Animal structure and function

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1 Animal structure and function

2 The nervous system

3 Parts of the nervous system

4

5

6 43C, 44B, 45D

7

8 Brain structure and function

9

10

11

12 Eyes Retina

13 Neurons:

14 How neurons communicate: Resting potential: The resting membrane potential of a neuron is about -70 mv (mv=millivolt) - this means that the inside of the neuron is 70 mv less than the outside. At rest, there are relatively more sodium ions outside the neuron and more potassium ions inside that neuron. The resting potential arises from two activities. The Na-K ATPase pump Leaky K+ channels Leaky Na+ channels Na NaNaNa+ K+ K+ K+K+K+ K+

15 The potentials The resting potential The threshold potential The action potential The refractory (Undershoot)

16 The resting potential is the resting membrane potential of a neuron is about -70 mv, the imbalance of electrical charge that exists between the interior of electrically excitable nerve cells and their surroundings.

17 The threshold potential is the critical level to which a membrane potential must be depolarized to initiate an action potential. Threshold potentials are necessary to regulate and propagate signaling in both the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

18 Action potential Depolarization: Na channels open Repolarization: Na channels close and K channels open

19 The refractory (Undershoot): A refractory period occurs during the undershoot phase; during this period, the neuron is insensitive to depolarizing stimuli.

20 The Na-K ATPase pump The potentials The resting potential The threshold potential (yellow) The action potential (green) (light blue) The refractory (Undershoot) (light blue) The resting potential The threshold potential (yellow) The action potential (green) (light blue) The refractory (Undershoot) (light blue) The Na-K ATPase pump Leaky K+ channels Leaky Na+ channels Na+ in =K+ out -70 Na+ in > K+ out Depolarization: Na+ in >>> K+ out 2. Repolarization: Na+ in <<< K+ out the neuron is insensitive to depolarizing stimuli. The membrane potentials (mv) 1. From -55 to +30 to +40; 2. From +40 to <-70 <-70

21

22 C The potentials The resting potential -D The threshold potential The action potential-a (1) The refractory (Undershoot)-C

23

24 Schwann cells show remarkable versatility in undertaking a broad repertoire of functions. Ensheathment and myelination are specifically regulated by contact with axons, and the Schwann cell is centrally involved in extracellular matrix production in the peripheral nerve system (PNS) trunk. Additional Schwann cell functions include the promotion of both peripheral and central nervous system regeneration, provision of a versatile source of trophic factors, the capacity to remyelinate central nervous system axons, and the restoration of electrophysiological conduction. Since it is now possible to isolate Schwann cells both from neonatal and adult human peripheral nerve, their ability to promote regenerative efforts by many central neurons suggests a role for Schwann cell autografts in influencing central nervous system repair. Myelinating Schwann cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons.

25 USABO2011,24C

26

27

28 Neurotransmitter: When an impulse reach the end of axon releases a chemical called a Neurotransmitter into the space between the two neurons/between a neuron to a muscle. This space is called a synapse.

29 Neurotransmitter: Acetylcholine Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter produced by neurons referred to as cholinergic neurons. In the peripheral nervous system acetylcholine plays a role in skeletal muscle movement, as well as in the regulation of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. In the central nervous system acetylcholine is believed to be involved in learning, memory, and mood. Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl coenzyme A through the action of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and becomes packaged into membranebound vesicles. After the arrival of a nerve signal at the termination of an axon, the vesicles fuse with the cell membrane, causing the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft. For the nerve signal to continue, acetylcholine must diffuse to another nearby neuron or muscle cell, where it will bind and activate a receptor protein.

30 Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl coenzyme A through the action of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase Low synaptic concentrations of acetylcholine can be maintained via a hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. This enzyme hydrolyzes acetylcholine into acetic acid and choline. If acetylcholinesterase activity is inhibited, the synaptic concentration of acetylcholine will remain higher than normal. If this inhibition is irreversible, as in the case of exposure to many nerve gases and some pesticides, sweating, bronchial constriction, convulsions, paralysis, and possibly death can occur

31 Norepinephrine

32 GABA: the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system

33 D A

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42 The circulatory system can either be open or closed, depending on whether the blood flows freely in a cavity or is contained in vessels. An open circulatory system, found in arthropods, pumps blood into a cavity called a hemocoel where it surrounds the organs and then returns to the heart(s) through ostia (openings). A closed circulatory system, found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates, circulates blood unidirectionally from the heart, around the body, and back to the heart.

43 The circulatory system can either be open or closed, depending on whether the blood flows freely in a cavity or is contained in vessels. USABO2012, 50C

44 Human circulatory system

45 Components of Blood Component Scientific name Property Plasma Red blood cells(rbcs) Erythrocytes Liquid port of blood Contains clotting factors, hormones, antibodies, Dissolved gases, nutrients, and wastes Maintains proper osmotic potential of blood, 300mosm/L Carry hemoglobin and oxygen Do not have a nucleus and live only about 120 day Formed in bone marrow and recycled in liver White blood cells (WBCs) Leukocyte Flight infection and formed in bone marrow Platelets Thrombocytes Component of blood whose function is to stop bleeding by clotting blood

46 USABO2012, 26E The Human Red Blood Cell Smear

47

48 USABO2012, 26E

49 Components of Blood Component Scientific name Property Plasma Red blood cells(rbcs) Erythrocytes Liquid port of blood Contains clotting factors, hormones, antibodies, Dissolved gases, nutrients, and wastes Maintains proper osmotic potential of blood, 300mosm/L Carry hemoglobin and oxygen Do not have a nucleus and live only about 120 day Formed in bone marrow and recycled in liver White blood cells (WBCs) Leukocyte Flight infection and formed in bone marrow Platelets Thrombocytes Component of blood whose function is to stop bleeding by clotting blood

50

51

52 USABO2013, 36C F. O-

53 Human heart

54 Pathway of blood Blood enters the heart through 1. Vena cava (1). From there it continues to the: 2. Right atrium ( then pass right AV valvetricuspid valve) 3. Right ventricle (then pass pulmonary valve) 4. Pulmonary artery 5. Lung 6. Left pulmonary veins 7. Left atrium (then pass left AV valve-bicuspid valve) 8. Left ventricle (then pass Aortic valve) 9. Aorta 10. body Pathway of blood

55 Label the diagram using these labels Aorta Right ventricle Pulmonary vein Pulmonary artery Right atrium Left ventricle Left atrium Vena cava Activities 1. Left side of the heart is red, because the blood contains more O2. 2. Right side of the heart is blue, because the blood contains more CO2. Describe the route of the blood through the heart. This has been started for you below: Vena cava

56 USABO2011, 27A Campbell biology Figure 42.10

57 Lung and gas exchange in human

58 Lung and gas exchange in human

59 USABO2013, 24B Lung and gas exchange in human

60 Circulatory and respiration system in human

61

62

63 USABO2011, 21B

64 USABO2012, 38C

65 Amniotic egg (reptile/bird vs mammal)

66 Notochord: A cartilaginous skeletal rod supporting the body in all embryonic and some adult chordate animals

67

68 15B,16A

69

70 17B,18E,20A,21B

71 B

72

73

74 22B,23E,24C

75

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