LECTURE 10A: MEIO S S

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1 LECTURE 10A: MEIOSIS

2 Meiosis Definition INTRODUCTION 1. Meiosis is the production of gametes, which is a reduction division which means a diploid gamete produces haploid gametes - from a full complement of chromosomes to half 2. Two new cells, produced during mitosis, each have a complete set of chromosomes (a diploid cell) 3. Meiosis reduces the number of chromosomes by half and produces two haploid cells from a diploid cell. 4. A gamete is a cell that is involved in reproduction 5. Fertilization restores the diploid (two) chromosome number by combining the haploid gametes to the fertilized zygote (A zygote is a diploid cell that results from the union of two haploid cells). 6. At the end of meiosis gametes are produced, four cells - each with half a set of chromosomes - haploid cells 7. One set of chromosomes from each parent

3 Gametes Sex chromosomes (X & Y) Autosomes (non-sex chromsomes) Somatic cells have 2 sets of autosomes Gametes have one set of sex Gametes have one set of sex chromosomes and one set of autosomes

4 Gametes are Haploid Gametes must have half the genetic material of a normal cell If the genetic material in the gametes was not halved, when they combined the zygote would have more genetic material than the parents Meiosis is specialized cell division resulting in cells with half the genetic material of the parents Gametes have exactly one set of chromosomes, this state is called haploid (1n) Regular cells have two sets of chromosomes, this state is called diploid (2n)

5 How it works... The chromosomes are duplicated in the S phase of interphase (just like mitosis) In Meiosis there are 2 cell divisions In mitosis the chromosomes line up In mitosis the chromosomes line up individually, but in meiosis they line up in homologous pairs, next to each other

6 p-arm ( short ) Terminology q-arm ( long ) <= centromere NOR, ==> Acrocentic chromosomes 13, 14, 15 21, 22 autosomes Xp21 Ideogram of the human chromosomes Sex chromosomes

7

8 A little more basic terminology

9 INTRODUCTION 5. Chromosomes are paired one set are maternal chromosomes, the others are paternal 6. Members of the pair are homologous chromosomes 7. There are two divisions in meiosis: meiosis I and meiosis II. Each division may include a prophase, metapahse, anaphase and telophase 8. As in mitosis the chromosomes are duplicated in the S phase of interphase. 9. In meiosis I, the members of each homologous pair of chromosomes are separated into two daughter cells

10 INTRODUCTION 10. The chromosomes were duplicated prior to meiosis I so that there are two chromotids in each daughter cell. 11. In meiosis II, chromotids separate into individual chromosomes and enter different haploid daughter cells 12. In Prophase I, homologous chromosomes are paired, one of them is from the mother and one from the father. Remember each chromosome is comprised of two chromatids so that there are four chromatids present at this time. 13. The complex of four chromatids is called a tetrad. The fastening together is called the synapsis. In humans there are 23 tetrads (or 92 chromatids). The number of tetrads is equal to the number of haploid chromosomes.

11 MEIOSIS vs MITOSIS In mitosis there is one cell division resulting in two daughters with the identical set of chromosomes as the parent cell. In meiosis there are two cell divisions, producing four daughters. Each cell has the haploid number of chromosomes that is one member of each homolgous pair (one set from each parent) So that

12 MEIOSIS vs MITOSIS So that Mitosis - diploid somatic cells yield diploid somatic cells one cell divides into 2 duplicates of itself Meiosis - Diploid gamete producing cells divide into haploid gametes one cell divides into four cells but they are a mix of the original Meiosis has two divisions. Similar interphase as in mitosis.

13 MEIOSIS vs MITOSIS Prophase I there are two homologous pairs, half of each pair is maternal and half is paternal. Each chromosome consists of two chromatids at this time Synapsis or the pairing of homologous pairs results in the coming together of four (two maternal and two paternal) chromatids instead of just two. This is called a tetrad. The number of tetrads equals the haploid number of chromosomes (half). Since humans have 46 chromosomes, there are 23 tetrads and a total of 92 chromatids.

14 MEIOSIS vs MITOSIS Each cell duplicates the haploid (half of chromosomes) which combines with the other haploids into tetrads. Instead of one homologous pair there are two. They separate and one of each pair move to ends of the cell and then the cell separates, another interphase occurs and the second series of meiosis begins.

15 Stages Of Meiosis

16 Overview

17 Steps are similar to mitosis Duplicated chromosomes (chromatids) are present after interphase The chromatids become paired One of each pair is contributed by the organism s mother, the other by the father Because the pairing is of chromatids (2n) there are actually 4 chromosomes present in what is called a tetrad

18 Stages Of Meiosis 1. Meiosis resembles mitosis except that it is actually two divisions not one 2. These divisions are called Meiosis I and Meiosis II 3. Meiosis I results in haploid cells with chromosomes made up of two chromatids 4. Meiosis II is essentially mitosis on haploid cells 5. Stages of meiosis resemble mitosis with two critical differences: the first in prophase I and the second in Metaphase I

19 6. The number of tetrads is the haploid number of chromosomes (humans have 46 chromosomes, so in prophase 1 there are 92 chromatids and 23 tetrads) 7. Combination process is called synapsis 8. Sometimes during synapsis, genetic material is exchanged between chromosomes in process called crossing over 9. All genes located on a particular linkage group and tend to be inherited together except for crossing over

20 Stages Of Meiosis - Meiosis I Prophase I - The beginning phase DNA which was unraveled and spread all over the nucleus is condensed and packaged Homologous chromosomes (each made of two identical chromatids) come together and form tetrads (4 chromatids) Crossing over, in which chromatids within tetrads exchange genetic material, occurs

21 Stages Of Meiosis - Meiosis I Metaphase I - Middle stage Tetrads line up along the equator of the cell and sister chromatids orient toward opposite poles Anaphase 1 Tetrads separate and move toward poles but chromatids still connected by centromere! One copy of each chromosome still composed of two chromatids moves to each pole of the cell

22 Stages Of Meiosis - Meiosis I Telophase I - End stage New nuclear membranes are formed around the chromosomes and cytokinesis (cytoplasm division) occurs resulting in two haploid daughter cells At the end of telophase 1 there are two doubled chromosomes at each end of cell.

23 Meiosis

24 Meiosis

25 Stages Of Meiosis - Meiosis II Prophase II Cells do not typically go into interphase between meiosis I and II, thus chromosomes are already condensed Metaphase II Chromosomes line up at the equator of the two haploid cells produced in meiosis I Because homologous pairs line up in Metaphase 1 there is a 50/50 chance of which one of each pair will go to each pole In humans with 23 chromosomes any couple would have 2 23 x 2 23 chance of different possible children (about 1 in 70 trillion and this doesn t account for crossing over!)

26 Stages Of Meiosis - Meiosis II Anaphase II - Chromosomes made up of two chromatids split to make chromosomes with one chromatid which migrate to the poles of the cells. Centromeres split in anaphase 2 and chromatids move to poles Telophase II - Cytokinesis and reformation of the nuclear membrane in haploid cells each with one set of chromosomes made of one chromatid. At the end of telophase there is one chromatid at each end (haploid)

27 Meiosis

28 Meiosis

29 Meiosis

30 Mother cell Stages Of Meiosis: Meiosis I Interphase Prophase I: Condensing Chromosomes Prophase I: Tetrad formation/ crossing over Metaphase I Meiosis II Telophase I Anaphase I

31 Telophase I Stages Of Meiosis: Prophase II Meiosis II The products of meiosis are 4 haploid cells each with a unique set of chromosomes. Metaphase II The products of mitosis are 2 diploid cells with identical chromosomes. Anaphase II Telophase II

32 Crossing Over Prophase I: Tetrad formation/ crossing over Metaphase I Anaphase I Because of crossing over, every gamete receives a unique set of genetic information. Telophase II Telophase I

33 A packaged chromosome Chromosomes, Chromatids and Centromeres Chromatid Identical chromatid Chromoso me arm Two identical chromosomes Centromere Replication Anaphase Chromosome arm

34 In The Beginning Two 1. Humans and many other complex multicelled organisms incorporate genetic recombination in their reproduction 2. Reproduction in which there is a re-mixing of the genetic material is called sexual reproduction 3. Two cells, a sperm and an egg, unite to form a zygote, the single cell from which the organism develops 4. Meiosis is the process of producing sperm and eggs (gametes)

35 Fertilization Results In A Diploid Zygote Egg 1n Haploid nucleus Sperm Haploid nucleus 2n

36 Fertilization Results In A Diploid Zygote Egg 1n Haploid nucleus Sperm Haploid nucleus 2n

37 Fertilization Results In A Diploid Zygote Egg 1n Haploid nucleus Haploid nucleus Sperm 2n

38 Fertilization Results In A Diploid Zygote Egg 1n Haploid nucleus Haploid nucleus Sperm 2n

39 Zygote From Zygote to Embryo Zygote 2n 2n

40 From Zygote to Embryo Cleavage

41 Cleavage From Zygote to Embryo

42 Cleavage From Zygote to Embryo

43 Cleavage From Zygote to Embryo

44 Morula From Zygote to Embryo

45

46 Meiosis

47 Meiosis overview Meiosis I Prophase of Meiosis I is longer than mitotic prophase. In Metaphase I, the two copies of each replicated chromosome pair at the metaphase plate (a tetrad), unlike mitosis. In Anaphase I, each chromosome moves to pole without chromatid separation. At the end of Meiosis I, the chromosome # has been reduced, but each chromosome still has two chromatids.

48 Meiosis overview Meiosis II The chromosomes are not replicated in the interphase between Meiosis I & Meiosis II. The chromatids finally separate in Anaphase II. The final result is four haploid gametes, each with half the number of chromosomes present in the diploid cells.

49 Chromosomes in Meiosis (in a diploid)

50

51 Crossing over Occurs during prophase I Chiasma (pl. chiasmata) indicate where chromosomes have exchanged genetic material

52 Crossing over (Recombination)

53 The Genes in Meiosis

54 Meiosis, continued

55 The End

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