1 UNIT 2- BODY ORGANIZATION AND HOMEOSTASIS M E L A N I E L O U L O U S I S
2 ANCHORING PHENOMENON- DIABETES MELLITUS What is Diabetes mellitus Questions:
3 UNIT 2.1 DRIVING QUESTION- HOW ARE LIVING THINGS ORGANIZED? I Can Objectives: 1.State the hierarchical structural organization in an organism 2. State that organisms are made of interacting systems 3. Define what a system is. 4. Explain how systems in the body interact with each other and affect each other.
4 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION FOR MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS 1.Cells-basic unit of structure and function in living things Living things can be multicellular or unicellular Multicellular is when the organism is made of many cells Unicellular is when it is made of a single cell 2. Tissues -group of cells that perform a single function 4 basic types of tissues : epithelial, connective, nervous, muscle
5 LEVELS CONTINUED 3.Organs -a group of different types of tissues working together to perform a single function, or several related functions 4. Organ systems-group of organs that perform closely related functions Human Systems: Nervous, integumentary, Immune/lymphatic, muscular, circulatory, skeletal, respiratory, digestive, excretory, endocrine, and reproductive 5. Organism- a living individual
6 STEM CELLS Stem Cell is a cell that can develop into many different types of cells Different from other cells in body because they divide repeatedly and can become more than one type of cell Embryonic stem cells are harvested from eggs that were fertilized the laboratory and donated for research Advantages of embryonic: Can become any type of cell, easily grown, and millions of cells can be produced from one embryo -Controversial to use because embryo is destroyed to use cells Adult stem cells are taken from adult tissue Use of adult stem cells: limited in types they can become, relatively rare in the body, and currently can t be grown to produce large numbers of cells the lab Advantage: taken from patient's own body so won't be rejected when transplanted
7 TISSUES Tissue is a group of similar cells working together to perform a common function There are 4 tissue types Epithelial tissue covers a body surface or lines a body cavity Nervous tissue makes up the nervous system its neurons and their supporting cells Connective tissue connects and supports other tissues Muscle tissue is made of cells that contract and relax to produce movement
8 TISSUE TYPES CONTINUED Epithelial -Protects the body from dehydration and damage -Constantly being replaced as old cells die -Examples: skin, and respiratory system linings Nervous -Made of neurons which carry information to all parts of the body
9 TISSUE TYPES CONTINUED Connective Functions in support, protection, connection, and body insulation Includes fat, cartilage, bone, tendons, and blood There is two types: lose and dense connective tissue Muscle There are 3 types: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle Skeletal is attached to bone, smooth makes up blood vessels and intestine walls, cardiac is found only in the heart
11 SYSTEM INTERACTIONS While each organ system has a different set of functions they all work together as a whole to maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis - controlled, stable internal conditions Means similar standing In the human body homeostasis is unconsciously regulated by instructions from the brain.
12 SCIENCE SYSTEMS A system is a set of interacting or interdependent component parts forming a complex/intricate whole. Every system is outlined by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose and expressed in its functioning.
13 RESPIRATORY AND CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Respiratory Structures: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs Function: Brings in oxygen needed for cellular respiration and removes excess carbon dioxide from the body Circulatory Structures: heart, blood vessels,blood Function: Transports oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells; fights infections; removes cell waste; helps to regulate body temperature
14 THE INTERACTION Systems will interact in a living thing to maintain homeostasis. Where do functions of the respiratory and circulatory systems overlap? Transporting Oxygen The respiratory system brings in oxygen from outside the body, once in the body the circulatory system distributes the oxygen to all the cells through the blood. The oxygen is necessary for a process called cellular respiration which provides energy to cells.
15 HOW DO LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION AFFECT EACH OTHER? What would happen to the cells if the respiratory and circulatory systems could not provide enough oxygen for cellular respiration to occur? The cell would not function properly, possible die. Cells work to form tissues, which form organs, and organ systems. All these levels need the prior one working properly for the higher level to work properly. This is called a hierarchy. Each level is dependent upon the previous one.
16 QUICK LAB- MAINTAINING TEMPERATURE You will receive a thermometer and three beakers of water at the following temperatures: 25C, 35C, and 40C. Develop a method to keep the temperatures of the 35C water within one degree for a period of 5-10mins. You may use the contents of the other two beakers. Analyze and Conclude: 1.Was your method successful? 2.Would you do anything differently? 3.Compare this experiment to what happens in your own body during temperature regulation. 4.Make a model that demonstrates how you maintained temperature in the lab.
17 FEEDBACK LOOPS AND HOMEOSTASIS L O U L O U S I S
18 2.2 WHAT IS HOMEOSTASIS AND HOW IS IT MAINTAINED IN LIVING THINGS? 1. Define homeostasis and provide examples of items that living things need to maintain homeostasis for 2. Define feedback loop/mechanism and explain how a feedback loop/mechanism is related to homeostasis 3. Distinguish between and describe positive and negative feedback with an example
19 WHAT IS FEEDBACK? Think about your grades as a student What would you consider normal or acceptable range for your grades? What happens when you fall outside of (below) that range? Work or change behavior to get grades back to acceptable range Human body works in a similar fashion through the process of homeostasis.
20 2.2 WHAT IS HOMEOSTASIS AND HOW IS IT MAINTAINED IN LIVING THINGS? Homeostasis: The body s ability to maintain stable (physical and chemical) internal conditions even though the external environment changes constantly Living things keep their bodies internal conditions within a certain range for optimal function. If outside the range function decreases or increases to a harmful degree. Maintaining homeostasis is the most important function of all body systems of living things. Examples of what is kept at homeostasis: Temperature, Blood sugar, ph, Nutrients, Waste
21 REMEMBER.. Stimulus- something in the environment that causes a change (can be internal environment) Response action of organism as a result of stimulus Feedback loop processes by which the body maintains homeostasis Can also be called feedback mechanisms and feedback system Usually uses nervous and hormonal cues to conduct processes
22 TWO TYPES OF FEEDBACK Negative Feedback System in which a change in a variable triggers a response which reverses or stops the initial change Almost all body processes are negative feedback loops Example: body temperature
23 NEGATIVE FEEDBACK DIAGRAM Homeostasis Stimulus *System stops when homeostasis is reached Response (decreases stimulus) Receptor Integrating Center (Brain) Effector
24 TWO TYPES OF FEEDBACK Positive Feedback System in which a change in a variable triggers a response that causes more of the same change in the same direction Fewer body responses use positive feedback Require an outside source to stop or shut off the system Example: Labor and hormone of oxytocin
25 FEEDBACK TERMINOLOGY Stimulus- change in the environment Receptor- evaluates the stimulus and sends a message to the integrating center Integrating center- is the Brain which will process the information and send a message to the effector Effector will act on the stimulus and generate a response, often is a hormone or gland Response- the reaction within the organism
26 FEEDBACK GRADES EXAMPLE Student typically receives a B on a test. He gets a C on a the next unit test. He is disappointed with this grade so he decides to make flash cards for the next test as part of his studying. Then on the next test he gets a B again.
27 FEEDBACK GRADE EXAMPLE What is the stimulus? He got a C on the test What is the receptor? He realizes he is disappointed with this What is the integrating center? His brain makes a decision to study differently What is the effector? He tells himself to make note cards What is the response? Actually making the note cards What ends this feedback loop? Student gets a B on the next test What type of feedback is it? Negative
28 NEGATIVE FEEDBACK EXAMPLE Cold environments cause body temperature to decrease, the hypothalamus senses the temperature change and signals the heating mechanisms of the body to start (like goosebumbs or shivering), then when the normal body temperature is reached the hypothalamus sends a stop signal.
29 NEGATIVE FEEDBACK EXAMPLE What is the stimulus? Body temperature decreases What is the the response? Goosebumbs/ shivering What is the integrating center? Hypothalamus What is the receptor? And Effector? Receptor=nerve cells througout body that sense temperture chagne Effector=signals from the hypothalmus to start heating mechanism When does the feedback loop stop? Body temperature increases to normal Type of Feedback? -Negative
30 POSITIVE FEEDBACK DIAGRAM Homeostasis Receptor Stimulus *System stops when outside factor gets involved Response Integrating Center (Brain) Effector
31 POSITIVE FEEDBACK EXAMPLE Stimulus causes a response that increases the stimulus. During labor, a hormone called oxytocin is released that intensifies and speeds up contractions. The increase in contractions causes more oxytocin to be released and the cycle goes on until the baby is born. The birth ends the release of oxytocin and ends the positive feedback mechanism.
32 LABOR AND OXYTOCIN FEEDBACK SYSTEM What is the initial stimulus? Labor begins (water broke) What is the response? utrine contractions (Intensifies and speeds up as system continues) What is the integrating center? Hypothalmus What is the receptor? Cells that sense labor has begun (water broke) What is the effector? Hormone oxytocin What ends the feedback loop? Birth/ no more baby (outside factor)
Specialized Cells, Tissues, Organs and Organ Systems Chap 2, p. 67 Chap 9, p. 295 Chap 14, p. 468-471 2. I. Cell (Review) basic unit of structure and function in a living thing. They carry out the processes
What is your body made of? You might say that you are made of atoms or cells. You might even say you are made of organs, like skin and a heart. These answers are all correct. Each focuses on a different
Slide 1 / 64 1 Arrange the following in order from least complex to most complex: organ, tissue, cell, organism, organ system. Slide 2 / 64 2 List the four major groups of tissues in animals. Slide 3 /
All living things are made up of cells! Specialized cells develop from a single zygote Organisms are made up of specialized cells. Each has a specific job/function red blood cell nerve cell Zygotes (fertilized
Collin College BIOL 2401 Anatomy &Physiology I Why Study Anatomy & Physiology?! You are Entering a medically-related profession.! Planning a career in a biological field.! The course is a requirement for
Multichoice questions section. You must answer ALL questions. 1. A cell contains many organelles, each of which has a specific function. What is function of mitochondria? a) production of plasma membrane
Lesson Overview 7.4 THINK ABOUT IT The diversity of life is so great that you might have to remind yourself that all living things Are composed of cells Use same basic chemistry Contain same kinds of organelles.
The Human Body: An Orientation Prepared by Dr. Naim Kittana Dr. Suhaib Hattab Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences An-Najah National University 1 Declaration The content and the figures of this seminar
Summer 2015 Units: 10 high school credits UC Requirement Category: d General Description: BIOLOGY Grades 9-12 Summer session biology will be an intense, fast paced course. Students will gain an understanding
MS-LS1-1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes MS-LS1-1. Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells; either one cell or many different numbers and
Study Guide Cells Unit Test Matching. Write the letter of the correct response on the line. You may use the responses more than once. A. proteins B. simple carbohydrates C. complex carbohydrates D. lipids
Abraham Darby Academy KS3 Biology Cells, tissue, organs Knowledge series Study Booklet 2017 Key terms Adaptation: A feature of an organism's body which helps it to survive. Bacteria: Single-celled micro-organisms.
Name: Date: Period: Frog Dissection Virtual Lab Use the frog Dissection link that follows to answer the questions. http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs/bl_16/bl_16.html Introduction 1. Why Dissect.
What Is an Animal? What characteristics do all animals have? Animals come in many shapes, forms, and sizes. Scientists estimate that there are between 1 and 2 million species of animals! Some, like whales
3. Structure, Function, and Genetics of Plants and Animals 3.1 Structure of Plants 3.2 Plant Physiology and Reproduction 3.3 Structure and Function of Animal Tissues 3.4 Anatomy of Animal Systems, Part
7th Grade Life Science Grade Remediation Packet Purpose of this packet If you have received this packet it is because you are currently or in jeopardy of failing this class. This is not a punishment, but
Topic 2.1 Cell Theory Assessment Statements What you need to know: 2.1.1 Outline the cell theory. 2.1.2 Discuss evidence for the cell theory. 2.1.3 State that unicellular organisms carry out all the functions
And Similarities Frog Human Free PDF ebook Download: And Similarities Frog Human Download or Read Online ebook differences and similarities respiratory system frog human in PDF Format From The Best User
G r a d e 9 S c i e n c e R e v i e w E n d o f Y e a r 2 0 1 6 P a g e 1 Grade 9 Science Review Chapter 1 - Organisation of matter 1. Find the density of a mysterious liquid with a mass of 4.5 grams and
How do we define what it means to be alive? Defining Life-7 Characteristics of Life There is no universal definition of life. To define life in unequivocal terms is still a challenge for scientists. Conventional
Year 8: Living World- Functioning Organisms Revise assumed knowledge: ST3-10LW describes how structural features and other adaptations of living things help them to survive in their environment Check Date
BAL BHARATI PUBLIC SCHOOL, NOIDA CLASS-IX BIOLOGY TOPIC- TISSUES BY: UMESH VERMA Defination- A group of cells similar in structure and performing a particular function forms a tissue. Also this group od
Academic Anatomy Pacing Guide Course Description: This course provides the student with a general study of the structure of EOC VOCATS the human body and the detailed study of the functions of the body
NAME: DATE: PARTNER: CYTOLOGY & HISTOLOGY THE STUDY OF CELLS AND TISSUES For ease of study, multicellular animals are often examined at various levels of structural organization. Starting from the most
Skills Worksheet Chapter Review USING KEY TERMS Complete each of the following sentences by choosing the correct term from the word bank. cell organ cell membrane prokaryote organelles eukaryote cell wall
St. Michael-Albertville High School Teacher: Kay Nowell Anatomy & Physiology (Master) September 2014 Content Skills Learning Targets Assessment Resources & Technology CEQ 1. How do all the organ systems
Water Cycle 1. The sum total of all water on Earth and in its atmosphere is called the: A. Biosphere B. Terrasphere C. Hydrosphere D. Liquisphere 2. Oceans, the atmosphere, and groundwater are all in the
Questions: Five study Questions EQ: What factors influence how and when cells differentiate within different organisms? Cell theory states that living things are made of cells some are unicellular (one
CELLS Objectives for Exam #1: 1. Describe basic cellular structures and functions, including the organelles and plasma membrane. 2. Discuss different cellular shapes and different stages of cellular lives.
Greenwich Public Schools Science Objectives and Grade Level Concepts Grade Seven Physics: Energy Transfer and Transformations (STEM) CSDE Science Curriculum Standard 7.1: Energy provides the ability to
Sioux Falls School District Anatomy and Physiology Holes Anatomy and Physiology Authors: Shier, Butler, and Lewis Glencoe/ McGraw hill Semester 1 Chapter 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology
Cell Organelles What are some of the differences you see between these two cells? A. Cell Theory 1. All organisms are made up of one or more cells 2. Cells are the basic unit of organization in an organism
Year 9 Term 2: Body Systems and Responses ASSUMED KNOWLEDGE STAGE 4 OUTCOMES SC4-14LW relates the structure and function of living things to their classification, survival and reproduction Check Date SC4-15LW
1 An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology Lecture Presentation by Lori Garrett Section 1: An Introduction to Studying the Human Body Learning Outcomes 1.1 Briefly describe the difference between anatomy
Biology High School Standards Review Worksheet 1. The Chemistry of Life Chapter 3 Central Concept: Chemical elements form organic molecules that interact to perform the basic functions of life. 1.1 Recognize
Organic Molecules: (All contain carbon) 1.) Carbohydrates: Quick source of energy 2.) Lipids: Long-term energy storage 3.) Proteins: Raw materials and enzyme action (catalysts) Inorganic Molecules: (Do
Human Biology Syllabus/Online Course Plan Certificated Teacher: Hank Mendoza Date: 2011-2012 Stage One Desired Results Course Title/Grade Level: Credit: one semester (.5) x two semesters (1) Estimate of
Module A BODY PLAN & ORGANIZATION Topic from Anatomical position Body planes & sections Body cavities & regions Directional terms Basic terminology Levels of organization Survey of body systems 1. Describe
Table of Contents Chapter: Life's Structure and Classification Section 1: Living Things 1- What is an organism? Any living thing is called an organism. Organisms vary in size: 1)one-celled or unicellular
Plant Unit Test Multiple Choice For questions 1 25, circle the letter of the best answer from the choices provided. (2 pts each) For questions 1 3, refer to the diagram of the plant cell below: A B C D
Calderglen High School National 5 Biology Unit 2 Multicellular Organisms 1 Sub topic: Producing new cells Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of the cell and carry coded instructions called genes from
Cell organelles carry out specific metabolic processes. 1.Study the statement above. Which cell organelle manages the process by which proteins are sorted and packaged to be sent where they are needed?
Massachusetts Department of ELEMENTARY & SECONDARY Y Release of February 2011 MCAS Biology Test Items April 2011 Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education Biology Session 1 The following
HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY STRUCTURE 30 Description This second-year course in biology emphasizes the workings of the human body. The course is offered in the fall semester and meets six (6) periods per
Alive or Not??? You be the Judge! Information summarized from Holt Science & Technology: Life Science, copyright 2005 How do we know something is alive? What are the characteristics of life? We Begin with
The Cell The basic unit of all living things 1 Robert Hooke was the first to name the cell (1665) 2 The Cell Theory The cell is the unit of Structure of all living things. The cell is the unit of Function
What Is an Animal? Section 25.1 Typical Animal Characteristics Biology II Mrs. Michaelsen I. Characteristics of Animals A. All animals are eukaryotic, multicellular, have ways of moving to reproduce, obtain
Summary of changes (certificate to new GCSE) This resource outlines the main changes that have been made to the assessment and subject content from our legacy Level 1/2 Certificate in Biology (8401) to
Nonvascular Plants mosses, liverworts and hornworts are nonvascular plants. These lack vascular tissue which is a system of tubes that transport food, water and minerals throughout the plant. Water and
BIO 2 GO! 3216a The Cell Organelles and Nucleus Function The cell is the smallest unit of life. Each living cell has a nucleus which functions to control the actions of the rest of the cell. Upon successful
Characteristics of Living Things What is biology? The study of living things All living things share certain characteristics The Characteristics of Living Things Living things are called organisms. All
Alive or Not??? You be the Judge! Information summarized from Holt Science & Technology: Life Science, copyright 2005 How do we know something is alive? What are the characteristics of life? We Begin with
Natural Sciences Grade 9 Textbook and Workbook Santie du Plessis Pikkie du Toit Carlien Fanoy Natalie Janse van Rensburg Susan Keuris Patricia Lees-Rolfe Judy McDougall Doc Scientia Posbus 7011 Ansfrere
BIOLOGY UNIT REVIEW SNC 2D PART A: KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING 1. Which of these organelles are found only in plant cells? a) cell membranes c) mitochondria b) chloroplast d) ribosome 2. The replicated
RUTHERFORD HIGH SCHOOL Rutherford, New Jersey COURSE OUTLINE ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I. INTRODUCTION There are many wonders in our world, but none is more wondrous than the human body. (Thibodeau, 1992)
Unit 5: Living beings 1. Characteristics of living beings 2. Composition of living beings 3. The cell 4. The vital functions 5. Levels of organisation Think and answer? a. What living beings can you see
7 th Grade TEKS AKA: Whacha-gotta-know! 1(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in the Texas Safety Standards; and 1(B) practice appropriate use and conservation
Chapter 01: Organization of the Body Patton: Anatomy and Physiology, 9th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following describes anatomy? a. Using devices to investigate parameters such as heart rate
Welcome to Human Anatomy & Physiology BI 234 - Fall 2012 Instructor: Office: E-Mail: Phone: Office Hours: Mike LeMaster 011 Natural Sciences email@example.com 838-8136 (x8-8136) M / W / F: 10:00 11:00 am;
Page 1 What is the role of the nucleus? What is the role of the cytoplasm? What is the role of the cell membrane? What is the role of the mitochondria? What is the role of ribosomes? What is the role of
The Radiata-Bilateria split Second branching in the evolutionary tree Two very important characteristics are used to distinguish between the second bifurcation of metazoans Body symmetry Germinal layers
http://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/cell/cell.html 4A: Students will compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Robert Hooke (1665) Used a compound microscope to look at thin slices of cork (oak
s7an-ppg-pc-il-002-012.indd 2 7/18/05 2:46:40 PM 2 McDougal Littell Science, Cells and Heredity Chapter 1: The Cell, pp. 6 37 1.1 The cell is the basic unit of living things. pp. 9 17 Explore: Activity
Cells and Genetics Life Science SOL Review Hooke was 1 st person to observe cells Cells Basic Unit of structure and function of life Prokaryote: bacteria/no nucleus Eukaryote: membrane structures; everything
Biology Fall Semester Exam Review Unit 1: Scientific method, characteristics of life What are the characteristics of life (pg. 6) Define the following terms: biology observation hypothesis dependent variable
SNC 2P Final Exam- PRACTICE EXAM Part 2: Multiple Choice Portion 50 minutes NAME All questions must be answered on the Scantron card provided. You must fill in your answer using pencil. Identify the following
Module A Unit 1 Basic Biological Principles Mr. Mitcheltree Biochemistry Cytology Genetics Evolution Taxonomy Microbiology Mycology Botany Zoology Ecology Branches of Biology Characteristics of Life Made
LIVING THINGS CONTAIN ONE OR MORE CELLS Scientists know that all living things are organized. The smallest unit of organization of a living thing is the cell. A cell is a collection of living matter enclosed
Endocrine Physiology Introduction to Endocrine Principles There are TWO major groups of hormones Peptide and protein hormones Amine hormones Peptide and protein hormones act through cell membrane receptors
District of Columbia Public Schools Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science (Grade 7) SCIENCE, Grade 7: Life Science Content Standard 2: Understand how living things function and how they interact with
Science Syllabus Grade 7 Vision All SPS students will participate in rigorous, standards-based science inquiry and will be prepared for college-level science coursework and competition in the global marketplace.
Tortora Funke Case Biology Quiz Free PDF ebook Download: Tortora Funke Case Biology Quiz Download or Read Online ebook tortora funke case biology quiz in PDF Format From The Best User Guide Database This