THE CELL CYCLE & MITOSIS. Asexual Reproduction: Production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE CELL CYCLE & MITOSIS. Asexual Reproduction: Production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent."

Transcription

1 THE CELL CYCLE & MITOSIS Asexual Reproduction: Production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent. Sexual Reproduction: The fusion of two separate parent cells that produce offspring with some genetic information from each parent. Cell division functions: reproduction, growth, and repair The division of a unicellular organism reproduces an entire organism, increasing the population. Cell division is also central to the development of a multicellular organism that begins as a fertilized egg or zygote. Multicellular organisms also use cell division to repair and renew cells that die from normal wear and tear or accidents. Cell division requires the distribution of identical genetic material - DNA - to two daughter cells. What is remarkable is the accuracy with which DNA is passed along, without changing, from one generation to the next. A dividing parent cell duplicates its DNA, moves the two identical copies to opposite ends of the cell, and then splits into two daughter cells, each with the same DNA. Prokaryotic Cells Reproduce by binary fission, a type of asexual reproduction that produces identical offspring DNA is copied then the cell divides by adding a cell membrane between the DNA copies Eukaryotic Cells Chromosomes become visible and line up in the middle of the cell, then separate to send on genetic material.

2 Mitosis and Meiosis Genome A cell s entire set of genetic information, packaged as DNA, is called its genome. In prokaryotes, the genome is often a single, long, circular DNA molecule. In eukaryotes, the genome consists of several shorter, linear DNA molecules. How many in yours? A human cell must duplicate about 3 m of DNA and separate the two copies such that each daughter cell ends up with a complete genome. DNA molecules are packaged into chromosomes. Human Chromosomes Somatic Cell: Any cell other than a sperm or egg cell. Each cell has 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes. Diploid because it has 2 sets of chromosomes.

3 Human somatic cells (body cells) have 46 total chromosomes Gamete: Sex cells, sperm or egg Haploid because only has 1 set of chromosomes. Human gametes (sperm or eggs) have 23 chromosomes, half the number in a somatic cell. 22 pairs are called autosomes (not involved in determining sex) 1 pair called sex chromosomes (determines sex) X and Y chromosomes XX = girl XY = boy Chromosome Abnormalities: determined by a karyotype (photograph of chromosomes) Down syndrome : extra copy of chromosome 21 The Cell Cycle The Cell Cycle takes between 7 hours and 48 hours depending on the type of cell The longest phase of the Cell Cycle is Interphase Interphase takes up to 95 to 99% of the cell cycle time Muscle and Nerve Cells do not go through this process, considered G0, therefore if they are destroyed, they are not replaced! Interphase has three sub phases: o G1 phase ( first gap ) centered on growth (protein synthesis, respiration, etc.), Sometimes cells stop their cell cycle indefinitely during this phase (G0) o S phase ( synthesis ) when the chromosomes are copied,

4 o G2 phase ( second gap ) where the cell completes preparations for cell division (like microtubule formation), and divides (M). By late interphase, the chromosomes have been duplicated but are loosely packed. The centrosomes have been duplicated and begin to organize microtubules into an aster ( star ). The mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle alternates with the much longer interphase. The M phase includes mitosis and cytokinesis Cell Cycle Checkpoints There are 3 checkpoints to control cell division and growth 1. G1 Checkpoint: Cell Growth Decides if the cell will continue to DNA replication 2. DNA synthesis checkpoint DNA checked by repair enzymes 3. Mitosis Checkpoint Signals the beginning of growth Loss of Control: Cancer Damage to genes controlling cell cell cycle goes too fast growth is uncontrolled Mitosis Produces two identical cells through asexual reproduction Used for all cells except sex cells Creates 2 diploid cells Prophase o The chromosomes are tightly coiled, with sister chromatids joined together. o The nucleoli disappear.

5 o The mitotic spindle begins to form and appears to push the centrosomes away from each other toward opposite ends (poles) of the cell. o During prometaphase (late prophase), the nuclear envelope fragments and microtubules from the spindle interact with the chromosomes. o Microtubules from one pole attach to each chromosome at the centromere region. Metaphase o The spindle fibers push the sister chromatids until they are all arranged at the metaphase plate or equator, an imaginary plane equidistant between the poles. Anaphase o The centromeres divide, separating the sister chromatids. o Each is now pulled toward the pole to which it is attached by spindle fibers. o By the end, the two poles have identical collections of chromosomes. Telophase o Two nuclei begin to form, surrounded by the fragments of the parent s nuclear envelope. o Chromatin becomes less tightly coiled. o Cytokinesis, division of the cytoplasm, begins. Cytokinesis Cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm Cytokinesis follows mitosis. Cytokinesis in Animals: o In animals, the first sign of cytokinesis (cleavage) is the appearance of a cleavage furrow in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate. o On the inside of the cleavage furrow, a ring of actin microfilaments and the motor protein myosin form. o Contraction of the ring pinches the cell in two. o This is often referred to as the purse-string method.

6 Cytokinesis in plants o Cytokinesis in plants, which have cell walls, involves a completely different mechanism. o During telophase, vesicles from the Golgi connect at the metaphase plate, forming a cell plate. o The plate enlarges until its membranes fuse with the plasma membrane at the perimeter, with the contents of the vesicles forming new wall material in between. The frequency of cell division varies Some human cells divide frequently throughout life (skin cells), others have the ability to divide, but keep it in reserve (liver cells), and mature nerve and muscle cells do not appear to divide at all after maturity, although there is current evidence that they may under certain conditions. Cancer (tumor) cells seem to have lost such controls over their division, and divide repeatedly. Any cells in an organ can become cancerous.

The division of a unicellular organism reproduces an entire organism, increasing the population. Here s one amoeba dividing into 2.

The division of a unicellular organism reproduces an entire organism, increasing the population. Here s one amoeba dividing into 2. 1. Cell division functions in 3 things : reproduction, growth, and repair The division of a unicellular organism reproduces an entire organism, increasing the population. Here s one amoeba dividing into

More information

Benchmark Clarification for SC.912.L.16.17

Benchmark Clarification for SC.912.L.16.17 Benchmark Clarification for SC.912.L.16.17 Students will: Differentiate the process of meiosis and meiosis Describe the role of mitosis in asexual reproduction, and/or the role of meiosis in sexual reproduction,

More information

The Cell Cycle. Chapter 12

The Cell Cycle. Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle Chapter 12 Why are cells small? As cells get bigger they don t work as well WHY? Difficulties Larger Cells Have: More demands on its DNA Less efficient in moving nutrients/waste across its

More information

Fertilization of sperm and egg produces offspring

Fertilization of sperm and egg produces offspring In sexual reproduction Fertilization of sperm and egg produces offspring In asexual reproduction Offspring are produced by a single parent, without the participation of sperm and egg CONNECTIONS BETWEEN

More information

Biology Unit 6 Chromosomes and Mitosis

Biology Unit 6 Chromosomes and Mitosis Biology Unit 6 Chromosomes and Mitosis 6:1 Chromosomes DNA GENES CHROMATIN/CHROMOSOMES CHROMOSOMES/CHROMATIN are made of units called GENES. GENES are made of a compound called deoxyribonucleic acid or

More information

Cellular Division. copyright cmassengale

Cellular Division. copyright cmassengale Cellular Division 1 Cell Division All cells are derived from pre- existing cells New cells are produced for growth and to replace damaged or old cells Differs in prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes (protists,

More information

Cellular Division. copyright cmassengale

Cellular Division. copyright cmassengale Cellular Division 1 Cell Division All cells are derived from pre-existing cells New cells are produced for growth and to replace damaged or old cells Differs in prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes (protists,

More information

Unit 6 Test: The Cell Cycle

Unit 6 Test: The Cell Cycle Name Date Class Mrs. Knight Biology EHS Unit 6 Test: The Cell Cycle 1. What are the four main stages of the cell cycle (correct order)? A. G 1, S, G 0, M C. G 2, S, G 1, M B. G 1, S, G 2, M D. M, G 2,

More information

CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION. Chapter 10

CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION. Chapter 10 CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION Chapter 10 Cell division = The formation of 2 daughter cells from a single parent cell Increases ratio of surface area to volume for each cell Allows for more efficient exchange

More information

Topic 8 Mitosis & Meiosis Ch.12 & 13. The Eukaryotic Genome. The Eukaryotic Genome. The Eukaryotic Genome

Topic 8 Mitosis & Meiosis Ch.12 & 13. The Eukaryotic Genome. The Eukaryotic Genome. The Eukaryotic Genome Topic 8 Mitosis & Meiosis Ch.12 & 13 The Eukaryotic Genome pp. 244-245,268-269 Genome All of the genes in a cell. Eukaryotic cells contain their DNA in long linear pieces. In prokaryotic cells, there is

More information

Key Concepts. n Cell Cycle. n Interphase. n Mitosis. n Cytokinesis

Key Concepts. n Cell Cycle. n Interphase. n Mitosis. n Cytokinesis The Cell Cycle B-2.6: Summarize the characteristics of the cell cycle: interphase (G 1, S, G 2 ); the phases of mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase); and plant and animal cytokinesis. Key

More information

CELL REPRODUCTION NOTES

CELL REPRODUCTION NOTES CELL REPRODUCTION NOTES CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION The adult human body produces roughly cells every day. WHY DO CELLS REPRODUCE? So that the organism can and As multicellular organisms grow larger, its

More information

Cell Division: the process of copying and dividing entire cells The cell grows, prepares for division, and then divides to form new daughter cells.

Cell Division: the process of copying and dividing entire cells The cell grows, prepares for division, and then divides to form new daughter cells. Mitosis & Meiosis SC.912.L.16.17 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis and relate to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation. 1. Students will describe

More information

Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction. What is Cellular Reproduction?

Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction. What is Cellular Reproduction? Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction What is Cellular Reproduction? Answer: The division of a parent cell into two daughter cells Requirements of Each Daughter Cell: 1) Necessary genomic

More information

Cellular Reproduction = Cell Division. Passes on Genes from Cells to Cells Reproduction of Organisms

Cellular Reproduction = Cell Division. Passes on Genes from Cells to Cells Reproduction of Organisms Cellular Reproduction = Cell Division Passes on Genes from Cells to Cells Reproduction of Organisms Genes DNA Chromatin fiber Chromosomes Fig. 9.6 Genes, the segments of DNA, are part of chromatin fiber

More information

CHAPTER 12 - THE CELL CYCLE (pgs )

CHAPTER 12 - THE CELL CYCLE (pgs ) CHAPTER 12 - THE CELL CYCLE (pgs. 228-245) CHAPTER SEVEN TARGETS I. Describe the importance of mitosis in single-celled and multi-cellular organisms. II. Explain the organization of DNA molecules and their

More information

Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction Chapter 11: Cellular Reproduction What is Cellular Reproduction? Answer: The division of a parent cell into two daughter cells Requirements of

More information

Cell Reproduction Review

Cell Reproduction Review Name Date Period Cell Reproduction Review Explain what is occurring in each part of the cell cycle --- G 0, G1, S, G2, and M. 1 CELL DIVISION Label all parts of each cell in the cell cycle and explain

More information

CELL REPRODUCTION VOCABULARY- CHAPTER 8 (33 words)

CELL REPRODUCTION VOCABULARY- CHAPTER 8 (33 words) CELL REPRODUCTION- CHAPTER 8 CELL REPRODUCTION VOCABULARY- CHAPTER 8 (33 words) 1. Chromosome 2. histone 3. chromatid 4. Centromere 5. chromatin 6. autosome 7. Sex chromosome 8. homologous chromosome 9.

More information

Cell Reproduction. Objectives

Cell Reproduction. Objectives Cell Reproduction Lecture 10 Objectives At the end of this series of lectures you should be able to: Define terms. Describe the functions of cellular reproduction. Compare the parent offspring relationship

More information

Anaphase, Telophase. Animal cells divide their cytoplasm by forming? Cleavage furrow. Bacteria, Paramecium, Amoeba, etc. reproduce by...

Anaphase, Telophase. Animal cells divide their cytoplasm by forming? Cleavage furrow. Bacteria, Paramecium, Amoeba, etc. reproduce by... The 4 phases of mitosis Animal cells divide their cytoplasm by forming? Bacteria, Paramecium, Amoeba, etc. reproduce by... Cell which after division is identical to the original is called a Prophase, Metaphase,

More information

Human biology Laboratory. Cell division. Lecturer Maysam A Mezher

Human biology Laboratory. Cell division. Lecturer Maysam A Mezher Human biology Laboratory Cell division Lecturer Maysam A Mezher CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE 1. During nuclear division, the DNA (as chromatin) in a Eukaryotic cell's nucleus is coiled into very tight compact

More information

Reading Assignments. A. Systems of Cell Division. Lecture Series 5 Cell Cycle & Cell Division

Reading Assignments. A. Systems of Cell Division. Lecture Series 5 Cell Cycle & Cell Division Lecture Series 5 Cell Cycle & Cell Division Reading Assignments Read Chapter 18 Cell Cycle & Cell Death Read Chapter 19 Cell Division Read Chapter 20 pages 659-672 672 only (Benefits of Sex & Meiosis sections)

More information

Lecture Series 5 Cell Cycle & Cell Division

Lecture Series 5 Cell Cycle & Cell Division Lecture Series 5 Cell Cycle & Cell Division Reading Assignments Read Chapter 18 Cell Cycle & Cell Death Read Chapter 19 Cell Division Read Chapter 20 pages 659-672 672 only (Benefits of Sex & Meiosis sections)

More information

Cell Division (Outline)

Cell Division (Outline) Cell Division (Outline) 1. Overview of purpose and roles. Comparison of prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes and relation between organelles and cell division. 2. Eukaryotic cell reproduction: asexual

More information

Cell Cycle (mitosis and meiosis) Test Review

Cell Cycle (mitosis and meiosis) Test Review Cell Cycle (mitosis and meiosis) Test Review Name: Chapter 10 1. What problems are caused when a cell becomes too large? When a cell becomes too large the cell is strained and has a hard time moving enough

More information

The Process of Cell Division. Lesson Overview. Lesson Overview The Process of Cell Division

The Process of Cell Division. Lesson Overview. Lesson Overview The Process of Cell Division Lesson Overview 10.2 The Process of Cell Division Chromosomes genetic information passed from parent to offspring is carried by chromosomes. Chromosomes enable precise DNA separation during cell division.

More information

Biology. Chapter 10 Cell Reproduction. I. Chromosomes

Biology. Chapter 10 Cell Reproduction. I. Chromosomes Biology Chapter 10 Cell Reproduction I. Chromosomes Long thin molecules that store genetic information. A. Chromosome Structure 1. Rod shaped structure composed of DNA and protein. 2. DNA is wrapped around

More information

Roles of Cell Division. Reproduction - Like begets like, more or less. Examples of Cell Numbers. Outline Cell Reproduction

Roles of Cell Division. Reproduction - Like begets like, more or less. Examples of Cell Numbers. Outline Cell Reproduction Outline Cell Reproduction 1. Overview of Cell Reproduction 2. Cell Reproduction in Prokaryotes 3. Cell Reproduction in Eukaryotes 1. Chromosomes 2. Cell Cycle 3. Mitosis and Cytokinesis 4. Sexual Life

More information

The Cellular Basis of Inheritance

The Cellular Basis of Inheritance CHAPTER 9 The Cellular Basis of Inheritance Summary of Key Concepts Concept 9.1 All cells come from cells. (pp. 180 181) Cell reproduction is an important process. Three functions of cell reproduction

More information

Cellular Reproduction

Cellular Reproduction Cellular Reproduction Ratio of Surface Area to Volume As the cell grows, its volume increases much more rapidly than the surface area. The cell might have difficulty supplying nutrients and expelling enough

More information

Meiosis. Bởi: OpenStaxCollege

Meiosis. Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Meiosis Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Sexual reproduction requires fertilization, a union of two cells from two individual organisms. If those two cells each contain one set of chromosomes, then the resulting cell

More information

Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual S Section 1: S Gamete: Haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote. S Zygote: The cell that results from the fusion of gametes

More information

Mitosis & Meiosis. PPT Questions. 4. Why must each new cell get a complete copy of the original cell s DNA?

Mitosis & Meiosis. PPT Questions. 4. Why must each new cell get a complete copy of the original cell s DNA? 1. From where do new cells arise? Mitosis & Meiosis PPT Questions 2. Why does the body constantly make new cells? 3. Is cell division the same in all cells? Explain. 4. Why must each new cell get a complete

More information

KEY CONCEPT Cells have distinct phases of growth, reproduction, and normal functions.

KEY CONCEPT Cells have distinct phases of growth, reproduction, and normal functions. 5.1 10.1 The Cell Cell Growth Cycle KEY CONCEPT Cells have distinct phases of growth, reproduction, and normal functions. 5.1 10.1 The Cell Cell Growth Cycle Why must cells divide? Growth and Repair -

More information

2:1 Chromosomes DNA Genes Chromatin Chromosomes CHROMATIN: nuclear material in non-dividing cell, composed of DNA/protein in thin uncoiled strands

2:1 Chromosomes DNA Genes Chromatin Chromosomes CHROMATIN: nuclear material in non-dividing cell, composed of DNA/protein in thin uncoiled strands Human Heredity Chapter 2 Chromosomes, Mitosis, and Meiosis 2:1 Chromosomes DNA Genes Chromatin Chromosomes CHROMATIN: nuclear material in non-dividing cell, composed of DNA/protein in thin uncoiled strands

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11. Reproduction Section 1

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11. Reproduction Section 1 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11 Reproduction Section 1 Reproduction Key Idea: An individual formed by asexual reproduction is genetically identical to its parent. Asexual Reproduction In asexual

More information

Cell Division. Binary Fission, Mitosis & Meiosis 2/9/2016. Dr. Saud Alamri

Cell Division. Binary Fission, Mitosis & Meiosis 2/9/2016. Dr. Saud Alamri Cell Division Binary Fission, Mitosis & Meiosis 1 Prokaryotic cells reproduce asexually by a type of cell division called binary fission 2 Prokaryotic chromosome Division into two daughter cells Plasma

More information

Name Chapter 10: Chromosomes, Mitosis, and Meiosis Mrs. Laux Take home test #7 DUE: MONDAY, NOVEMBER 16, 2009 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Name Chapter 10: Chromosomes, Mitosis, and Meiosis Mrs. Laux Take home test #7 DUE: MONDAY, NOVEMBER 16, 2009 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. A bacterial chromosome consists of: A. a linear DNA molecule many times larger than the cell. B. a circular DNA molecule many times larger than the cell. C. a circular DNA

More information

Sexual Reproduction. The two parent cells needed for sexual reproduction are called gametes. They are formed during a process known as meiosis.

Sexual Reproduction. The two parent cells needed for sexual reproduction are called gametes. They are formed during a process known as meiosis. Sexual Reproduction Recall that asexual reproduction involves only one parent cell. This parent cell divides to produce two daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent. Sexual reproduction,

More information

3.2.2 All cells arise from other cells

3.2.2 All cells arise from other cells alevelbiology.co.uk SPECIFICATION Within multicellular organisms, not all cells retain the ability to divide. Eukaryotic cells that do retain the ability to divide show a cell cycle. DNA replication occurs

More information

Cell Division. Mitosis

Cell Division. Mitosis Cell division consists of two phases, nuclear division followed by cytokinesis. Nuclear division divides the genetic material in the nucleus, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm. There are two kinds

More information

Mitosis and Meiosis Cell growth and division

Mitosis and Meiosis Cell growth and division LIMITS TO CELL GROWTH Mitosis and Meiosis Cell growth and division The larger the cell, the more trouble the cell has moving nutrients and waste across the cell membrane. LIMITS TO CELL GROWTH 1. DNA/information

More information

BIOLOGY 111. CHAPTER 5: Chromosomes and Inheritance

BIOLOGY 111. CHAPTER 5: Chromosomes and Inheritance BIOLOGY 111 CHAPTER 5: Chromosomes and Inheritance Chromosomes and Inheritance Learning Outcomes 5.1 Differentiate between sexual and asexual reproduction in terms of the genetic variation of the offspring.

More information

Learning Objectives Chapter 8

Learning Objectives Chapter 8 Learning Objectives Chapter 8 Brief overview of prokaryotic cell replication The three main phases of eukaryotic cell division: Interphase, M phase, C phase Interphase is broken down into three sub-phases

More information

Name 8 Cell Cycle and Meiosis Test Date Study Guide You must know: The structure of the replicated chromosome. The stages of mitosis.

Name 8 Cell Cycle and Meiosis Test Date Study Guide You must know: The structure of the replicated chromosome. The stages of mitosis. Name 8 Cell Cycle and Meiosis Test Date Study Guide You must know: The structure of the replicated chromosome. The stages of mitosis. The role of kinases and cyclin in the regulation of the cell cycle.

More information

Cell Cycle and Mitosis

Cell Cycle and Mitosis Cell Cycle and Mitosis THE CELL CYCLE The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a eukaryotic cell between its formation and the moment it replicates itself. These

More information

Mitosis and Meiosis Cell growth and division

Mitosis and Meiosis Cell growth and division Mitosis and Meiosis Cell growth and division The larger the cell, the more trouble the cell has moving nutrients and waste across the cell membrane. 1. DNA/information overload As a cell increases in size,

More information

Chapter 8 Lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida

Chapter 8 Lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Chapter 8 The Continuity of Life: How Cells Reproduce Lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 8.1 Why Do Cells Divide? Cells reproduce by cell division.

More information

Cell cycle, mitosis & meiosis. Chapter 6

Cell cycle, mitosis & meiosis. Chapter 6 Cell cycle, mitosis & meiosis Chapter 6 Why do cells divide? Asexual reproduction Growth Replacement / repair Cell division: The big picture Two steps Before cells can divide, DNA needs to replicate DNA

More information

Cell Growth, Division, and Reproduction

Cell Growth, Division, and Reproduction Cell Growth, Division, and Reproduction Human Development: Mitosis and Meiosis Division of the Cell Before a cell grows too large, it divides into two new daughter cells in a process called cell division.

More information

Mitosis. Meiosis MP3. Why do cells divide? Why Do Cells Need To Divide? Vocab List Chapter 10 & 11. What has to happen before a cell divides? divides?

Mitosis. Meiosis MP3. Why do cells divide? Why Do Cells Need To Divide? Vocab List Chapter 10 & 11. What has to happen before a cell divides? divides? MP3 Vocab List Chapter 10 & 11 Mitosis Anaphase Mitosis Cell Cycle Telophase Cytokinesis Cell Division Metaphase 4 Daughter Cells Prophase Meiosis Diploid Somatic Cells Interphase Haploid Parent Cell Gametes

More information

The Cell Cycle & Cell Division

The Cell Cycle & Cell Division The Cell Cycle & Cell Division http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/2001/press.html The Cell Cycle Animated Cycle http://www.cellsalive.com/cell_cycle.htm MITOSIS Mitosis The process of cell division

More information

Answers to Review for Unit Test #3: Cellular Reproduction: Mitosis, Meiosis, Karyotypes and Non-disjunction Disorders

Answers to Review for Unit Test #3: Cellular Reproduction: Mitosis, Meiosis, Karyotypes and Non-disjunction Disorders Answers to Review for Unit Test #3: Cellular Reproduction: Mitosis, Meiosis, Karyotypes and Non-disjunction Disorders 1. Clearly explain the difference between the following: a) chromosomes and chromatin

More information

Cell Division. Mitosis 11/8/2016

Cell Division. Mitosis 11/8/2016 Cell division consists of two phases, nuclear division followed by cytokinesis. Nuclear division divides the genetic material in the nucleus, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm. There are two kinds

More information

Essential Knowledge: In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis OR

Essential Knowledge: In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis OR Essential Knowledge: In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis OR meiosis plus fertilization Objective: You will be able

More information

AP Biology. Biology is the only subject in which multiplication is the same thing as division. The Cell Cycle: Cell Growth, Cell Division

AP Biology. Biology is the only subject in which multiplication is the same thing as division. The Cell Cycle: Cell Growth, Cell Division QuickTime and and a TIFF TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are are needed needed to to see see this this picture. picture. Biology is the only subject in which multiplication is the same thing as division

More information

CELL REPRODUCTION. Mitotic M phase Mitosis. Chromosomes divide. Cytokinesis. Cytoplasm and cell membrane divide. Chromosomes as Packaged Genes

CELL REPRODUCTION. Mitotic M phase Mitosis. Chromosomes divide. Cytokinesis. Cytoplasm and cell membrane divide. Chromosomes as Packaged Genes CELL REPRODUCTION Kimberly Lozano Biology 490 Spring 2010 CELL CYCLE Interphase G1: Growth (1) New organelles form within the cell. S: Synthesis Cell duplicates its DNA. G2: Growth (2) Cell prepares for

More information

Biology: Life on Earth

Biology: Life on Earth Biology: Life on Earth Eighth Edition Lecture for Chapter 11 The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction Cellular Reproduction Intracellular activity between one cell division to the next is the cell

More information

Mitosis and Meiosis for AP Biology

Mitosis and Meiosis for AP Biology Mitosis and Meiosis for AP Biology by Mark Anestis Practice problems for these concepts can be found at : Cell Division Review Questions for AP Biology Mitosis During mitosis, the fourth stage of the cell

More information

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION & MEIOSIS

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION & MEIOSIS SEXUAL REPRODUCTION & MEIOSIS Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind. Offspring resemble their parents more than they do less closely related individuals of the

More information

Reproduction & Cell Types

Reproduction & Cell Types Reproduction & Cell Types TYPES OF REPRODUCTION Asexual Relies on MITOSIS All of the parent s DNA goes to the offspring Sexual Relies on MEIOSIS Used to create sex cells TYPES OF CELLS Body Cells Includes

More information

CHAPTER 12 THE CELL CYCLE. Section A: The Key Roles of Cell Division

CHAPTER 12 THE CELL CYCLE. Section A: The Key Roles of Cell Division CHAPTER 12 THE CELL CYCLE Section A: The Key Roles of Cell Division 1. Cell division functions in reproduction, growth, and repair 2. Cell division distributes identical sets of chromosomes to daughter

More information

Describe the process of cell division in prokaryotic cells. The Cell Cycle

Describe the process of cell division in prokaryotic cells. The Cell Cycle The Cell Cycle Objective # 1 In this topic we will examine the cell cycle, the series of changes that a cell goes through from one division to the next. We will pay particular attention to how the genetic

More information

Chapter 6: Cell Growth and Reproduction Lesson 6.1: The Cell Cycle and Mitosis

Chapter 6: Cell Growth and Reproduction Lesson 6.1: The Cell Cycle and Mitosis Chapter 6: Cell Growth and Reproduction Lesson 6.1: The Cell Cycle and Mitosis No matter the type of cell, all cells come from preexisting cells through the process of cell division. The cell may be the

More information

Honors Biology Test Chapter 8 Mitosis and Meiosis

Honors Biology Test Chapter 8 Mitosis and Meiosis Honors Biology Test Chapter 8 Mitosis and Meiosis 1. In mitosis, if a parent cell has 16 chromosomes, each daughter cell will have how many chromosomes? a. 64 b. 32 c. 16 d. 8 e. 4 2. Chromatids that are

More information

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Overview: Hereditary Similarity and Variation

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Overview: Hereditary Similarity and Variation Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Overview: Hereditary Similarity and Variation Living organisms Are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind Biology, 7 th Edition Neil Campbell

More information

A Few Terms: When and where do you want your cells to divide?

A Few Terms: When and where do you want your cells to divide? Today: - Lab 4 Debrief - Mitosis - Lunch -Meiosis Other: Blood Drive Today! TIME: 11:00am 1:00pm + 2:00pm 5:00pm PLACE: Baxter Events Center Thinking About Mitosis When and where do you want your cells

More information

Chapter 8. Introduction. Introduction. The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance. Cancer cells. In a healthy body, cell division allows for

Chapter 8. Introduction. Introduction. The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance. Cancer cells. In a healthy body, cell division allows for Chapter 8 The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance PowerPoint Lectures for Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Seventh Edition Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko

More information

Lecture Series 5 Cell Cycle & Cell Division

Lecture Series 5 Cell Cycle & Cell Division Lecture Series 5 Cell Cycle & Cell Division Reading Assignments Read Chapter 18 Cell Cycle & Cell Division Read Chapter 19 pages 651-663 663 only (Benefits of Sex & Meiosis sections these are in Chapter

More information

Purposes of Cell Division

Purposes of Cell Division Purposes of Cell Division Increase the number of cells for growth and repair of worn out tissues What examples in the human body can you think of? Transmit genetic information to later generations Why

More information

Mitosis and. Meiosis. Presented by Kesler Science

Mitosis and. Meiosis. Presented by Kesler Science Mitosis and Meiosis Presented by Kesler Science Essential Questions: 1. What are mitosis and meiosis? 2. What occurs at different phases in cell division? 3. How are mitosis and meiosis similar and different?

More information

gametes Gametes somatic cells diploid (2n) haploid (n)

gametes Gametes somatic cells diploid (2n) haploid (n) Overview of Meiosis Meiosis is a form of cell division that leads to the production of gametes. Gametes: egg cells and sperm cells (reproductive) -contain half the number of chromosomes of an adult body

More information

ACCELERATE ITS BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES WHICH WERE SLOWED DOWN BY MITOSIS. THE LENGTH OF THE G1 PHASE CREATES THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FAST DIVIDING

ACCELERATE ITS BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES WHICH WERE SLOWED DOWN BY MITOSIS. THE LENGTH OF THE G1 PHASE CREATES THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FAST DIVIDING CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW OF THE CELL CYCLE THE THREE STAGES OF INTERPHASE: INTERPHASE BEFORE A CELL CAN ENTER CELL DIVISION, IT NEEDS TO PREPARE ITSELF BY REPLICATING ITS GENETIC INFORMATION AND ALL OF THE

More information

Dr. Mahmood S. Choudhery, PhD, Postdoc (USA) Assistant Professor Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine King Edward Medical University

Dr. Mahmood S. Choudhery, PhD, Postdoc (USA) Assistant Professor Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine King Edward Medical University CELL DIVISION Dr. Mahmood S. Choudhery, PhD, Postdoc (USA) Assistant Professor Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine King Edward Medical University Cell Division The key roles of cell division Unicellular

More information

cycle & cell the division

cycle & cell the division the cycle & celldivision the cell cycle Most cells in an organism go through a cycle of growth, development, and division called the cell cycle. The cell cycle makes it possible for organisms to grow and

More information

Meiosis. Two distinct divisions, called meiosis I and meiosis II

Meiosis. Two distinct divisions, called meiosis I and meiosis II Meiosis A process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes to form gametes, or sex cells Two distinct divisions, called meiosis I and

More information

What is Mitosis? What is the purpose of Mitosis? Growth Repair Asexual reproduction What is the ultimate result of Mitosis?

What is Mitosis? What is the purpose of Mitosis? Growth Repair Asexual reproduction What is the ultimate result of Mitosis? Sexual Reproduction What is Mitosis? What is the purpose of Mitosis? Growth Repair Asexual reproduction What is the ultimate result of Mitosis? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1fyfdfdrymq Somatic cells

More information

Chapter 13: Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles

Chapter 13: Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13: Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles What you must know The difference between asexual and sexual reproduction. The role of meiosis and fertilization in sexually reproducing organisms. The importance

More information

The Cell Cycle and Cell Division

The Cell Cycle and Cell Division The Cell Cycle and Cell Division «The cell cycle is a regular pattern of growth, DNA replication, and cell division. The cell cycle has four main stages. «The main stages of the cell cycle are G1 (gap

More information

Cell Division. Genetic info must be copied. Each cell gets a complete copy of that info. It occurs in two main stages:

Cell Division. Genetic info must be copied. Each cell gets a complete copy of that info. It occurs in two main stages: 10-2 Cell Division Key Questions: 1)What is the role of chromosomes in cell division? 2) What are the main events of the cell cycle? 3) What events occur during each of the four phases of mitosis? 4) How

More information

CELL CYCLE, MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS NOTES

CELL CYCLE, MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS NOTES CELL CYCLE, MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS NOTES DNA - Genetic information is stored in the DNA strand in the form of genes. DNA stands for deoxyribose nucleic acid Genes located on the DNA strand 2 Types of DNA

More information

Chapter 13: Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles

Chapter 13: Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13: Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles What you must know The difference between asexual and sexual reproduction. The role of meiosis and fertilization in sexually reproducing organisms. The importance

More information

Why mitosis?

Why mitosis? Mitosis occurs only in eukaryotes. Prokaryotes (i.e., archaea and bacteria) divide via binary fission. Mitosis is the process by which the somatic cells of all multicellular organisms multiply. Somatic

More information

AP Biology Fall Semester Set 1

AP Biology Fall Semester Set 1 1. During which stage does DNA replication occur? A. Prophase B. Metaphase C. Anaphase D. none of these 2. At what phase in the cell cycle does DNA replication occur? A. G1 B. S C. G2 D. M 3. Which of

More information

Typical Life Cycle of Algae and Fungi. 5 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Typical Life Cycle of Algae and Fungi. 5 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Module 3B Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles In this module, we will examine a second type of cell division used by eukaryotic cells called meiosis. In addition, we will see how the 2 types of eukaryotic cell

More information

Mitosis & Meiosis Practice Test

Mitosis & Meiosis Practice Test Name: DO NOT WRITE ON THIS TEST Class: ALL ID: A Mitosis & Meiosis Practice Test Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make

More information

MGC New Life Christian Academy

MGC New Life Christian Academy A. Meiosis Main Idea: Meiosis produces haploid gametes. Key Concept: Asexual reproduction involves one parent and produces offspring that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent. Sexual

More information

CELL DIVISION MITOSIS & MEIOSIS

CELL DIVISION MITOSIS & MEIOSIS CELL DIVISION MITOSIS & MEIOSIS Cell Cycle 2 distinct phases S Chromosome duplication Interphase G 2 Mitotic What's the most important event of interphase? What is significant about DNA in the S and G

More information

Learning Objectives LO 3.7 The student can make predictions about natural phenomena occurring during the cell cycle. [See SP 6.4]

Learning Objectives LO 3.7 The student can make predictions about natural phenomena occurring during the cell cycle. [See SP 6.4] Big Ideas 3.A.2: In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis or meiosis plus fertilization. CHAPTER 13 MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL

More information

Biology, 7e (Campbell) Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Biology, 7e (Campbell) Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Biology, 7e (Campbell) Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter Questions 1) What is a genome? A) the complete complement of an organism's genes B) a specific sequence of polypeptides within

More information

Meiosis. Two distinct divisions, called meiosis I and meiosis II

Meiosis. Two distinct divisions, called meiosis I and meiosis II Meiosis A process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes to form gametes, or sex cells Two distinct divisions, called meiosis I and

More information

Cellular Growth & Reproduction. Biology 1B Ms. Morris

Cellular Growth & Reproduction. Biology 1B Ms. Morris Cellular Growth & Reproduction Biology 1B Ms. Morris Friday, February 7, 2014 Warm Up: Look around at the other people in the classroom. What types of variation (differences) do you see? What similarities

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Lecture Presentation by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick CAMPBELL BIOLOGY TENTH EDITION Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson Variations on a Theme Living

More information

Name: Date: Period: Cell Cycles and DNA Study Guide

Name: Date: Period: Cell Cycles and DNA Study Guide Name: Date: Period: DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) is the chemical inside the nucleus of cells that contains hereditary information. DNA is shaped like a double helix/twisted ladder. The sides of the ladder

More information

Chapter 8 The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance

Chapter 8 The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance Chapter 8 The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance PowerPoint Lectures Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Eighth Edition REECE TAYLOR SIMON DICKEY HOGAN Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko Introduction

More information

Module B Unit 5 Cell Growth and Reproduction. Mr. Mitcheltree

Module B Unit 5 Cell Growth and Reproduction. Mr. Mitcheltree Module B Unit 5 Cell Growth and Reproduction Mr. Mitcheltree DNA and Genetics - The Cell and Inheritance Gene = group of codons that code for a specific protein Allele = alternate form of a gene A dominant,

More information

What is mitosis? -Process in which a cell divides, creating TWO complete Sets of the original cell with the same EXACT genetic Material (DNA)

What is mitosis? -Process in which a cell divides, creating TWO complete Sets of the original cell with the same EXACT genetic Material (DNA) What is mitosis? -Process in which a cell divides, creating TWO complete Sets of the original cell with the same EXACT genetic Material (DNA) Cell Division Produces CLONES with the same # of chromosomes

More information

AP Biology - Cell cycle / division

AP Biology - Cell cycle / division AP Biology - Cell cycle / division Quiz Directions 1. During which stage does DNA replication occur? A. Prophase B. Metaphase C. Anaphase D. none of these 2. At what phase in the cell cycle does DNA replication

More information

Meiosis. Section 8-3

Meiosis. Section 8-3 Meiosis Section 8-3 Meiosis process of nuclear division that reduces the number of chromosomes in new cells to half the number in the original cell For example, in humans, meiosis produces haploid reproductive

More information