Chapter 1 Molecules, Cells, and Model Organisms

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1 Chapter 1 Molecules, Cells, and Model Organisms 1.1 The Molecules of Life 1.2 Prokaryotic Cell Structure and Function 1.3 Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function 1.4 Unicellular Eukaryotic Model Organisms 1.5 Metazoan Structure, Differentiation, and Model Organisms malaria parasite invading a human red blood cell

2 Chapter 1 Molecules, Cells, and Model Organisms Biological systems follow the rules of chemistry and physics, but biological structures and processes have evolved along different paths under the pressures of natural selection for billions of years. Although highly diverged, all biological systems are composed of cells containing the same types of chemical molecules and employing similar principles of organization at the cellular level. Similarities across biological systems make investigations of model organisms informative for understanding fundamental cellular processes. Not in the open system! Differences!

3 FIGURE 1-1 All living organisms descended from a common ancestral cell.

4

5

6 Skin is a living organ composed of layers: protective outer layer of dead cells, layer of living epidermal cells, deeper layers of muscle and connective tissue. Tissue cells are connected to other cells and connective tissue by desmosome and hemidesmosome adhesion structures

7 That s the charming point of Life! Prince Charming Diversity!!!

8 Several levels of DIVERSITY!!! What s this? 1.1 The Molecules of Life 1.2 Prokaryotic Cell Structure and Function 1.3 Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function 1.4 Unicellular Eukaryotic Model Organisms 1.5 Metazoan Structure, Differentiation, and Model Organisms

9 Some of the many small molecules found in cells

10 All are in 3D space!

11 Several levels of DIVERSITY!!! 1.1 The Molecules of Life 1.2 Prokaryotic Cell Structure and Function 1.3 Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function 1.4 Unicellular Eukaryotic Model Organisms 1.5 Metazoan Structure, Differentiation, and Model Organisms Conservation Any example?

12 Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the most common molecule used by cells to capture, store, and transfer energy. Universally conserved ATP stores chemical energy available to do cellular work in two energy-rich (phosphoanhydride) bonds between its phosphate groups.

13 DNA consists of two complementary strands wound around each other to form a double helix.

14 The information encoded in DNA is converted into the amino acid sequences of proteins by a multistep process Central dogma

15 Why is the lipid bilayer so important?

16 But There are always exceptions in nature Find examples!

17 Pro karyotic 1.1 The Molecules of Life 1.2 Prokaryotic Cell Structure and Function 1.3 Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function 1.4 Unicellular Eukaryotic Model Organisms 1.5 Metazoan Structure, Differentiation, and Model Organisms

18 Prokaryotic cells all have a relatively simple structure. Most Scientists love this! What s the full name of it? Escherichia coli Why? Base for molecular engineering

19 Microbiology

20 Use the diversity for research!!!!! <EX> Microbiology

21 1.1 The Molecules of Life 1.2 Prokaryotic Cell Structure and Function 1.3 Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function 1.4 Unicellular Eukaryotic Model Organisms 1.5 Metazoan Structure, Differentiation, and Model Organisms

22 Remind your memory

23

24 The three types of cytoskeletal filaments have characteristic distributions within mammalian cells.

25 Surface of the ciliated epithelium lining a mammalian trachea viewed in a scanning electron microscope

26 Structure of the nucleus. One of my favorite structure

27 Individual chromosomes can be seen in cells during cell division (mitosis). Semiconservative DNA replication during the cell cycle S phase duplicates each chromosome, which remains attached at the centromere to its identical sister chromatid. Chromosomes becomes highly compacted for easier movement during mitosis (M phase).

28 The Golgi complex and rough endoplasmic reticulum.

29 Endosomes and other cellular structures deliver materials to lysosomes. Lysosomes contain enzymes that degrade polymers into their monomeric subunits: nucleases degrade RNA and DNA into mononucleotides; proteases degrade proteins into amino acids; phosphatases remove phosphate groups from mononucleotides, phospholipids, and other compounds; other enzymes degrade complex polysaccharides and glycolipids. Endocytosis: regions of the plasma membrane containing transmembrane protein receptors are invaginated by a cytoplasmic coating to form a coated pit, which pinches off as a coated vesicle. The vesicle uncoats and fuses with an endosome, where some proteins are sorted into vesicles that fuse back with the plasma membrane and others are sorted into vesicles that fuse with a lysosome for degradation. Phagocytosis: large insoluble extracellular material can be taken into a phagosome and delivered to a lysosome for destruction. Autophagy: intracellular material and damaged organelles can be engulfed by ER membrane and delivered to a lysosome for destruction.

30 Electron micrograph of a thin section of a leaf cell.

31 What is this?

32

33 Cellular evolution?

34 1.1 The Molecules of Life 1.2 Prokaryotic Cell Structure and Function 1.3 Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function 1.4 Unicellular Eukaryotic Model Organisms 1.5 Metazoan Structure, Differentiation, and Model Organisms

35 Macaque monkey

36 What s the different name?

37 Plasmodium species, the parasites that cause malaria, are single-celled protozoans with a remarkable life cycle.

38 1.1 The Molecules of Life 1.2 Prokaryotic Cell Structure and Function 1.3 Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function 1.4 Unicellular Eukaryotic Model Organisms 1.5 Metazoan Structure, Differentiation, and Model Organisms

39 Do you remember the tube?

40

41 Similarity BUT! Rosy dream We should think of the differences!

42 The first few cell divisions of a fertilized egg set the stage for all subsequent development. First three cell divisions in mouse embryo initiate pattern of embryonic development similar to that in humans. The embryonic body plan is determined by (1) a program of genes that specifies the pattern of the body and (2) local cell interactions that induce different parts of the program.

43

44 Homologous genes regulate eye development in diverse animals. Drosophila eyeless and human Pax6 genes encode homologs with related developmental functions. Drosophila eyeless mutations cause lack of compound eye development. Human Pax6 mutations cause lack of eye iris development.

45 Scientific model FoxP2 gene & Language Enard 2009 Cell

46 Scientific model FoxP2 gene & Language Human FOXP2-related speech and language disorder is a condition that affects the development of speech and language starting in early childhood. Bird Mice & Rats

47 Ultrasound vocalization

48 However

49 See the differences Haeckel embryo

50 See the differences Haeckel embryo

51 Discuss with friends What are the similarities and differences between different animals? Make one example with a model system. Talk about three model organisms and discuss why these model systems should be used for research. Find Taq polymerase used for PCR reaction. What are the differences between Bacteria and Archaea? Find exceptions in central dogma. How can you use the exceptions for research and engineering?

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