CLASS SET DO NOT WRITE ON THIS TEST! Please do not cross off answers, circle answers, or mark on this test in any way. Thank you!

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1 CLASS SET DO NOT WRITE ON THIS TEST! Please do not cross off answers, circle answers, or mark on this test in any way. Thank you! 1) Unlike mitosis, meiosis in male mammals results in the formation of A) One haploid cell B) 3 diploid polar bodies C) 4 diploid gamete cells D) 4 haploid gamete cells 2) In this diagram, cell A is undergoing mitosis. If cell A has 6 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will the resulting cells B and C have? A) None C) 6 each B) 3 each D) 12 each 3) The phase of mitosis during which chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate from one another is A) Prophase B) Anaphase C) Metaphase D) Telophase 4) Researchers crossed two types of mice together, type A and type B. In the resulting offspring, half of the DNA comes from type A and half comes from type B. Why? A) X-inactivation occurs with 50/50 chance in each cell. B) The offspring get their DNA from the sperm and the cytoplasm from the egg. C) Each parent contributes one set of chromosomes to each offspring D) The offspring make binary divisions during development. 5) After being scraped or cut the skin is able to heal. What biological process best accounts for the replacement of skin cells? A) Mitosis C) Asexual reproduction B) Meiosis D) Cementation 6) Sister chromatids are attached to each other at an area called the A) Centriole B) Centromere C) Spindle D) Chromosome 7) Two pea plants were both grown from green peas. When these plants are crossed, their offspring produce green, yellow, and white peas. What accounts for the differences between parents and offspring? A) Random mutations are producing more diversity. B) Sexual reproduction has produced new combinations of alleles. C) Environmental factors are affecting the survival of gametes. D) The trait of pea color is not heritable from these parent plants. 8) Uncontrolled cell division occurs in A) Cancer B) Mitosis C) Cytokinesis D) Cyclin 9) In peas, the gene for green pod color (G) is dominant to the gene for yellow pod color (g). If a heterozygous plant (Gg) is crossed with another heterozygous plant, what genotype will likely be the most common among the offspring? A) GG B) Gg C) gg D) GGgg 10) In the cell cycle, the period between cell divisions is called A) Interphase B) Prophase C) G3 phase D) Cytokinesis 11) A mutation occurs in a gene on chromosome 3. This mutation could be passed along to offspring if it occurs A) in any cell except sex cells. C) during development of the zygote. B) after fertilization but before the zygote develops. D) in a sex cell that undergoes fertilization. 12) Many animals, including humans, have sex chromosomes called the X and Y chromosomes. Which of the following shows the genotype for a normal human male? A) XX B) YY C) XY D) Y

2 13) Some genetic disease can be treated with medication or lifestyle changes. But the only way to cure genetic disease is to A) transplant the affected tissue. C) induce mutations in the affected area. B) change the affected DNA sequence. D) Remove the affected gene. 14) The similarity in forelimb structure of humans, bats, and moles is evidence that they A) share a common ancestor C) use their forelimbs in similar ways. B) are members of the same genus. D) evolved from each other. 15) After many generations, an insect species evolved resistance to a particular pesticide. This occurred because spraying pesticides A) killed most of the insects in the population B) caused mutations in the insect species' gene pool. C) caused another insect species to go extinct. D) selected for insects that were able to survive and reproduce. 16) A herbicide killed 99% of a weed population. Which of the following is the best biological explanation for why some weeds were able to survive. A) some individuals were able to evolve before the spraying. B) Genetic variation in the population allowed some weeds to survive. C) The spray caused some individuals to mutate, and they were able to survive and reproduce. D) Each individual occupied a different ecological niche and so some were unaffected. 17) In a population, natural selection acts on A) phenotypic variation. B) genotypic variation. C) recessive alleles. D) dominant alleles. 18) An isolated population of bats goes through 100 generations with no immigration. However, genetic variation within the population increases. What best explains the cause of this increase? A) Reproductive isolation results in variation. C) Sexual selection has been disrupted. B) Natural selection acts on the genotypes. D) Random mutations can occur each generation. 19) The fossil record indicates that bursts of evolutionary activity are often followed by long periods of stability. These bursts of evolutionary activity most likely include A) background extinctions. C) episodes of speciation. B) mass extinctions. D) genetic equilibrium. 20) Due to severe flooding, 95% of a ground-nesting population dies. This event is different from natural selection in that any resulting change in allele frequencies is A) harmful to the population. C) random. B) beneficial to the population. D) directional. 21) Over time, population A is most likely to evolve into a new species due to A) geographic isolation B) temporal isolation C) convergent evolution D) adaptive radiation 22) The Irish potato famine in the 1840's was caused by a fungus that infected the potato crop. This potato population was most likely vulnerable to infection due to a lack of A) genetic drift in the population. C) organisms in the population. B) sexual selection in the population. D) genetic variation in the population. 23) Scientists hypothesize that complex organic molecules could have assembled in the environment of early Earth because A) these molecules are found assembling under the conditions present today. B) there are no other alternative hypotheses. C) this process has been successfully modeled in the laboratory. D) these molecules were present at extremely high concentrations.

3 24) Officials attempt to limit the spread of an exotic wildflower species by introducing its natural predator, a beetle. Unexpectedly, the beetle population grows exponentially and begins to eat local crops. What best accounts for this unexpected population explosion? A) Adaptive radiation allowed the beetle population to evolve faster. B) The beetle population has few predators in the new habitat. C) The wildflower and the local crops are genetically similar kinds of plants. D) The beetle has different nutritional requirements in the new habitat. 25) As the oxygen content of Earth's atmosphere increased, what would have best allowed populations of anaerobic prokaryotes to adapt? A) genetic mutation C) competition B) sexual selection D) sexual reproduction 26) In the evolution of eukaryotes, cells that contained mitochondria-like organelles had an advantage because they A) could make use of photosynthesis C) had more DNA. B) could make use of more available energy. D) were protected from bacterial invasion. 27) A scientists wants to measure the size of a cactus population in a desert valley. What method should she use? A) mark-recapture sampling C) computer modeling B) quadrant sampling D) radio telemetry 28) Which type of organism is not shown in this food web is important to the stability of the ecosystem? A) producer B) consumer C) herbivore D) decomposer 29) Which of the following groups is most important for bringing energy into an ecosystem? A) consumers C) decomposers B) producers D) generalists 30) Which of the following is a key component in the nitrogen cycle? A) transpiration B) water storage C) fossil fuels D) bacteria 31) In which direction does energy flow through this energy pyramid? A) 4,3,2,1 B) 1,2,3,4 C) 2,1,3,4 D) 3,4,2,1 32) Which of the following is a key component in the water cycle? A) transpiration B) denitrification C) fossil fuels D) bacteria 33) Archeologists find that the disappearance of a large mammal occurred shortly after the arrival of hominids in a certain region. What most likely occurred between these two species? A) dispersion C) commensalism B) predation D) parasitism

4 34) A population of rodents becomes stranded on a remote island. Eventually, the population reaches the islands' carrying capacity. At this point, the birth and death rates are A) relatively equal. B) crashing. C) density independent D) density dependent E) Alex Sciortino 35) Which statement best describes the population growth of these fish shown in the graph? A) The populations stopped growing because the fish stopped reproducing. B) the population stopped growing because this species of fish lives less than one year. C) the population grew until disease caused the population to level off. D) The population grew until it reached the pond's carrying capacity. 36) Species have different types of relationships with each other, including competition, predation, and symbiosis. These relationships can best be summarized as A) ecological equivalents. C) ecosystems B) commensalisms. D) community interactions. 37) CO2 is important in our atmosphere because it is required for photosynthesis and it traps some heat, keeping Earth warm. However, human produced CO2 is a problem because A) leads to higher global temperatures. C) adds too much CO2 to the oceans. B) disrupts the natural cycling of other greenhouse gases. D) causes uncontrolled photosynthesis. 38) Birds and snakes share a common ancestor from over 250 million years ago, but now they show many physical differences. These differences are most directly the result of A) coevolution between species. C) the long-term accumulation of mutations. B) molecular clocks ticking at different rates. D) differences in the alleles of the ancestor. 39) In the past 150 years, the classification of life has changed through the addition and restructuring of kingdoms and domains. This system is always changing because A) scientific study keeps producing more data. C) extinctions change evolutionary relationships. B) evolution keeps producing unique organisms. D) humans increase the rate of speciation. 40) Scientists isolate this organism from marsh water. Based on this illustration, the organism would most likely be classified as A) protist C) plant B) bacterium. D) fungus 41) Mammals are multicellular organisms with about 3 billion base pairs in their genome. Yeasts are single-celled organisms with about 13 million base pairs in their genome. Both of these groups are classified as eukaryotes because they A) have over one million base pairs. B) can reproduce sexually. C) utilize aerobic respiration D) have a similar basic cellular structure. 42) Scientists notice very few differences in the DNA sequences of individual cheetahs. This indicates that modern cheetahs likely descended from only a few individuals because A) smaller populations have less genetic variation B) genetically different individuals are less fit. C) the mutation rate depends on population size. D) mutations do not affect small populations. 43) The main reason why viruses are not considered to be living things is that they do not A) die when exposed to antibiotics. C) contain a nucleus. B) reproduce on their own. D) undergo meiosis before replication.

5 44) Many insects, such as mosquitoes, breed faster as temperatures increase. This suggests that higher temperatures caused by global warming could result in A) an increase in the incidence of infectious diseases. B) a decrease in the diversity of insect species. C) an increase in antibiotic use in tropical countries. D) a decrease in the number of predators that eat mosquitoes. 45) What item does trna transfer? A) anticodons from the ribosomes B) the recipe for grandma s chocolate chip cookies C) the genetic code that, when translated, forms proteins D) amino acids from the cytoplasm 46) How many amino acids would result from this DNA sequence? ATCAGTGAT A) 2 C) 6 B) 3 D) 12 47) The diagram represents the cellular processes of transcription and translation. What word best replaces X in the last bubble? A) Replication B) Glucose C) Protein D) Molecule 48) Which of the following is the step in which trna is sent out to collect the correct amino acids A) Transcription B) Translation C) mrna D) DNA replication 49) Which of the following is the step in which a segment of DNA is copied into messenger RNA and leaves the nucleus. A) Transcription B) Translation C) mrna D) DNA replication 50) Where in the cell does translation occur? A) The nucleus at a polymerase enzyme B) The cell membrane at a protein channel C) The cytoplasm at the mitochondria D) The cytoplasm at the ribosome 51) What is the term for a chain of amino acids linked by a peptide bond? A) Protein B) Codon C) Anti-codon D) Polysaccharide 52) Which of the following RNA sequences is complementary to the base sequence ACCGTAT? A) GUUACGC B) UCCGUAU C) UGGCAUA D) CAAUGCG

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