1 CHAPTER 32 INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL EVOLUTION Section A: What is an animal? 1. Structure, nutrition, and life history define animals 2. The animal kingdom probably evolved from a colonial, flagellated protist 3. Some animals can do some amazing things. And then this
3 1. Structure, nutrition and life history define animals Five criteria, when taken together, create a reasonable definition. (1) Animals are all multicellular, all heterotrophic eukaryotes.
4 (2) Animal cells lack cell walls that provide structural supports for plants and fungi. The multicellular bodies of animals are held together with extracellular proteins, especially collagen. In addition, other structural proteins create several types of intercellular junctions, including tight junctions, desmosomes, and gap junctions, that hold tissues together. (3) Animals have two unique types of tissues: nervous tissue for impulse conduction and muscle tissue for movement.
5 (4) Most animals reproduce sexually, with the diploid stage usually dominating the life cycle. In most species, a small flagellated sperm fertilizes a larger, nonmotile egg. The zygote undergoes cleavage, a succession of mitotic cell divisions, leading to the formation of a multicellular animal. Fig. 32.1
6 (5. Animals have Hox genes. What are they, again? Many of these Hox genes contain common modules of DNA sequences, called homeoboxes. Only animals possess genes that are both homeoboxcontaining in structure and homeotic in function. All animals, from sponges to the most complex insects and vertebrates have Hox genes, with the number of Hox genes correlated with complexity of the animal s anatomy. OK, then, how do you explain this????
7 2. Animals evolved from protists Most systematists now agree that the animal kingdom is monophyletic, meaning all animals have one common ancestor. That ancestor was most likely a colonial flagellated protist that lived over 700 million years ago in the Precambrian era. Evidence for multi-cellularity evolving?
8 One hypothesis for the origin of animals from a flagellated protist suggests that a colony of identical cells evolved into a hollow sphere. The cells of this sphere then specialized, creating two or more layers of cells. Fig. 32.3
9 Introduction Trying to classify animals is a mess. Different comparisons, like DNA vs. embryological development, suggest different versions of how the history of life has played out. Luckily for you, you can stay clear of the mess and just learn a few basics about the different solutions to the challenges of survival the evolutionary process has produced. Let s look at some of the big events in the adaptive radiation of animals from their protist ancestor.
10 Fig. 32.4
11 Fig. 32.5
12 Linked with bilateral symmetry is cephalization, the concentration of sensory equipment on the anterior end. Cephalization also includes the development of a central nervous system concentrated in the head and extending toward the tail as a longitudinal nerve cord. Animals that move actively are bilateral, such that the head end is usually first to encounter food, danger, and other stimuli. Usually this helps keep the animal out of harm s way, but no system is perfect
14 The basic organization of germ layers, concentric layers of embryonic tissue that form various tissues and organs, differs between radiata and bilateria. The radiata are said to be diploblastic because they have two germ layers. The ectoderm, covering the surface of the embryo, gives rise to the outer covering and the central nervous system. The endoderm, the innermost layer, lines the developing digestive tube, or archenteron, and gives rise to the lining of the digestive tract and the organs derived from it, such as the liver and lungs of vertebrates.
15 The bilateria are triploblastic. The third germ layer, the mesoderm lies between the endoderm and ectoderm. The mesoderm develops into the muscles and most other organs between the digestive tube and the outer covering of the animal.
16 (3) The Bilateria can be divided by the presence or absence of a body cavity (a fluid-filled space separating the digestive tract from the outer body wall) and by the structure of the body cavity. Acoelomates (the phylum Platyhelminthes) have a solid body and lack a body cavity. Fig. 32.6a
17 Coelomates are organisms with a true coelom, a fluid-filled body cavity completely lined by mesoderm. The inner and outer layers of tissue that surround the cavity connect dorsally and ventrally to form mesenteries, which suspend the internal organs. Fig. 32.6b
18 A body cavity has many adaptive functions. Its fluid cushions the internal organs, helping to prevent internal injury. The noncompressible fluid of the body cavity can function as a hydrostatic skeleton against which muscles can work. The presence of the cavity enables the internal organs to grow and move independently of the outer body wall.
19 Fig. 32.7
20 The third difference centers on the fate of the blastopore, the opening of the archenteron. In protostomes, the blastopore develops into the mouth and a second opening at the opposite end of the gastrula develops into the anus. Proto means First, and stome means the mouth. In deuterostomes, the blastopore usually develops into the anus and the mouth is derived from the secondary opening. Deutero means second. Let s watch gastrulation 1:00
21 1. Most animal phyla originated in a relatively brief span of geological time Data from molecular systematics suggest an animal origin about a billion years ago. Nearly all the major animal body plans appear in Cambrian rocks from 543 to 525 million years ago. During this relatively short time, a burst of animal origins, the Cambrian explosion, left a rich fossil assemblage. It includes the first animals with hard, mineralized skeletons
22 Much of the diversity in body form among animal phyla is associated with variations in the spatial and temporal expression of Hox genes within the embryo. A reasonable hypothesis is that the diversification of animals was associated with the evolution of the Hox regulatory genes, which led to variation in morphology during development. Biologists investigating evo-devo, the new synthesis of evolutionary biology and developmental biology, may provide insights into the Cambrian explosion.
23 Introduction All animals except sponges belong to the Eumetazoa, the animals with true tissues. The oldest eumetazoan clade is the Radiata, animals with radial symmetry and diploblastic (only ectoderm and endoderm) embryos. In fact, remember, this now is thought to be the oldest of all animal groups.
24 1. Phylum Cnidaria: Cnidarians have radial symmetry, a gastrovascular cavity, and cnidocytes The cnidarians (nigh-dare-ee-uns - hydras, jellies, sea anemones, and coral animals) have a relatively simple body construction. The basic cnidarian body plan is a sac with a central digestive compartment, the gastrovascular cavity.
25 This basic body plan has two variations: the sessile polyp and the floating medusa. The cylindrical polyps, such as hydras and sea anemones, adhere to the substratum by the aboral end and extend their tentacles, waiting for prey. Medusas (also called jellies) are flattened, mouth-down versions of polyps that move by drifting passively and by contacting their bell-shaped bodies. Fig. 33.4
26 Cnidarians are carnivores that use tentacles arranged in a ring around the mouth to capture prey and push the food into the gastrovascular chamber for digestion. Batteries of cells called cnidocytes on the tentacles defend the animal or capture prey. The cnidocytes have organelles called nematocysts evert a thread that can inject poison into the prey, or stick to or entangle the target. Watch 1:00
27 Fig. 33.5
28 Muscles and nerves exist in their simplest forms in cnidarians. Cells of the epidermis and gastrodermis have bundles of microfilaments arranged into contractile fibers. True muscle tissue appears first in triploblastic animals. When the animal closes its mouth, the gastrovascular cavity acts as a hydrostatic skeleton against which the contractile cells can work. Movements are controlled by a noncentralized nerve net associated with simple sensory receptors that are distributed radially around the body.
29 The three cnidarian classes show variations on the same body theme of polyp and medusa. Fig. 33.6
30 For one jelly, this is truly a cycle. See this amazing discovery:
31 Anemones and corals belong to the class Anthozoa. They occur only as polyps. Coral animals live as solitary or colonial forms and secrete a hard external skeleton of calcium carbonate. Each polyp generation builds on the skeletal remains of earlier generations to form skeletons that we call coral. In tropical seas, coral reefs provide habitat for a great diversity of invertebrates and fishes. Coral reefs in many parts of the world are currently being damaged by environmental changes - global warming is one suspect. Watch here 3:00 Great example of how environmental change can affect the distribution of organisms.
32 1. Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms are acoelomates with gastrovascular cavities There are about 20,000 species of flatworms living in marine, freshwater, and damp terrestrial habitats. They also include many parasitic species, such as the flukes and tapeworms. Flatworms have thin bodies, ranging in size from nearly microscopic to tapeworms over 20 m long. Flatworms and other bilaterians are triploblastic, with a middle embryonic tissue layer, mesoderm, which contributes to more complex organs and organs systems and to true muscle tissue.
33 While flatworms are structurally more complex than cnidarians or ctenophores, they are simpler than other bilaterans. Like cnidarians and ctenophores, flatworms have a gastrovascular cavity with only one opening (and tapeworms lack a digestive system entirely and absorb nutrients across their body surface). Unlike other bilaterians, flatworms lack a coelom.
34 Planarians and other flatworms lack organs specialized for gas exchange and circulation. Their flat shape places all cells close to the surrounding water, and the digestive system is highly branched to distribute food throughout the animal. Nitrogenous wastes are removed by diffusion and simple ciliated flame cells help maintain osmotic balance. Fig
35 A planarian has a head with a pair of eyespots to detect light and lateral flaps that function mainly for smell. The planarian nervous system is more complex and centralized than the nerve net of cnidarians. Planarians can learn to modify their responses to stimuli.
36 Planarians can reproduce asexually through regeneration. The parent constricts in the middle, and each half regenerates the missing end. Watch :30 Planarians can also reproduce sexually. These hermaphrodites crossfertilize.
37 The blood fluke Schistosoma infects 200 million people, leading to body pains, anemia, and dysentery. Fig
38 Tapeworms (class Cestoidea) are also parasitic. The adults live mostly in vertebrates, including humans. Suckers and hooks on the head or scolex anchor the worm in the digestive tract of the host. A long series of proglottids, sacs of sex organs, lie posterior to the scolex. Tapeworms absorb food particles from their hosts; no need for a digestive system. Watch 2:00 Fig
40 5. Phylum Mollusca The phylum Mollusca includes snails and slugs, oysters and clams, and octopuses and squids. Most mollusks are marine, though some inhabit fresh water, and some snails and slugs live on land. Mollusks are soft-bodied animals, but most are protected by a hard shell of calcium carbonate. Slugs, squids, and octopuses have reduced or lost their shells completely during their evolution.
41 Many mollusks feed by using a straplike rasping organ, a radula, to scrape up food. Watch :35 The visceral mass includes a complete, one-way digestive tract (gut) (alimentary canal), unlike sponges, cnidarians and platyhelminthes.
42 Most gastropods use their radula to graze on algae or plant material. Some species are predators. In these species, the radula is modified to bore holes in the shells of other organisms or to tear apart tough animal tissues. Seen shells with holes in them?? In the tropical marine cone snails, teeth on the radula form separate poison darts, which penetrate and stun their prey, including fishes. See here and here.
43 Lightning whelk eating a scallop
44 The class Bivalvia includes clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops. Bivalves have shells divided into two halves. The two parts are hinged at the mid-dorsal line, and powerful adductor muscles close the shell tightly to protect the animal. When the shell is open, the bivalve may extend its hatchet-shaped foot for digging or anchoring. Fig
45 Watch these scallops respond to an environmental stimulus predator juice!! Neat stuff from FSU Marine Lab.
46 Cephalopods use rapid movements to dart toward their prey which they capture with several long tentacles. Water from the excurrent siphon provides the propulsion. Squids and octopuses use beaklike jaws to bite their prey and then inject poison to immobilize the victim. A mantle covers the visceral mass, but the shell is reduced and internal in squids, missing in many octopuses, and exists externally only in nautiluses. Fig
47 Cephalopods have an active, predaceous lifestyle. Unique among mollusks, cephalopods have a closed circulatory system to facilitate the movements of gases, fuels, and wastes through the body. They have a well-developed nervous system with a complex brain and welldeveloped sense organs. This supports learning and complex behavior. Cool 1:00 and cooler 2:30
48 6. Phylum Annelida: Annelids are segmented worms All annelids ( little rings ) have segmented bodies. There are about 15,000 species ranging in length from less than 1 mm to 3 m for the giant Australian earthworm. Annelids live in the sea, most freshwater habitats, and damp soil. They are protostomes, like the mollusks.
49 The coelom of the earthworm, a typical annelid, is partitioned by septa, but the digestive tract, longitudinal blood vessels, and nerve cords penetrate the septa and run the animal s length. Fig
50 The digestive system consists of a pharynx, an esophagus, crop, gizzard, and intestine. The closed circulatory system carries blood with oxygen-carrying hemoglobin through dorsal and ventral vessels connected by segmental vessels. The dorsal vessel and five pairs of esophageal vessels act as muscular pumps to distribute blood. In each segment is a pair of excretory tubes, metanephridia, that remove wastes from the blood and coelomic fluid. Analagous to? Wastes are discharged through exterior pores.
51 A brainlike pair of cerebral ganglia lie above and in front of the pharynx. Earthworms are cross-fertilizing hermaphrodites. Two earthworms exchange sperm and then separate. The received sperm are stored while a special organ, the clitellum, secretes a mucus cocoon. As the cocoon slides along the body, it picks up eggs and stored sperm and slides off the body into the soil. Some earthworms can also reproduce asexually by fragmentation followed by regeneration.
52 The majority of leeches inhabit fresh water, but land leeches move through moist vegetation. Many leeches feed on other invertebrates, but some bloodsucking parasites feed by attaching temporarily to other animals, including humans.
53 Until this century, leeches were frequently used by physicians for bloodletting. Leeches are still used for treating bruised tissues and for stimulating the circulation of blood to fingers or toes that have been sewn back to hands or feet after accidents. Watch 2:45 Fig d
54 Introduction The primary evidence for defining the clade Ecdysozoa is data from molecular systematics. All members of this group share the phenomenon of ecdysis, the shedding of an exoskeleton outgrown by the animal. These are Nematodes and Arthropods
55 1. Phylum Nematoda Roundworms are found in most aquatic habitats, wet soil, moist tissues of plants, and the body fluids and tissues of animals. They range in length from less than 1 mm to more than a meter.
56 The cylindrical bodies of roundworms are covered with a tough exoskeleton, the cuticle. As the worm grows, it periodically sheds its old cuticle and secretes a new, larger one. Ecdysis. They have a complete digestive tract and use the fluid in their pseudocoelom to transport nutrients since they lack a circulatory system. Fig d
57 The nematodes also include many species that are important plant pests that attack roots. Other species parasitize animals. 2:10 Over 50 nematode species, including various pinworms and hookworms, parasitize humans. Trichinella spiralis causes trichinosis when the nematode worms encyst in a variety of human organs, including skeletal muscle. They are acquired by eating undercooked meat that has juvenile worms encysted in the muscle tissue. Fig b
58 2. Arthropods are segmented coelomates with exoskeletons and jointed appendages The world arthropod population has been estimated at a billion billion (10 18 ) individuals. Nearly a million arthropod species have been described - two out of every three organisms known are arthropods. This phylum is represented in nearly all habitats in the biosphere. On the criteria of species diversity, distribution, and sheer numbers, arthropods must be regarded as the most successful animal phylum.
59 The diversity and success of arthropods is largely due to three features: body segmentation, a hard exoskeleton, and jointed appendages. Groups of segments and their appendages have become specialized for a variety of functions, permitting efficient division of labor among regions. Fig
60 The body of an arthropod is completely covered by the cuticle, an exoskeleton constructed from layers of protein and chitin. The exoskeleton protects the animal and provides points of attachment for the muscles that move appendages. The exoskeleton of arthropods is strong and relatively impermeable to water. In order to grow, and mate, an arthropod must molt (ecdysis) its old exoskeleton and secrete a larger one, a process that leaves the animal temporarily vulnerable to predators and other dangers. Watch the blue crab 2:15
61 Arthropods have well-developed sense organs, including eyes for vision, olfactory receptors for smell, and antennae for touch and smell. Most sense organs are located at the anterior end of the animal, showing extensive cephalization. Arthropods have an open circulatory system in which hemolymph fluid is propelled by a heart through short arteries into sinuses (the hemocoel) surrounding tissues and organs. Hemolymph returns to the heart through valved pores. The true coelom is much reduced in most species.
62 The move onto land by several groups of arthropods (insects, millipedes, centipedes, some chelicerates, and few crustaceans) was made possible, in part, by the exoskeleton. While it initially evolved for protection and locomotion, on land the exoskeleton also solved problems of water loss because the cuticle is relatively impermeable to water, helping prevent desiccation. The firm exoskeleton also provided support when arthropods left the relative buoyancy of water.
63 Several hypotheses have been proposed for the evolution of wings. In one hypothesis, wings first evolved as extensions of the cuticle that helped the insect absorb heat and were later modified for flight. A second hypothesis argues that wings allowed animals to glide from vegetation to the ground. Alternatively, wings may have served as gills in aquatic insects. Still another hypothesis proposes that insect wings functioned for swimming before they functioned for flight.
64 The internal anatomy of an insect includes several complex organ systems. Metabolic wastes are removed from the hemolymph by Malpighian tubules, outpockets of the digestive tract. Respiration is accomplished by a branched, chitin-lined tracheal system that carries O 2 from the spiracles (openings) directly to the cells. Let s watch the Insect DVD. Regulating the spiracles (similar to how a plant does its stomata) helps control breathing and drying out.
66 Metamorphosis is central to insect development. In incomplete metamorphosis (seen in grasshoppers and some other orders), the young resemble adults but are smaller and have different body proportions. Through a series of molts, the young look more and more like adults until it reaches full size. In complete metamorphosis, larval stages specialized for eating and growing change morphology completely during the pupal stage and emerge as adults. Fig
67 Introduction At first glance, sea stars and other echinoderms would seem to have little in common with the phylum Chordata, which includes the vertebrates. However, these animals share the deuterostome characteristics of radial cleavage, development of the coelom from the archenteron, and the formation of the anus from the blastopore. These developmental features that define the Deuterostomia are supported by molecular systematics.
68 1. Phylum Echinodermata: Echinoderms have a water vascular system and secondary radial symmetry Sea stars and most other echinoderms are sessile, or slow-moving animals with pentaradial symmetry. The internal and external parts of the animal radiate from the center, often as five spokes. A thin skin covers an endoskeleton of hard calcareous plates. Most echinoderms are prickly from skeletal bumps and spines that have various functions.
69 Unique to echinoderms is the water vascular system, a network of hydraulic canals branching into extensions called tube feet. These function in locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange.
70 Sea stars (class Asteroidea) have five arms (sometimes more) radiating from a central disk. The undersides of arms have rows of tube feet. Each can act like a suction disk that is controlled by hydraulic and muscular action. Fig
71 Sea stars and some other echinoderms can regenerate lost arms and, in a few cases, even regrow an entire body from a single arm. Fig a
72 And so how about a tribute To David Attenborough
KINGDOM ANIMALIA CHARACTERISTICS EUKARYOTIC MULTICELLULAR HETEROTROPHIC (by ingestion) MOVE AT SOME POINT IN LIFE (not all - sponges are sessile) DIGEST FOOD TO GET NUTRIENTS LACK CELL WALLS CHARACTERISTICS
INVERTEBRATE DIVERSITY 1 INVERTEBRATES Animals that lack a backbone Invertebrates 2 1 ANIMAL DEVELOPMENT Meiosis Egg Sperm Zygote Adult Blastula hollow ball of cells in a developing animal Gastrula Stage
Introduction to Animal Diversity Chapter 32 Objectives List the characteristics that combine to define animals Summarize key events of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras Distinguish between the
Animal Diversity Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers Nutritional mode Ingest food and use enzymes in the body to digest Cell structure and
College Biology - Problem Drill 15: The Evolution of Animal Diversity Question No. 1 of 10 1. Which is not a feature of the phyla porifera- sponges? Question #01 (A) Most are marine animals. (B) They have
Introduction to Animals Moving Forward Quizlet Each section we cover, 1 group will go to our class on Quizlet and create 20 flash cards on the topic (/5mks) If I warn you about talking while I m talking,
Introduction to Animal Kingdom Invertebrates and Vertebrates Introduction To Animals Vertebrate animal with a backbone. Invertebrate animal without a backbone; includes more than 95% of all animal species
Animal Diversity Chapter 32 Which of these organisms are animals? Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers Animals share the same: Nutritional
Biosc 41 9/10 Announcements v Genetics review: group problem sets Groups of 3-4 Correct answer presented to class = 2 pts extra credit Incorrect attempt = 1 pt extra credit v Lecture: Animal Body Plans
What Is an Animal? Section 25.1 Typical Animal Characteristics Biology II Mrs. Michaelsen I. Characteristics of Animals A. All animals are eukaryotic, multicellular, have ways of moving to reproduce, obtain
What is an Animal? Kingdom Animalia Main Characteristics Members of the Animal Kingdom are: Eukaryotic Multicellular Heterotrophic Have cells with membranes BUT NO cell wall Animals contain specialized
Kingdom Animalia Zoology the study of animals Summary Animals are multicellular and eukaryotic. consume and digest organic materials thereby being heterotrophs. Most are motile at some time in their lives.
Chapter 32, 10 th edition Q1.Which characteristic below is shared by plants, fungi, and animals? ( Concept 32.1) A) They are multicellular eukaryotes. B) They are heterotrophs. C) Their cells are supported
Name Period Chapters 31, 32, and 33 should be considered as a single unit, and you should try to put all of them together in a single conceptual framework. Due to the scope of our course, you are likely
Characteristics of Animals Multicellular Cellular Organization What is this? Heterotrophic Adaptations CHAPTER 9 Cellular Organization 4 Major Functions of Animals Obtain food and water Sustain metabolism
Chapter 32 Introduction to Animal Diversity Welcome to Your Kingdom The animal kingdom extends far beyond humans and other animals we may encounter 1.3 million living species of animals have been identified
Chapter 32 An Introduction to Animal Diversity PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions
Classification The three-domains Bacteria Archaea Eukarya The six-kingdom system Bacteria Archaea Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia The traditional five-kingdom system Monera Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia
Classification Grouping & Identifying Living Things Classifying Living Things We put livings things into three Domains Eukarya Bacteria Archaea Which are divided into 6 Kingdoms Plant Animal Fungi Protist
Chapter 32 An Introduction to Animal Diversity PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Overview: Welcome to Your Kingdom The animal kingdom
Chapter 8-9 Intro to Animals Image from: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/index.html Zoology Definition: the scientific study of the behavior, structure, physiology, classification, and distribution
Revision Based on Chapter 25 Grade 11 Biology Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
Biology 11 The Kingdom Animalia Objectives By the end of the lesson you should be able to: Describe the 5 ways we classify animals Symmetry Germ layers Body plan Segmentation Animal Evolution Hank Video
The Evolution of Animal Diversity Dr. Stephen J. Salek Biology 130 Fayetteville State University Create your own animal? Start with a basic plant. Make the plant into a simple animal such as a worm. Consider:
Chapter 32 An Introduction to Animal Diversity PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions
23.1 Animal Characteristics EQ Although diverse, what common characteristics do all animal share? Sea Slug 23.1 Animal Characteristics Animals are the most physically diverse kingdom of organisms and all
I. Animal Diversity 1. What are some basic characteristics of the animal kingdom? What characteristics make them different from plants? - Eukaryotic, heterotrophic (we don t make our own food), we store
Chps 23-26: Animals Chps. 23-27: Animals Characteristics of kingdom Animalia: Multicellular Heterotrophic Most are motile Possess sense organs Animal Characteristics Forms of symmetry: Radial Bilateral
Biology 211 (1) Exam 2 Worksheet Chapter 33 Introduction to Animal Diversity Kingdom Animalia: 1. Approximately how many different animal species are alive on Earth currently. How many those species have
Learning Objectives The Animal Kingdom: An Introduction to Animal Diversity Chapter 29 What characters are common to most animals? Advantages and disadvantages of different environments Searching for relationships
Sponges What is the sponge s habitat Marine (few freshwater species) What level of organization do sponges have? Cell level Type of symmetry? None Type of digestive system (none, complete or incomplete)?
What Is an Animal? What characteristics do all animals have? Animals come in many shapes, forms, and sizes. Scientists estimate that there are between 1 and 2 million species of animals! Some, like whales
Chapter 32: An Overview of Animal Diversity 1. General Features of Animals 2. The History of Animals 1. General Features of Animals General Characteristics of Animals animals are multicellular eukaryotic
Animals What are they? Where did they come from? What are their evolutionary novelties? What characterizes their diversification? What synapomorphies unite Animals Multicellular Heterotrophs (Metazoans)?
Characteristics Section 4 Professor Donald McFarlane Lecture 11 Animals: Origins and Bauplans Multicellular heterotroph Cells lack cell walls Most have nerves, muscles, capacity to move at some point in
CAMPBELL BIOLOGY TENTH EDITION Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson 32 An Introduction to Animal Diversity Lecture Presentation by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick A Kingdom of Consumers
Features of the Animal Kingdom Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Even though members of the animal kingdom are incredibly diverse, animals share common features that distinguish them from organisms in other kingdoms.
1 Animal Diversity I: Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, Rotifera, Annelida Objectives: Be able to distinguish radial symmetry from bilateral symmetry. Be able to identify which of the phyla
Introduction to Animal Diversity Chapter 23.1, 23.2 and additional 1 Think of an Animal... Does your choice have hair or fur? Does it have a skeleton? Over a million species of animals described 95% have
Invertebrate What is a Cnidarian? 9000 species of jellyfishes, corals, sea anemones, hydras Mostly marine animals Radially symmetrical One body opening Two layers of cells organized into tissues with specific
Porifera Sponges The Phylum Porifera consists only of sponges, which is unique since these animals are entirely aquatic; with 98% found only in marine environments and a small percentage found in freshwater
Chapter 32 An Introduction to Animal Diversity Lecture Outline Overview: Welcome to Your Kingdom Biologists have identified 1.3 million living species of animals. Estimates of the total number of animal
Today: Exploring the Animal Kingdom Introduction to Ecology The Animal Kingdom- General Characteristics: Multicellular Heterotrophic (via ingestion) Eukaryotes Require Oxygen for aerobic respiration Reproduce
The Animals, or Metazoa Are some of the best-studied organisms Comprise over a million known species Originated c. the Cambrian (~550 MYA) Most animal phyla are marine; however, due to the diversity of
The Diversity of Animals 1: invertebrates Chapter 23 Animals are in Domain Eukarya Immediate ancestors are a type of Protista Key features Multicellular Kingdom Animalia Heterotrophic: gain energy by consuming
CHAPTER 14 3 Invertebrates SECTION Introduction to Animals BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What structures and systems perform basic life functions
Characteristics of Echinoderms Adult echinoderms have a body plan with five parts organized symmetrically around a center Does not have an anterior nor posterior end or a brain Most echinoderms are two
Learning Outcome G2 Analyse the increasing complexity of the Phylum Porifera and the Phylum Cnidaria Learning Outcome G2 Phylum Porifera & Phylum Cnidaria Student Achievement Indicators Students who have
Chapter 32: An Introduction to Animal Diversity Chapter 32: An Introduction to Animal Diversity Name Period Concept 32.1 Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from
Answer these questions before lab. 1. What kingdom do all animals fall into? a. Protist b. Animalia c. Eukarya 2. How many phyla of invertebrates are in appendix E on pages 1074-1076? a. 9 b. 7 c. 8 3.
Animals Chapters 32-35 Exam November 22, 2011 Overview of Animals Chapter 32 General Features of Animals and Evolution of the Body Plan General Features of Animals Heterotrophs Multicellular No Cell Walls
Figure 32.1 CAMPBELL BIOLOGY Figure 32.1a A Kingdom of Consumers TENTH EDITION Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson! Most animals are mobile and use traits such as strength, speed, toxins, or camouflage
The Radiata-Bilateria split Second branching in the evolutionary tree Two very important characteristics are used to distinguish between the second bifurcation of metazoans Body symmetry Germinal layers
An Introduction to the Invertebrates, Part One Phyla Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora Reference: Chapter 33.1, 33.2 Overview: Life Without a Backbone v Invertebrates are animals that lack a backbone
Delivered 2/20 and 2/22 Lecture XII Origin of Animals Dr. Kopeny Origin of Animals and Diversification of Body Plans Phylogeny of animals based on morphology Porifera Cnidaria Ctenophora Platyhelminthes
1 Animal Diversity I: Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, and Lophotrochozoa Objectives: Be able to distinguish radial symmetry from bilateral symmetry. Be able to identify which of the phyla
Lab 37 Platyhelminthes and Nematoda - Bilateral symmetry - Protostome (mouth 1 st ) development - Mesoderm present - Two groups: lophotrochozoa and edcysozoa - Body cavity may be present or absent Phylum
What is an animal? Introduction to Animals Multicellular chemoorganoheterotrophs Eukaryotes that lack cell walls and chloroplasts Have mitochondria Are motile at some point in their lives Contain collagen
1 Lecture 10: Chapter 31 Protostome Diversity 2 3 Protostomes: one of two monophyletic groups of bilaterally symmetrical, coelomate animals The other group is the Deuterostomes Differ in pattern of early
COMPARISON BETWEEN PORIFERA AND CNIDARIA Colwyn Sleep INTRODUCTION Porifera Cnidaria Porifera and Cnidaria are organisms which share similar characteristics with one another. -They are both multicellular,
Chapter 8 Key Concepts Sponges are asymmetric, sessile animals that filter food from the water circulating through their bodies. Sponges provide habitats for other animals. Cnidarians and ctenophores exhibit
INVERTEBRATES Living Things. Carme Font Casanovas 1 How many animals can you see? ant rose coral snake anemone fish grass bee Living Things. Carme Font Casanovas 2 Invertebrates There are animals without