1 Biology High School Standards Review Worksheet 1. The Chemistry of Life Chapter 3 Central Concept: Chemical elements form organic molecules that interact to perform the basic functions of life. 1.1 Recognize that biological organisms are composed primarily of very few elements. The six most common are C, H, N, O, P, and S. Text: 3.3 Carbon Compounds 1.2 Describe the basic molecular structures and primary functions of the four major categories of organic molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids). Text: 3.3 Carbon Compounds Organic Molecule Structure Function Carbohydrate Lipid Protein Nucleic Acid 1.3 Explain the role of enzymes as catalysts that lower the activation energy of biochemical reactions. Identify factors, such as ph and temperature that have an effect on enzymes. Text: 3.4 Energy and Metabolism a. What is a catalyst? b. How do enzymes (as catalysts) lower the activation energy of biochemical reactions? c. What effects do changes in ph and temperature have on the action of an enzyme?
2 2. Cell Biology Chapters 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 18, & 20 Central Concepts: Cells have specific structures and functions that make them distinctive. Processes in a cell can be classified broadly as growth, maintenance, and reproduction. 2.1 Relate cell parts/organelles (plasma membrane, nuclear envelope, nucleus, nucleolus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosome, ribosome, vacuole, cell wall, chloroplast, cytoskeleton, centriole, cilium, flagellum, pseudopod) to their functions. Explain the role of cell membranes as a highly selective barrier (diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport). Text: 7.2 Inside the Eukaryotic Cell 8.1 Cell Membrane 8.2 Cell Transport Organelle Function Location Animal/ Plant/ Bacteria/, etc. Plasma Membrane Nuclear Envelope Nucleus Nucleolus Cytoplasm Mitochondria Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus
3 Lysosome Ribosome Vacuole Cell Wall Chloroplast Cytoskeleton Centriole Cilium Flagellum Pseudopod
4 What type of cells have a cell membrane? What is the function of the cell membrane? Transport across cell membrane Diffusion Definition What is unique about it? Osmosis Facilitated Diffusion Active Transport 2.2 Compare and contrast, at the cellular level, the general structures and degrees of complexity of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Text: 7.3 From Cell to Organism Prokaryotes Eukaryotes
5 2.3 Use cellular evidence (e.g., cell structure, cell number, cell reproduction) and modes of nutrition to describe the six kingdoms (Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia). Text: 18.3 Kingdoms and Domains Figure 10 pg 434 Domain Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Kingdom Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Example Cell Type Cell Walls Number of Cells Nutrition 2.4 Identify the reactants, products, and basic purposes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Explain the interrelated nature of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cells of photosynthetic organisms. Text: 9.1 Energy in Living Systems Figure 2 pg Photosynthesis 9.3 Cellular Respiration Fill in the circles from figure 2 on page 199 Light Energy ATP products Chloroplast: Mitochondrion: products
6 Photosynthesis: A. Write out the net equation of photosynthesis: _ Draw a circle around the reactants Draw a square around the products B. What is the purpose of photosynthesis? Cellular Respiration A. Write out the net equation of cellular respiration (aerobic): Draw a circle around the reactants Draw a square around the products B. What is the purpose of cellular respiration? 2.5 Explain the important role that ATP serves in metabolism. Text: 9.1 Energy in Living Systems A. Explain the important role that ATP serves in metabolism 2.6 Describe the cell cycle and the process of mitosis. Explain the role of mitosis in the formation of new cells, and its importance in maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction. Text: 10.1 Cell Reproduction 10.2 Mitosis A. What happens in each stage of the cell cycle? 1. Interphase: a. G1 b. S c. G2
7 2. Cell Division a. Mitosis b. Cytokinesis B. What happens in each stage of mitosis? Draw a diagram of the cell during each stage. 1. Prophase _ 2. Metaphase 3. Anaphase 4. Telophase
8 C. What role does mitosis play in the formation of new cells and why is it important in maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction? 2.7 Describe how the process of meiosis results in the formation of haploid cells. Explain the importance of this process in sexual reproduction, and how gametes form diploid zygotes in the process of fertilization. Text: 11.1 Reproduction 11.2 Meiosis A. How does meiosis produce haploid cells rather than the diploid cells produced by mitosis? B. Why are haploid cells important to sexual reproduction? C. Define gamete: D. Define zygote: E. Describe what happens during each stage of meiosis and draw a picture of the cell at that stage. 1. Prophase I _ 2. Metaphase I
9 3. Anaphase I 4. Telophase I 5. Prophase II _ 6. Metaphase II 7. Anaphase II
10 8. Telophase II 2.8 Compare and contrast a virus and a cell in terms of genetic material and reproduction. Text: 20.2 Viruses Virus Cell
11 3. Genetics Chapters 12, 13, & 14 Central Concepts: Genes allow for the storage and transmission of genetic information. They are a set of instructions encoded in the nucleotide sequence of each organism. Genes code for the specific sequences of amino acids that comprise the proteins characteristic to that organism. 3.1 Describe the basic structure (double helix, sugar/phosphate backbone, linked by complementary nucleotide pairs) of DNA, and describe its function in genetic inheritance. Text: 13.1 the Structure of DNA A. Draw a simple picture of DNA and label the sugars, phosphates, and bases. Fig 4 pg 296 B. List the two complementary pairs of nucleotide bases in DNA and how many hydrogen bonds connect them. pairs with and they are connected by Hydrogen bonds. pairs with and they are connected by Hydrogen bonds. C. What role does DNA play in genetic inheritance?
12 3.2 Describe the basic process of DNA replication and how it relates to the transmission and conservation of the genetic code. Explain the basic processes of transcription and translation, and how they result in the expression of genes. Distinguish among the end products of replication, transcription, and translation. Text: 13.2 Replication of DNA 13.3 RNA and Gene Expression A. Describe the three steps of DNA replication. Step1: Step 2: Step 3: B. How does DNA replication maintain the genetic code? C. Describe the three steps of Transcription. Step 1: Step 2: Step 3:
13 D. How does transcription differ from replication? E. Describe the five steps of Translation. Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: F. Fill in the table below Process Starts with Ends with Where does it occur in the cell Replication Transcription Translation G. How is a gene used in replication, transcription and translation?
14 3.3 Explain how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not result in phenotypic change in an organism. Explain how mutations in gametes may result in phenotypic changes in offspring. Text: 14.1 Mutation and Genetic Change A. Define each of the following. Point Mutation: Insertion/ Deletion: Silent Mutation: Missense Mutation: Frameshift Mutation: Nonsense Mutation: B. Which of the above mutations cause a phenotypic change in an organism? (due to changes in amino acids) 3.4 Distinguish among observed inheritance patterns caused by several types of genetic traits (dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked, polygenic, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles). Text: 12.3 Modeling Mendel s Laws 12.4 Beyond Mendelian Heredity A. Define and give an example of each: Dominant: Recessive:
15 Codominant: Sex-linked: Polygenic: Incomplete Dominance: Multiple Alleles: 3.5 Describe how Mendel s laws of segregation and independent assortment can be observed through patterns of inheritance (e.g., dihybrid crosses). Text: 12.3 Modeling Mendel s Laws 12.4 Beyond Mendelian Heredity A. Law of Segregation: B. Law of Independent Assortment:
16 C. Complete the following dihybrid cross: BbRr x BBrr B = Brown hair b=green hair R=red eyes r=silver eyes List each genotype and phenotype obtained in the table above Genotype Phenotype
17 3.6 Use a Punnett Square to determine the probabilities for genotype and phenotype combinations in monohybrid crosses. Text: 12.3 Modeling Mendel s Laws A. Complete the following monohybrid crosses, list the genotypes and phenotypes obtained and give the percentages of each phenotype. R=red eyes r = silver eyes Rr x rr Sex-linked: X R X r x X r Y Codominance: R = Red flowers B= Blue flowers RB x RB Blood Types: I A I B x I A i
18 4. Anatomy and Physiology Chapters 34, 35, 36, 38, 39 & 11 Central Concepts: There is a relationship between the organization of cells into tissues and the organization of tissues into organs. The structures and functions of organs determine their relationships within body systems of an organism. Homeostasis allows the body to perform its normal functions. 4.1 Explain generally how the digestive system (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum) converts macromolecules from food into smaller molecules that can be used by cells for energy and for repair and growth. Text: 36.2 Digestion 4.2 Explain how the circulatory system (heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, red blood cells) transports nutrients and oxygen to cells and removes cell wastes. Describe how the kidneys and the liver are closely associated with the circulatory system as they perform the excretory function of removing waste from the blood. Recognize that kidneys remove nitrogenous wastes, and the liver removes many toxic compounds from blood. Text: 35.1 The Cardiovasculary System 4.3 Explain how the respiratory system (nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs, alveoli) provides exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Text: 35.3 The Respiratory System 4.4 Explain how the nervous system (brain, spinal cord, sensory neurons, motor neurons) mediates communication among different parts of the body and mediates the body s interactions with the environment. Identify the basic unit of the nervous system, the neuron, and explain generally how it works. Text: 38.1 Structure of the Nervous System 38.2 Neurons and Nerve Impulses 38.3 Sensory Systems 4.5 Explain how the muscular/skeletal system (skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles, bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons) works with other systems to support the body and allow for movement. Recognize that bones produce blood cells. Text: 34.2 The Skeletal System 34.3 The Muscular System 4.6 Recognize that the sexual reproductive system allows organisms to produce offspring that receive half of their genetic information from their mother and half from their father, and that sexually produced offspring resemble, but are not identical to, either of their parents. Text: 11.1 Reproduction 11.3 Multicellular Life Cycles 4.7 Recognize that communication among cells is required for coordination of body functions. The nerves communicate with electrochemical signals, hormones circulate through the blood, and some cells produce signals to communicate only with nearby cells. Text: 39.1 Hormones 38.2 Neurons and Nerve Impulses 38.3 Sensory Systems 4.8 Recognize that the body s systems interact to maintain homeostasis. Describe the basic function of a physiological feedback loop. Text: 34.1 Body Organization
19 5. Evolution and Biodiversity Chapters 16, 17, & 18 Central Concepts: Evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly changing environments. Over many generations, changes in the genetic make-up of populations may affect biodiversity through speciation and extinction. 5.1 Explain how evolution is demonstrated by evidence from the fossil record, comparative anatomy, genetics, molecular biology, and examples of natural selection. Text: 16.2 Applying Darwin s Ideas 16.3 Beyond Darwinian Theory 5.2 Describe species as reproductively distinct groups of organisms. Recognize that species are further classified into a hierarchical taxonomic system (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species) based on morphological, behavioral, and molecular similarities. Describe the role that geographic isolation can play in speciation. Text: 17.3 Speciation 18.2 Modern Systematics 18.3 Kingdoms and Domains 5.3 Explain how evolution through natural selection can result in changes in biodiversity through the increase or decrease of genetic diversity within a population. Text: 16.1 Genetic Variation 16.2 Genetic Change 6. Ecology Chapters 4, 5, & 6 Central Concept: Ecology is the interaction among organisms and between organisms and their environment. 6.1 Explain how birth, death, immigration, and emigration influence population size. Text: 5.1 Populations 5.2 Interactions in Communities 6.2 Analyze changes in population size and biodiversity (speciation and extinction) that result from the following: natural causes, changes in climate, human activity, and the introduction of invasive, non-native species. Text: 5.2 Interactions in Communities 6.1 An Interconnected Planet 6.2 Environmental Issues 6.3 Use a food web to identify and distinguish producers, consumers, and decomposers, and explain the transfer of energy through trophic levels. Describe how relationships among organisms (predation, parasitism, competition, commensalism, mutualism) add to the complexity of biological communities. Text: 4.2 Energy Flow in Ecosystems 6.4 Explain how water, carbon, and nitrogen cycle between abiotic resources and organic matter in an ecosystem, and how oxygen cycles through photosynthesis and respiration. Text: 4.3 Cycling of Matter