a type of reproduction in which one parent organism produces offspring without meiosis and fertilization

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1 Define the following terms: Term Final Exam Vocabulary Review Definition adaptation an inherited trait that increases an organism's chance of surviving and reproducing in a particular environment allele any of the possible forms in which a gene for a specific trait can occur; two alleles for each trait are inherited, one from each parent anther (botany) pollen-bearing part of the upper end of the stamen of a flower asexual reproduction a type of reproduction in which one parent organism produces offspring without meiosis and fertilization behavior the way an organism reacts to other organisms or to its environment brainstem the area of the brain that controls involuntary functions budding the process during which a new organism grows by mitosis and cell division on the body of its parent camouflage cell (biology) cell cycle an adaptation that enables a species to blend in with its environment the basic unit of living matter in all organisms, consisting of protoplasm enclosed within a cell membrane; there are two types of cells, prokaryote (bacteria/algae cells) and eukaryote (animal/plant cells) a cycle of growth, development, and division that most cells in an organism go through cellular respiration a series of chemical reactions that convert the energy in food molecules into a useable form of energy called ATP

2 central nervous system (CNS) chromosome cloning conditioning corolla (botany) system made up of the brain and spinal cord a structure in all living cells that carries the genes that determine heredity. Thread-like strands of DNA and protein that are contained in the nucleus. They occur in pairs in all of the cells of eukaryotes except the reproductive cells. Humans have 23 pairs (46 total) chromosomes a type of asexual reproduction performed in a laboratory that produces identical individuals from a cell or a cluster of cells taken from a multicellular organism a way of learning new behaviors where a behavior is modified so that a response to one stimulus becomes associated with a different stimulus the petals of a flower considered as a group or unit cranium cross breed the skull of a vertebrate animal which encloses and protects the brain to produce a hybrid animal or plant by breeding two animals or two plants of different species or varieties daughter cells the two new cells that result from mitosis and cytokinesis diploid cell DNA dominant a cell that has pairs of chromosomes Deoxyribonucleic acid, nucleic acid that is the genetic material determining the makeup of all living cells and many viruses. Consists of two strands of nucleotides linked together in a structure resembling a ladder twisted into a spiral, called a double helix relating to the form of a gene that expresses a trait, such as hair color, in an individual organism egg the female reproductive, or sex, cell; forms in an ovary

3 embryo an immature diploid plant that develops from the zygote embryology the branch of biology that deals with embryos and their development endoskeleton estivation eukaryote a supporting framework in an animal that is contained inside the body an inactive state resembling deep sleep, in which some animals living in hot climates encounter during the summer. Protects animals against the heat and dryness of the summer an organism whose cells contain a nucleus surrounded by a membrane exoskeleton a hard, protective outer body covering an animal, such as an insect, crustacean, or mollusk eyespot (coloration) a form of mimicry in which there is a marking that resembles an eye fertilization a reproductive process in which a sperm joins with an egg filament (botany) the part of a stamen that supports the anther of a flower; the stalk of a stamen fission cell division that forms two genetically identical cells fruit plant structure that contains one or more seeds; develops from the ovary and sometimes other parts of the flower gene a section of DNA on a chromosome that has genetic information for one trait

4 genetic engineering genetics science of altering and cloning genes to produce a new trait in an organism or to make a biological substance such as a protein or hormone; mainly involves the creation of recombinant DNA, which is then inserted into the genetic material of a cell or virus scientific study of the principles of heredity and the variation of inherited traits among related organisms genotype an organism's complete set of genes gestation period of time spent in the uterus by the young of an animal before birth haploid cell a cell that has only one chromosome from each pair heterozygous having a contrasting/different pair of genes (Bb) for a trait hibernation homeostasis homologous chromosomes a response in which an animal's body temperature, activity, heart rate, and breathing rate decrease during periods of cold weather tendency of an organism or cell to regulate the chemical processes that take place internally so as to maintain health and functioning, regardless of outside conditions; such as the ability to maintain a healthy body temperature pairs of chromosomes that have genes for the same traits arranged in the same order homozygous having two like genes for a hereditary trait (BB) imprinting inheritance behavior that occurs when an animal forms an attachment to an organism or place within a specific time period after birth or hatching the passing of traits from generation to generation

5 innate behavior a behavior that is inherited rather than learned instinct a complex pattern of innate behaviors invertebrate having no backbone or spinal column meiosis a process in which one diploid cell divides to make four haploid sex cells metamorphosis migration mimicry a developmental process in which the body form of an animal changes as it grows from an egg to an adult the instinctive, movement of a population of organisms from one place to another and back for the purposes of food, reproduction, more hospitable environment due to seasonal changes an adaptation in which one species looks like another species often for defensive purposes mitosis a process during which the nucleus and its contents divide mutation natural selection nervous system a permanent change in the sequence of DNA, or the nucleotides, in a gene or a chromosome process by which organisms with variations that help them survive in their environment live longer, compete better, and reproduce more than those that do not have the variation the part of an organism that gathers, processes, and responds to information neuron the basic functioning unit of the nervous system; a nerve cell

6 nucleotide base any group of organic compounds composed of several nitrogen bases; adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T) and cytosine (C) organ (biology) a group of different tissues working together to perform a particular job organ system (biology) a group of organs that work together and perform a specific task organism (biology) an individual form of life composed of one or more cells capable of growing and reproducing ovary peripheral nervous system (PNS) female reproductive organ that produces egg cells; structure located at the base of the style of a flower that contains one or more ovules system made up sensory and motor neurons that transmit information between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body phenotype how a trait appears or is expressed photosynthesis a series of chemical reactions that convert light energy, water, and carbon dioxide into the food energy molecule glucose and give off oxygen pistil (botany) female reproductive organ of a flower; aka carpel probability prokaryote protein a number expressing the likelihood of the occurrence of a given event, as in the likelihood of an offspring expressing a specific trait variety of one celled organisms that lack a distinct cell nucleus or other structures bound by a membrane and that have DNA that is not organized into chromosomes; reproduce asexually complex organic chemical compound which form the basis of all living tissues; consist of chains of smaller compounds called amino acids

7 Punnett square a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment recessive regeneration reptile response (biology) RNA a form of a gene that is not expressed as a trait in an individual unless two same genes are inherited, one from each parent a type of asexual reproduction that occurs when an offspring grows from a piece of its parent; cellular growth for the purpose of replacement of organs, tissue, limbs, etc.. that have been lost due to injury cold-blooded vertebrate animals that have skin covered with scales or horny plates, breathe air with lungs, and usually have a three chambered heart any behavior of a living organism that results from an external or internal stimulus ribonucleic acid, nucleic acid that determines protein synthesis in all living cells and the genetic makeup of many viruses; consists of a single strand of nucleotides seed a plant embryo, its food supply, and a protective covering selective breeding the selection and breeding of organisms for desired traits sepal (botany) sexual reproduction species one of the separate, usually green parts extending from the base of a flower that usually acts a protection for a developing bud and later as support structure for a flower type of reproduction in which the genetic material from two different cells (a sperm and an egg) combine, producing an offspring a group of organisms having many characteristics in common; organisms that reproduce sexually and belong to the same species that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring sperm a male reproductive, or sex cell; forms in a testis

8 spore a daughter cell produced from a haploid structure stamen (botany) the male reproductive organ of a flower stigma (botany) tip of a flower pistil on which pollen is deposited at the beginning of pollination stimulus a change in an organism's environment that causes a response style (botany) slender part of a flower pistil, extending from the ovary to the stigma tissue (biology) a group of similar types of cells that work together to carry out specific tasks trait a distinguishing characteristic of an organism variation a slight difference in an inherited trait among individual members of a species vertebrae any of the bones that make-up the vertebral column vertebrate any of a large group of animals having a backbone, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals zygote the cell that forms when a sperm cell fertilizes an egg cell

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