions 2013

Cladistics and Bioinformatics Questions 2013 AP Biology Name Cladistics and Bioinformatics Questions 2013 1. The following table shows the percentage similarity in sequences of nucleotides from a homologous gene derived from five different species

More information

Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life 1. Key Concepts Pertaining to Phylogeny 2. Determining Phylogenies 3. Evolutionary History Revealed in Genomes 1. Key Concepts Pertaining to Phylogeny PHYLOGENY

More information

Unit 9: Evolution Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total)

Unit 9: Evolution Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total) Name: AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 7th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Unit 9: Evolution Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total) Chapter 22 Descent

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

More information

Phylogenetic analysis. Characters

Phylogenetic analysis. Characters Typical steps: Phylogenetic analysis Selection of taxa. Selection of characters. Construction of data matrix: character coding. Estimating the best-fitting tree (model) from the data matrix: phylogenetic

More information

AP Biology Notes Outline Enduring Understanding 1.B. Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.

AP Biology Notes Outline Enduring Understanding 1.B. Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life. AP Biology Notes Outline Enduring Understanding 1.B Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life. Enduring Understanding 1.B: Organisms are linked by lines of descent from

More information

Dr. Amira A. AL-Hosary

Dr. Amira A. AL-Hosary Phylogenetic analysis Amira A. AL-Hosary PhD of infectious diseases Department of Animal Medicine (Infectious Diseases) Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Assiut University-Egypt Phylogenetic Basics: Biological

More information

The Life System and Environmental & Evolutionary Biology II

The Life System and Environmental & Evolutionary Biology II The Life System and Environmental & Evolutionary Biology II EESC V2300y / ENVB W2002y Laboratory 1 (01/28/03) Systematics and Taxonomy 1 SYNOPSIS In this lab we will give an overview of the methodology

More information

CLASSIFICATION. Why Classify? 2/18/2013. History of Taxonomy Biodiversity: variety of organisms at all levels from populations to ecosystems.

CLASSIFICATION. Why Classify? 2/18/2013. History of Taxonomy Biodiversity: variety of organisms at all levels from populations to ecosystems. Why Classify? Classification has been around ever since people paid attention to organisms. CLASSIFICATION One primeval system was based on harmful and non-harmful organisms. Life is easier when we organize

More information

CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS. Chapter 18

CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS. Chapter 18 CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS Chapter 18 How many species are there? About 1.8 million species have been given scientific names Nearly 2/3 of which are insects 99% of all known animal species are smaller

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

More information

Amira A. AL-Hosary PhD of infectious diseases Department of Animal Medicine (Infectious Diseases) Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Assiut

Amira A. AL-Hosary PhD of infectious diseases Department of Animal Medicine (Infectious Diseases) Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Assiut Amira A. AL-Hosary PhD of infectious diseases Department of Animal Medicine (Infectious Diseases) Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Assiut University-Egypt Phylogenetic analysis Phylogenetic Basics: Biological

More information

POPULATION GENETICS Winter 2005 Lecture 17 Molecular phylogenetics

POPULATION GENETICS Winter 2005 Lecture 17 Molecular phylogenetics POPULATION GENETICS Winter 2005 Lecture 17 Molecular phylogenetics - in deriving a phylogeny our goal is simply to reconstruct the historical relationships between a group of taxa. - before we review the

More information

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Class: _ Date: _ Ch 17 Practice test 1. A segment of DNA that stores genetic information is called a(n) a. amino acid. b. gene. c. protein. d. intron. 2. In which of the following processes does change

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Lecture Outline Overview: Investigating the Tree of Life Evolutionary biology is about both process and pattern. o The processes of evolution are natural selection

More information

1/27/2010. Systematics and Phylogenetics of the. An Introduction. Taxonomy and Systematics

1/27/2010. Systematics and Phylogenetics of the. An Introduction. Taxonomy and Systematics Systematics and Phylogenetics of the Amphibia: An Introduction Taxonomy and Systematics Taxonomy, the science of describing biodiversity, mainly naming unnamed species, and arranging the diversity into

More information

Darwin and Evolution. Chapter 17. Mid-Eighteenth Century. History of Evolutionary Thought

Darwin and Evolution. Chapter 17. Mid-Eighteenth Century. History of Evolutionary Thought Darwin and Evolution Chapter 17 Outline History of Evolutionary Thought Darwin s Theory of Evolution Occurrence of Descent Biogeography Natural Selection and Adaptation The Evidence of Evolution Fossil

More information

AP Biology Notes Outline Enduring Understanding 1.B. Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.

AP Biology Notes Outline Enduring Understanding 1.B. Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life. AP Biology Notes Outline Enduring Understanding 1.B Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life. Enduring Understanding 1.B: Organisms are linked by lines of descent from

More information

Biology. Slide 1 of 24. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Biology. Slide 1 of 24. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology 1 of 24 18-2 Modern Evolutionary Classification 2 of 24 18-2 Modern Evolutionary Classification Evolutionary Classification Evolutionary Classification Phylogeny is the study of evolutionary relationships

More information

Organizing Life s Diversity

Organizing Life s Diversity 17 Organizing Life s Diversity section 2 Modern Classification Classification systems have changed over time as information has increased. What You ll Learn species concepts methods to reveal phylogeny

More information

GENETICS - CLUTCH CH.22 EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS.

GENETICS - CLUTCH CH.22 EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS. !! www.clutchprep.com CONCEPT: OVERVIEW OF EVOLUTION Evolution is a process through which variation in individuals makes it more likely for them to survive and reproduce There are principles to the theory

More information

Phylogeny & Systematics: The Tree of Life

Phylogeny & Systematics: The Tree of Life Phylogeny & Systematics: The Tree of Life An unexpected family tree. What are the evolutionary relationships among a human, a mushroom, and a tulip? Molecular systematics has revealed that despite appearances

More information

Chapter 27: Evolutionary Genetics

Chapter 27: Evolutionary Genetics Chapter 27: Evolutionary Genetics Student Learning Objectives Upon completion of this chapter you should be able to: 1. Understand what the term species means to biology. 2. Recognize the various patterns

More information

Systematics: Naming Organisms and Reconstructing the Evolutionary History of Life Mike Viney

Systematics: Naming Organisms and Reconstructing the Evolutionary History of Life Mike Viney Systematics: Naming Organisms and Reconstructing the Evolutionary History of Life Mike Viney Tree Fern Psaronius brasiliensis Permian; Pedra de Fogo Formation Bieland, Maranhão Province, Brazil In the

More information

Laboratory IV Phylogenetic Reconstruction

Laboratory IV Phylogenetic Reconstruction Laboratory IV Phylogenetic Reconstruction Objective: In this week s lab you will learn how to reconstruct evolutionary relationships. Biologists have experimented with a variety of methods for interpreting

More information

1. Construct and use dichotomous keys to identify organisms.

1. Construct and use dichotomous keys to identify organisms. OBJECTIVE SHEET SYSTEMATICS AND CLASSIFICATION 1. Construct and use dichotomous keys to identify organisms. 2. Clarify the purpose behind systematics and phylogeny. 3. Identify the structures of a phylogenetic

More information

BIOL 428: Introduction to Systematics Midterm Exam

BIOL 428: Introduction to Systematics Midterm Exam Midterm exam page 1 BIOL 428: Introduction to Systematics Midterm Exam Please, write your name on each page! The exam is worth 150 points. Verify that you have all 8 pages. Read the questions carefully,

More information

Unit 7: Evolution Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total)

Unit 7: Evolution Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total) AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 10th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Name: Unit 7: Evolution Guided Reading Questions (80 pts total) Chapter 22 Descent

More information

Chapter 19 Organizing Information About Species: Taxonomy and Cladistics

Chapter 19 Organizing Information About Species: Taxonomy and Cladistics Chapter 19 Organizing Information About Species: Taxonomy and Cladistics An unexpected family tree. What are the evolutionary relationships among a human, a mushroom, and a tulip? Molecular systematics

More information

Algorithms in Bioinformatics

Algorithms in Bioinformatics Algorithms in Bioinformatics Sami Khuri Department of Computer Science San José State University San José, California, USA khuri@cs.sjsu.edu www.cs.sjsu.edu/faculty/khuri Distance Methods Character Methods

More information

Phylogeny and Systematics

Phylogeny and Systematics Chapter 25 Phylogeny and Systematics PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Modified by Maria Morlin racing phylogeny Phylogeny: he evolutionary

More information

Concepts and Methods in Molecular Divergence Time Estimation

Concepts and Methods in Molecular Divergence Time Estimation Concepts and Methods in Molecular Divergence Time Estimation 26 November 2012 Prashant P. Sharma American Museum of Natural History Overview 1. Why do we date trees? 2. The molecular clock 3. Local clocks

More information

BINF6201/8201. Molecular phylogenetic methods

BINF6201/8201. Molecular phylogenetic methods BINF60/80 Molecular phylogenetic methods 0-7-06 Phylogenetics Ø According to the evolutionary theory, all life forms on this planet are related to one another by descent. Ø Traditionally, phylogenetics

More information

BIOLOGY. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life CAMPBELL. Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson

BIOLOGY. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life CAMPBELL. Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson CAMPBELL BIOLOGY TENTH EDITION Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Lecture Presentation by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick Concept 26.1: Phylogenies show

More information

C.DARWIN ( )

C.DARWIN ( ) C.DARWIN (1809-1882) LAMARCK Each evolutionary lineage has evolved, transforming itself, from a ancestor appeared by spontaneous generation DARWIN All organisms are historically interconnected. Their relationships

More information

Warm-Up- Review Natural Selection and Reproduction for quiz today!!!! Notes on Evidence of Evolution Work on Vocabulary and Lab

Warm-Up- Review Natural Selection and Reproduction for quiz today!!!! Notes on Evidence of Evolution Work on Vocabulary and Lab Date: Agenda Warm-Up- Review Natural Selection and Reproduction for quiz today!!!! Notes on Evidence of Evolution Work on Vocabulary and Lab Ask questions based on 5.1 and 5.2 Quiz on 5.1 and 5.2 How

More information

Thursday, January 14. Teaching Point: SWBAT. assess their knowledge to prepare for the Evolution Summative Assessment. (TOMORROW) Agenda:

Thursday, January 14. Teaching Point: SWBAT. assess their knowledge to prepare for the Evolution Summative Assessment. (TOMORROW) Agenda: Thursday, January 14 Teaching Point: SWBAT. assess their knowledge to prepare for the Evolution Summative Assessment. (TOMORROW) Agenda: 1. Show Hinsz your completed Review WS 2. Discuss answers to Review

More information

Chapter 26. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life. Lecture Presentations by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 26. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life. Lecture Presentations by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Lecture Presentations by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick Investigating the Tree of Life Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a species or group of

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

More information

Homework Assignment, Evolutionary Systems Biology, Spring Homework Part I: Phylogenetics:

Homework Assignment, Evolutionary Systems Biology, Spring Homework Part I: Phylogenetics: Homework Assignment, Evolutionary Systems Biology, Spring 2009. Homework Part I: Phylogenetics: Introduction. The objective of this assignment is to understand the basics of phylogenetic relationships

More information

Principles of Phylogeny Reconstruction How do we reconstruct the tree of life? Basic Terminology. Looking at Trees. Basic Terminology.

Principles of Phylogeny Reconstruction How do we reconstruct the tree of life? Basic Terminology. Looking at Trees. Basic Terminology. Principles of Phylogeny Reconstruction How do we reconstruct the tree of life? Phylogeny: asic erminology Outline: erminology Phylogenetic tree: Methods Problems parsimony maximum likelihood bootstrapping

More information

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a group of organisms. Based on the idea that organisms are related by evolution

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a group of organisms. Based on the idea that organisms are related by evolution Bio 1M: Phylogeny and the history of life 1 Phylogeny S25.1; Bioskill 11 (2ndEd S27.1; Bioskills 3) Bioskills are in the back of your book Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a group of organisms

More information

20 Phylogeny CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS. Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson Reece. Lecture Presentations by Kathleen Fitzpatrick and Nicole Tunbridge

20 Phylogeny CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS. Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson Reece. Lecture Presentations by Kathleen Fitzpatrick and Nicole Tunbridge CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson Reece 20 Phylogeny Lecture Presentations by Kathleen Fitzpatrick and Nicole Tunbridge Overview: Investigating the Evolutionary History of

More information