Anatomy &Physiology I

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1 Collin College BIOL 2401 Anatomy &Physiology I Why Study Anatomy & Physiology?! You are Entering a medically-related profession.! Planning a career in a biological field.! The course is a requirement for your future career. 1

2 Advantages of this course?! The demand for people educated in Biology and Health Related Aspects is increasing.! Why?! Ageing population with varieties of illnesses! More active population and corresponding injuries! Increased need for skilled personnel capable of handling more complex instrumentation! Ageing nursing population! Today, fully 75% of all hospital vacancies are for nurses.! More than 40% of the current nursing workforce is over 50 years old Advantages of this course? Projected growth in Allied Health 2

3 Advantages of this course?! This course is a step in preparing people for such future careers such as Nursing, Dental Hygiene, Kinesiotherapy, Graduate school,..! The other advantage is.. You own a human body What to Expect for this Course?! This is a tough course. You cannot afford to snooze or take a day off.! A science class generally requires 2-3 hrs study time outside of class for each hour in class.! Example : each day you are in class ~ 3hrs you thus need to study 6-7 hrs after class. 3

4 How to Study Anatomy & Physiology? Actively Study each day! (reading is not studying) Manage your time well, create a daily study routine and stick to it. Keep an organized note book, write summaries of what you learned and what you do not understand The best way to memorize it to write and re-write; there is a certain connection between using a pen and your cerebral memory banks Learn the anatomy/physiology terminology now; if a term in unclear, look up its meaning. How to Study Anatomy & Physiology? Actively Study each day! ( reading is not studying) Create a daily study routine and stick to it. Keep an organized note book, write summaries of what you learned and what you do not understand The best way to memorize it to write and re-write; there is a certain connection between using a pen and your cerebral memory banks Learn the anatomy/physiology terminology now; if a term in unclear, look up the meaning. 4

5 1/15/18 Concepts of Anatomy & Physiology Anatomy " The study of structure " Topics include " " " " Gross Anatomy Microscopic Anatomy/Histology Developmental Anatomy Radiographic Anatomy Gross Anatomy 5

6 RadioGraphic Anatomy Concepts of Anatomy & Physiology Physiology " The study of function. " Physiology strives to understand how the body works and how organs integrate. " Includes molecular and cellular events (cell physiology), organ physiology, patho - physiology The essence of physiology is to reveal the dynamics of organismal life! 6

7 Anatomy Physiology In ALL fields, the study of function is impossible without knowledge of the structure of the parts involved. Function requires knowledge of structure Structure provides clues to function Anatomy Physiology 7

8 Anatomy Physiology Anatomy and Physiology can be studied separately. HOWEVER one can only come to a complete and integral understanding of a biological system by studying both branches together. Function cannot be completely separated from structural aspects nor do structures stand isolated without function. Themes in Physiology " Many phenomena of life can be described in terms of chemical and physical laws " The smallest unit of life is the cell " Certain fundamental features of cell function are shared by virtually all cells " The body s various coordinated functions results from the precise control and integration of specific cellular activities 8

9 Themes in Physiology " Simple examples of applied physical laws Δ Force Δ Voltage Flow = Current = Resistance Resistance Δ = difference in Blood flow = Air flow = Δ Blood Pressure Arterial Resistance Δ Air pressure Bronchiole Resistance Understanding A&P Requires knowledge of Cell biology Includes Cell Chemistry and Metabolism " Atoms, molecules, ions, ph " Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids " Enzyme actions, metabolic pathways " Protein Synthesis " Membrane structure and dynamics " Gene Expression and Regulation 9

10 Understanding Patho-Physiology Patho-physiology refers to diseased physiology abnormalities in the physiology. It requires knowledge of normal physiology and additional factors such as nutrition, genetics, immunology,.. Most abnormal events can be traced back to cellular events since the cell is the basic unit of life and the starting point for differentiation in tissues, organs and organ systems There is thus a certain hierarchy and organization in organisms. Hierarchy of the Body Chemical/Molecular Cellular Organism Tissue Organ Organ System 10

11 Levels of Structural Organization 2 Smooth muscle cell Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Molecules Atoms 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. 3 Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. 4 Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Cardiovascular system Heart Blood vessel (organ) Blood vessels 5 Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. 6 Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems. Figure 1.1 Organ Systems of the Human Body " The human body can be divided into 11 organ system " These organ system are composed of several kinds of cells, tissues and organs. " Each organ system has its own specialized function. " All organ system work interdependently and are interconnected. " All organ system work interdependently and are interconnected. 11

12 1/15/18 Integumentary System Organ Systems Integumentary Forms the external body covering Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D Nervous Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves Is the fast-acting control system of the body Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands Organ Systems Skeletal Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments Protects and supports body organs Provides the framework for muscles Site of blood cell formation Stores minerals Muscular Composed of muscles and tendons Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression Maintains posture and produces heat 12

13 Endocrine System Composed of all the cells and glands that secrete hormones. Hormones are are transported by the blood and have effects on certain target tissues. They regulate a variety of functions such as growth, metabolism, reproduction, electrolyte balance, CardioVascular System Composed of the heart and blood vessels The heart pumps blood The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body Important for transport of gases, nutrients, waste products, defense mechanisms,. 13

14 1/15/18 Organ Systems Lymphatic/Immune Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream Houses white blood cells involved with immunity Respiratory Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Organ Systems Digestive Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, and liver Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces Urinary Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body Regulates water, electrolyte, and ph balance of the blood 14

15 Reproductive System Male Composed of prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and ductus deferens Main function is the production of offspring Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract Female Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina Main function is the production of offspring Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones Remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus Mammary glands produce milk to nourish the newborn 15

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