11.4 Meiosis. Vocabulary: Homologous Diploid Haploid Meiosis Crossing-over Tetrad

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1 11.4 Meiosis Vocabulary: Homologous Diploid Haploid Meiosis Crossing-over Tetrad Key Concept: What happens during the process of meiosis? How is MEIOSIS different than mitosis?

2 Blast from the past What is mitosis? One of the 3 main stages in cell cycle Divides the nucleus into 2 nuclei distributing the same amount of genetic material to each cell 4 stages in mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase

3

4 Vocabulary Homologous chromosome from mom has corresponding chromosome from dad Diploid two sets of chromosomes Code for same genes (ex: hair color) Haploid one set of chromosomes In the sex cells These will join with sex cells from the opposite sex (ex: egg joins with sperm)

5 So what is meiosis? It is a specialized type of cell division that occurs in the formation of gametes such as egg and sperm. Meiosis appears much more complicated than mitosis it is really just two divisions in sequence each one of which has strong similarities to mitosis.

6 INTERPHASE Interphase in meiosis is identical to interphase in mitosis There is no way, by simply observing the cell, to determine what type of division the cell will undergo when it does divide. Meiotic division will only occur in cells associated with male or female sex organs.

7 MEIOSIS I Meiosis I, the first of the two divisions, is often called reduction division it is here that the chromosome number is reduced from 2N (diploid) to 1N (haploid). Ex: Humans: diploid number = 46 (haploid = 23)

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9 PROPHASE I Prophase I is similar to prophase in mitosis involving the appearance of the chromosomes the development of the spindle apparatus breakdown of the nuclear envelope

10 Prophase I Important Events Homologous chromosomes pair up to form a tetrad The sister chromatids press together at points along their length It is during this alignment that chromatid arms may overlap and temporarily fuse resulting in crossing over Result: chomosomes (consisting of 2 sister chromatids) are no longer just from mom or dad the chromosomes are a mixture!!!

11 Vocabulary Tetrad each chromosome pairs with homologous chromosome 4 sister chromatids! Crossing over when chromosomes are in tetrads, they may exchange parts This happens in Prophase I Result increased variety in offspring (a good thing)

12 Result: INCREASED genetic variety!!!

13 METAPHASE I Here is where the CRITICAL DIFFERENCE CRITICAL DIFFERENCE occurs between Metaphase I in meiosis and metaphase in mitosis.

14 METAPHASE I In Mitosis, all the chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate in no particular order. In Metaphase I (of Meiosis), the chromosome pairs are aligned on either side of the metaphase plate. It is during this alignment that chromatid arms may overlap and temporarily fuse (chiasmata) resulting in crossing over Crossing over increases genetic diversity

15 ANAPHASE I During Anaphase I the spindle fibers contract, pulling the homologous pairs away from each other and toward each pole of the cell.

16 TELOPHASE I Cleavage is followed by cytokinesis, but the nuclear membrane (envelope) usually is not reformed and the chromosomes do not disappear. At the end of Telophase I each daughter cell has a single set of chromosomes half the total number in the original cell where the chromosomes were present in pairs.

17 While the original cell was diploid (2n), the daughter cells are now haploid (1n). This is why Meiosis I is often called reduction division. Diploid = 4 Haploid = 2 It was 4, now it will be 2 in each cell!!

18 MEIOSIS II Meiosis II is quite simple in that it is simply a mitotic division of each of the haploid cells produced in Meiosis I. There is no Interphase between Meiosis There is no Interphase between Meiosis I and Meiosis II and the latter begins with

19 PROPHASE II A new set of spindle fibers forms the chromosomes begin to move toward the equator of the cell.

20 METAPHASE II All the chromosomes in the two cells align with the metaphase plate.

21 ANAPHASE II The centromeres split The spindle fibers shorten drawing the chromosomes drawing the chromosomes toward each pole of the cell.

22 TELOPHASE II Cleavage is followed by cytokinesis The nuclear membrane (envelope) reforms The chromosomes begin to fade, replaced by the granular chromatin characteristic of interphase. Total of four daughter cells, each with half the total number of chromosomes as the original cell.

23 Male structures all four cells will eventually develop into typical sperm cells. Female life cycles in higher organisms three of the cells will typically abort leaving a single cell to develop into an egg cell usually much larger than a typical sperm cell.

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25 Gametes

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27 NOVA video

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