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1 Name: Period: Cover Requirements: Name of Unit Colored picture representing something in the unit Biology B1 1

2 Target # Biology Unit B1 (Genetics & Meiosis) Learning Targets Genetics & Meiosis I can explain how meiosis (crossing-over), sexual reproduction, and B1.1 mutation (5 types) lead to genetic variation I can use a Punnett square to predict the results of various genetic crosses: B1.2 Monohybrid, incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles, sex-linked traits and blood types. B1.3 Vocab Additional textbook reading for each target: B1.1: Section 11.4, p ; Section 13.3, p B1.2: Section 11.2, p ; Section 14.1, p

3 Unit B1 (Genetics & Meiosis) Vocabulary 1. Gametes Sex cells (eggs or sperm) 2. Homologous Similar, but not identical (e.g. left and right shoes) 3. Meiosis Process by which the chromosome number is reduced by half; makes gametes 4. Crossing-over The chromatids of homologous chromosomes cross over and exchange genes 5. Fertilization The joining of male and female reproductive cells (egg + sperm) 6. Zygote A fertilized egg 7. Trait A specific characteristic of an individual (i.e. eye color, hair color, etc ) 8. Gene A sequence of DNA that codes for a protein; a factor that is passed from parent to offspring 9. Allele Different forms of a gene (example: different hair colors) 10. Homozygous 2 identical (same) alleles for a gene 11. Heterozygous 2 different alleles for a gene 12. Phenotype Physical appearance 13. Genotype Genetic make-up (i.e. Rr GG bb ) 14. Dominant An allele whose phenotype is always visible 15. Recessive An allele whose phenotype is only visible when there is nothing to mask it Quizlet shortlink: Incomplete Dominance When one allele is not completely dominant over another (i.e. pink flower) 17. Co-dominance Both phenotypes are expressed (i.e. red-and-white flower) L 18. Mutation A change in the DNA sequence 19. Substitution Mutation A single DNA base is switched out for a different base 20. Inversion Mutation A section of DNA is reversed/flipped 21. Insertion Mutation A section of DNA is added or inserted 22. Deletion Mutation A section of DNA is lost or deleted 23. Frame-shift Mutation Bases are inserted or deleted affecting the remainder of the downstream DNA sequence 24. Mutagen A chemical which causes mutations 3

4 4

5 TOPIC/OBJECTIVE: LEARNING TARGET: Meiosis DATE: TEXTBOOK PAGES: 11.4, p , p B1.1 I can explain how meiosis (crossing-over), sexual reproduction, and mutation (3 types) lead to genetic variation QUESTIONS / MAIN IDEA: NOTES: SUMMARY (DO NOT SAY IN THESE NOTES I LEARNED OR ANY POOP LIKE THAT): 5

6 6 Mitosis Similarities Meiosis

7 Key: R = round seeds r = wrinkled seeds G = green pods g = yellow pods Compare the results between when chromosomes cross over in meiosis and when they do not. Why is it GOOD that chromosomes cross over? 7

8 Heredity & Alleles Exercises Dominant Alleles Recessive Alleles T = Tall Stem Y = Yellow Seeds t = Short Stem y = Green Seeds Q = Colored Seed Coat R = Round Seeds q = White Seed Coat r = Wrinkled Seeds G = Green Pods A = Axial Flowers g = Yellow Pods a = Terminal Flower Write the genotype for offspring that would be homozygous (same) for: Tall Stem: Green Seeds: Wrinkled Seeds: Axial Flowers: Round Seeds: Yellow Pods: Yellow Seeds: Short Stem: Terminal Flowers: Write the genotype for offspring that would be heterozygous (different) for: Green Pods: Axial Flowers: Round Seeds: Yellow Seeds: Tall Stem: Colored Seed Coat: Write the phenotype (look up the definition!) of the following garden pea offspring Gg: Aa: Yy: Rr: Qq: Tt: Write the genotype of the following garden pea hybrids (hybrid = heterozygous) Yellow-seed hybrid: Green pod hybrid: Tall stem hybrid: Round seed hybrid: Axial flower hybrid: Color seed coat hybrid: 8

9 TOPIC/OBJECTIVE: LEARNING TARGET: Genetics & Heredity B1.2 I can use a Punnett square to predict the results of various genetic crosses: Monohybrid, incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles, sex-linked traits and blood types. QUESTIONS / MAIN IDEA: NOTES: DATE: TEXTBOOK PAGES: 11.1, p , p SUMMARY (DO NOT SAY IN THESE NOTES I LEARNED OR ANY POOP LIKE THAT): 9

10 10

11 Greetings, scientist! You are about to being your work to discover the identity of George s parents. First, however, you need a few necessary pieces of information for you to complete your task. You will be doing Punnett squares on three characteristics: number of eyes, fur color, and number of horns. Three eyes are dominant (E), and two eyes are recessive (e). Blue fur is dominant (F), and purple fur is recessive (f). Two horns are dominant (H), and one horn is recessive (h). George s characteristics are: blue fur, three eyes, and one horn. Below you will find listed the names of each of the families, the characteristics of each of the parents, and blank Punnett squares to fill in. Cross each of the parents genotypes once for each trait. The Venetians The mother is Ee, ff, and Hh The father is ee, ff, and Hh The Neptunes The mother is ee, Ff, and hh The father is EE, Ff, and Hh The Plutonians The mother is Ee, ff, and Hh The father is Ee, FF, and HH Only one of these families could possibly be George s true parents. Which family is it? How do you know? 1. 11

12 A woman with Type O blood and a man who is Type AB have are expecting a child. What are the possible blood types of the child? 2. What are the possible blood types of a child whose parents are both heterozygous for "B" blood type? 3. What are the chances of a woman with Type AB and a man with Type A having a child with Type O? 4. Determine the possible genotypes & phenotypes with respect to blood type for a couple whose blood types are homozygous A & heterozygous B. 5. Jill is blood Type O. She has two older brothers with blood types A & B. What are the blood genotypes of her parents? 6. A test was done to determine the biological father of a child. The child's blood Type is A and the mother's is B. Dude #1 has a blood type of O, & Dude #2 has blood type AB. Which dude is the biological father? 7. In Smileys, eye shape is co-dominant and can be Circle, Star, or Circle-Star. Make a key and write the genotypes for the pictured phenotypes next to the Smileys. Circle: Star: Circle-Star: 8. Set up & show the cross between a star-eyed and a circle-eyed Smiley. What are the phenotypes of the offspring? What are the genotypes? 9. Set up & show the cross between a star-eyed and a circle-star-eyed Smiley. What are the phenotypes of the offspring? What are the genotypes? 10. In roses, red is incompletely dominant to white, and roses can be red, pink, or white. Make a key and write the genotypes for a red, pink, and white rose. Red: Pink: White: 11. Set up & show the cross between two pink roses What are the phenotypes of the offspring? What are the genotypes? 12

13 Incomplete Dominance 1. Flower color in roses is incompletely dominant RR = red, Rr = pink, rr = white Cross a red with a pink rose. Count the genotype & phenotype percentages that will result. 2. Fur color in rabbits is incomplete dominant BB = black, Bb = gray, bb = white Cross two gray rabbits. Count the genotype & phenotype percentages that will result. 3. The type of hair in humans is incompletely dominant. HH = curly hair, Hh = wavy hair, hh = straight hair Cross two humans with wavy hair. Count the genotype & phenotype percentages that will result. Co-Dominance & Blood Types Phenotype (Blood Type) Genotype 13

14 Incomplete Dominance Review & Sex-Linked Traits Color-blindness is a sex-linked trait, which means that the gene can only be found on the X chromosome. It is recessive to normal vision. X B = normal, X b = colorblind, Y = male 1. Cross a colorblind male with a normal female. Count the genotype & phenotype percentages that will result. What % of their children (male and female) will be colorblind? 2. Cross a normal male with a female that is a carrier for colorblindness. Count the genotype & phenotype percentages that will result. What % of their children will be colorblind? Will they be male or female? 3. Cross a colorblind male with a carrier female. Count the genotypes and phenotype percentages that will result. What % of their children will be colorblind? Will they be male or female? Female ( ) (XX) Normal: Male ( ) (XY) Normal: Carrier: Affected: 14 Affected:

15 TOPIC/OBJECTIVE: LEARNING TARGET: Sex-Linked Traits DATE: TEXTBOOK PAGES: B1.2 I can use a Punnett square to predict the results of various genetic crosses: Monohybrid, incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles, sex-linked traits and blood types. QUESTIONS / MAIN IDEA: NOTES: 14.1, p SUMMARY (DO NOT SAY IN THESE NOTES I LEARNED OR ANY POOP LIKE THAT): 15

16 Mutations: a mutation is a mistake in the DNA that can be passed down parent to child. A mutation results in a change in the amino acid sequence, which means a new protein is made. These new proteins have new properties some have no effect, most make it worse, and very few are beneficial. Mutations, like crossing-over in meiosis, cause variation differences between organisms. Transcribe the following strand of DNA first into mrna, then translate the mrna into amino acids. Only write the first three letters of each aa. Codon Wheel: p367 or Normal DNA strand DNA: C T G A G A G T A T C C G A T A C T mrna: protein: goo.gl/npyxue Substitution Mutation Circle the DNA base that has been mutated (changed) Normal DNA: C T G A G A G T A T C C G A T A C T Mut. #1 DNA: C T G A G A G G A T C C G A T A C T Mut. #1 mrna: amino acids: Normal DNA: C T G A G A G T A T C C G A T A C T Mut. #2 DNA: C T G A G A G T A T C C G A G A C T Mut. #2 mrna: amino acids: Circle any amino acid changes from the normal (first) protein sequence In words, describe what a substitution mutation is. Which of the two mutations (#1 or #2) is more damaging to the final protein sequence. Explain. Rearrangement (Inversion) Mutation In a rearrangement or inversion mutation, a section of DNA has been inverted, or flipped. Normal DNA: C T G A G A G T A T C C G A T A C T Mut. #1 DNA: C T G C C T A T G A G A G A T A C T Mut. #1 mrna: amino acids: In the following mutation, a palindrome section of DNA has been inverted Normal DNA: C T G A G A G T A T C C G A T A C T Mut. #2 DNA: C T G A G A G T A T C C G A T A C T Mut. #2 mrna: amino acids: Circle any amino acid changes from the normal (first) protein sequence In words, describe what an inversion mutation is. Which of the two mutations (#1 or #2) is more damaging to the final protein sequence. Explain. 16

17 Insertion/Deletion Mutation In an insertion/deletion mutation, DNA bases are added or removed. The rest of the nucleotide bases must shift backwards or forwards accordingly Draw a box below indicating the sequence that was added or removed: Normal DNA: C T G A G A G T A T C C G A T A C T Inserted DNA: C T G A G A C C C G T A T C C G A T A C T Inserted mrna: _ amino acids: Normal DNA: C T G A G A G T A T C C G A T A C T Deleted DNA: C T G A G A T C C G A T A C T Deleted mrna: _ amino acids: In words, describe what an insertion/deletion mutation is. Which of the two mutations (insertion or deletion) is more damaging to the final protein sequence. Explain. Frameshift (FS) Mutation In both cases below, one or two bases have been deleted (and shifted the reading frame ), and are indicated with a box. Extra bases have been added to the right to compensate. Normal DNA: C T G A G A G T A T C C G A T A C T FS 1 DNA: C T A G A G T A T C C G A T A C T T FS 1 mrna: amino acids: Normal DNA: C T G A G A G T A T C C G A T A C T FS 2 DNA: C T G A G A G T A T C C G A C T T T FS 2 mrna: amino acids: Circle any amino acid changes from the normal (first) protein sequence In words, describe what a frameshift mutation is. Which of the two mutations (#1 or #2) is more damaging to the final protein sequence. Explain. What do all mutations have in common? Explain why it is that most mutations are silent or neutral. 17

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