Midterm Review Guide. Unit 1 : Biochemistry: 1. Give the ph values for an acid and a base. 2. What do buffers do? 3. Define monomer and polymer.

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1 Midterm Review Guide Name: Unit 1 : Biochemistry: 1. Give the ph values for an acid and a base. 2. What do buffers do? 3. Define monomer and polymer. 4. Fill in the Organic Compounds chart : Elements Monomer unit found (Subunit) Carbohydrates Functions Examples indicators Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

2 5. What is an enzyme and what does it do? 6. Label the following diagram (enzyme, substrate, enzyme-substrate complex, products): 7. Summarize how an enzyme functions. 8. List the three factors that affect enzyme functioning. 9. What does it mean for an enzyme to be denatured? Unit 2 : Cell Organelles: 10. Define prokaryote. 11. Define eukaryote. 12. How do you calculate total magnification of a microscope? 13. How do you regulate the amount of light on a specimen?

3 14. Fill in the Types of Cells chart : Prokaryotic Examples Eukaryotic List major organelles present in each (and for eukaryotic cells, differentiate between plant and animal organelles) 15. Fill in the Organelles of Eukaryotic Cells chart: Organelle Structure Function Cells that have it Plasma membrane Cell wall Ribosomes Nucleus Nucleolus Mitochondria

4 Organelle Structure Function Cells that have it Chloroplast ER (endoplasmic reticulum) Vacuole Centriole Cilia Flagella Contractile vacuole Eyespot Pseudopod

5 16. Label the following cells: A. What type of cell is this? B. What type of cell is this? C. What type of cell is this? D. What type of cell is this?

6 E. What type of cell is this? F. What type of cell is this?

7 17. What is a stem cell? 18. How does a stem cell become differentiated (specialized)? 19. Fill in the Cell Differentiation chart : What type of cell is pictured below? Structure that allows them to function Function Unit 2: Homeostasis and Cell Transport 19. Define homeostasis. 20. How does our body maintain homeostasis of our ph? 21. How does our body maintain homeostasis of our temperature? 22. What does our body do if our blood sugar becomes too high? 23. What does our body do if our blood sugar becomes too low? 24. How does our body maintain water balance? 25. What are the functions of the plasma membrane? 26. The plasma membrane is semi-permeable. What does this mean?

8 27. What is the following diagram a picture of? 28. Fill in the Types of Transport chart: Direction of Movement Active Transport Is ATP required? Is equilibrium reached? Passive Transport 29. Fill in the Passive Transport chart: Direction Diffusion Is ATP required? What is being transported? Is a membrane protein needed? Osmosis Facilitated Diffusion

9 30. Fill in the Osmotic Pressure chart : Higher Higher concentration concentration of solutes of water HypOtonic Direction of water movement Change in cell size Hypertonic Isotonic What is turgor pressure? 33. Define dynamic equilibrium. 34. What would happen to a freshwater fish placed in salt water? Why? 35. What would happen to a red blood cell placed in distilled water? Why? (Distilled water = 0 solutes = ONLY has hydrogen and oxygen atoms)

10 Unit 3: Photosynthesis, ATP, and Cellular Respiration 36. Fill in the following chart : Photosynthesis and Aerobic Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis Aerobic Cellular Respiration Which organisms undergo (do) this? In which organelle does this occur? What are the reactants (what is needed)? What are the products (what is created)? What factors affect the rate of this process? 37. Write out the chemical equation for photosynthesis. 38. Write out the chemical equation for aerobic cellular respiration for both animals & plants. 39. Write out the chemical equation for anaerobic cellular respiration in animals. 40. Write out the chemical equation for anaerobic cellular respiration in plants and yeast. 41. Which process makes the most ATP?

11 42. Where is energy stored within the ATP molecule? 43. How is energy released within the ATP molecule? Unit 3: Cell Cycle 44. Define cell cycle. 45. List the 5 stages of the cell cycle in order. 46. Describe what happens in each of the following stages of the cell cycle: a. G1 b. S c. G2 d. Mitosis e. Cytokinesis 47. What is interphase? 48. Why must S stage (replication) occur prior to mitosis? 49. What is DNA replication? 50. A strand of DNA has the following sequence: ATG CCG ATC GCA TGT. What would the complementary DNA sequence be?

12 51. Fill in the Mitosis chart : Prophase Summary of what happens Drawing Metaphase Anaphase Telophase

13 52. What is the end result of mitosis? 53. Which cells do the process of mitosis? 54. What happens during cytokinesis? 55. What is the purpose of mitosis in unicellular organisms? 56. What is the purpose of mitosis in multicellular organisms? 57. What causes cancer? Unit 4 (6): Protein Synthesis 58. What does DNA code for? 59. What determines which protein will be made? 60. Draw a DNA nucleotide and label its parts. 61. Which is stronger, hydrogen bonds or covalent bonds? 62. Draw a double helix DNA strand with the following bases on one side: ATGC, labeling the following: bases, sugars, phosphates, hydrogen bonds, covalent bonds 63. What are proteins made up of? 64. What bond holds amino acids together?

14 65. Fill in the DNA vs. RNA chart : DNA Sugar RNA Number of strands Nitrogen Bases Made up of 66. What is transcription? 67. What is translation? 68. Define codon and anticodon. 69. What do start and stop codons do? 70. What is a mutation? 71. What causes a mutation? 72. Describe each type of DNA mutation listed below. a. point (substitution) b. deletion c. insertion 73. What causes sickle cell anemia? Unit 4: Biotechnology 73. What does gel electrophoresis do to DNA? 74. Give 2 uses for gel electrophoresis.

15 75. Define the following: - biotechnology - genetic engineering - recombinant DNA - clone - transgenic organism 76. List 2 applications of creating a transgenic organism. 77. What is gene therapy? 78. What is the significance of stem cell research? 79. What is a GMO and give an example.

16 80. If you have the following mrna strand AUG GCA GGA UUU UAA, what are the amino acids that will be joined together to create the protein? Use table and look up the mrna codons to find the amino acids. Met Ala Gly Phe Stop 81. If you have the DNA strand of ATA CCG ATA GAT, what would be the mrna strand created by transcription? UAU GGC UAU CUA 82. What is the amino acid sequence created from the mrna strand above? Tyr Gly Tyr Leu 83. Describe what is happening in the diagram below. (1)Transcription, (2)mRNA leaves nucleus, (3)ribosome reads mrna, (4)tRNA brings amino acid to match anticodon to mrna codon, (5)amino acids joined together to make a protein

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