2 Outcomes 1. Describe mitosis in detail ( ) interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis (the cell cycle) explain the importance of maintaining chromosome number through the processes of cell and organism reproduction. ( ) Observe, identify and describe the events of the cell cycle. Include: growth, cytokinesis, chromosome behaviour.
4 Cell Cycle G1 (Gap 1)- cells carry out normal metabolic activities for day to day functions. S (Synthesis)- DNA is replicated (duplicated, copied). G2 (Gap 2)- cell prepares for cell division by doubling cell organelles.
5 Mitosis (Asexual Reproduction) A stage of the cell cycle that involves the division of the nucleus into two new nuclei that contain identical copies of the genetic information. Mitosis is divided into 4 stages based on the cellular events: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase. (PMAT) (PMAT - Please Make A Twin) If you include Interphase The Full Cell Cycle (IPMAT I ll Produce Me A Twin)
6 Functions of Mitosis 1. Growth 2. Repair regenerate damaged tissues. 3. Regeneration of entire body parts simpler organisms. 4. Maintenance of the body. Mitosis and cytokinesis occur in our body cells (aka somatic cells)
7 Stages of the Cell Cycle
8 G2 Cell prepared to divide by increasing size and number of organelles. Interphase - G1, S, G2 G1 - Normal period of growth & development for a cell. S- DNA/Chromatin becomes Synthesized or copied (replicated/duplicated)
9 Replication of Chromosomes Replication is the process of duplicating a chromosome Occurs prior to division Replicated copies are called sister chromatids Held together at centromere Occurs in Interphase 9
10 Key Features: 1. A sharp, round nucleus. 2. Any dark staining regions (nucleolus) 3. A more uniform color background for the nucleus Cells that do not divide (like neurons) are always in interphase.
11 Prophase DNA begins to shorten & thicken Now called chromatids/chromosomes Centromeres form Nuclear membrane breaks apart Spindle fibers begin to form
12 Key Features: 1. Nucleus is breaking up, not as circular. 2. The DNA becomes clumpy. Clumpy & Bumpy
13 Metaphase Sister Chromatids (Chromosomes) line up in the Middle Spindle fibers attach to the Centromere (visible)
14 Key Features: 1. Chromosomes are lined up at the Middle.
15 Anaphase Centromeres divide Spindle fibers shorten Sister chromatids separate to opposite ends of the cell.
16 Key Features: 1. The sister chromatids are being pulled apart. They look as though they are reaching for each other. (Help me sister, I don t want to go!!!)
17 Telophase Spindle fibers begin to disappear Chromosomes begin to uncoil Nuclear membrane starts to re-form For the Cell Membrane: Cell plate (plant cell) or Cleavage furrow (animal cell) becomes highly noticeable.
19 Cytokinesis (Cell Cutting) The division of the cytoplasm is know as cell cutting. This signals the end of Mitosis. After the cells membrane or wall forms a complete new barrier between the two sister cells. We would say cytokinesis has just occurred. Note: Cytokinesis is therefore not a technical stage in Mitosis/Meiosis; it is a process ends telophase.
24 Results of Mitosis Division of nucleus Nuclei are identical to each other Same number & type of chromosomes
25 Asexual Reproduction Offspring are produced from one original organism The DNA between the parent and offspring is identical Mitosis is one form of asexual reproduction Link to Curriculum appendix
26 Cellular Sexual Reproduction Meiosis
27 Sexual Reproduction A type of reproduction in which two sex cells, usually an egg and a sperm, join to form a zygote, which will develop into a new organism with a unique identity.
28 Sexual reproduction results in a great variety, or diversity, of offspring.
31 Why Do we Need Meiosis? It is the fundamental basis of sexual reproduction Two haploid (n) gametes are brought together through fertilization to form a diploid (2n) zygote 31
32 Fertilization Putting it all together 2n = 6 1n =3 32
33 Facts About Meiosis Follows normal Interphase (G 1, S, G 2 ) Two stages Meiosis I (Reduction Division) Meiosis II Know as: Original cell is diploid (2n) (full number of chromosomes) Four daughter cells produced that are haploid (n) (half the number of X-somes 33
34 More Meiosis Facts Start with 46 duplicated chromosomes (2n) After 1 division - 23 duplicated chromosomes (n) After 2nd division - 23 single chromosomes (n) Occurs in our germ cells that produce gametes 34
35 Produces gametes through gametogenesis (eggs & sperm) Occurs in the testes in males to make sperm (Spermatogenesis) Occurs in the ovaries in females ova/eggs (Oogenesis) 35
36 Meiosis Forms Haploid Gametes Meiosis must reduce the chromosome number by half Fertilization then restores the 2n number from mom from dad child meiosis reduces genetic content too much! The right number! 36
39 Interphase Same as in Mitosis. Normal life cycle functions of the cell Divided into 3 stages: G1 (Gap 1)- Growth and development S (Synthesis Phase) - DNA is duplicated G2 (Gap 2)- Organelles double in preparation for separation
40 Prophase I DNA begins to shorten & thicken Chromatin now called sister chromatids or chromosomes Centromeres form Nuclear membrane breaks apart Spindle fibers begin to form NEW from Mitosis Sister chromatids find their match (similar chromosome from your other parent) and CROSSING OVER may occur.
41 Tetrads Form in Prophase I Homologous chromosomes (each with sister chromatids) Join to form a TETRAD Called Synapsis 41
42 Homologous Chromosomes Crossing over happens in Prophase 1
43 Crossing-Over Crossing-over multiplies the already huge number of different gamete types produced by independent assortment 43
44 A Replicated Chromosome - Tetrad Gene X Homologs (same genes, different alleles) Sister Chromatids (same genes, same alleles) Homologs separate in meiosis I and therefore different alleles separate. 44
46 Metaphase I Homologous Chromosomes (AKA Tetrads two matching pairs of sister chromatids) - line up in middle of cell in HOMOLOGOUS PAIRS Centromeres attach to spindle fibers
48 Anaphase I Homologous chromosome pairs separate and move to the poles. NOTE: Sister chromatids are NOT pulled apart The sisters DO NOT separate A pair of sister chromatids move to each ends of cell
50 Telophase I May or May Not occur. BUT Cytokinesis does! If it does: Normal telophase, X-somes uncoil, nucleus appears, cell divides. No INTERPHASE i.e. there is No further replication of the DNA
52 What we have at this Point - Two new cells are created, each carrying ½ the original # of chromosomes. - These cells are now HAPLOID (n) - normal somatic cells are diploid (2n) - This means each cells now carries only one (duplicated) copy of a homologous chromosome pair.
53 The two new cells are not normally or necessarily the same. They can carry different combinations of genetic information from the parent cell or the other sister cell because of crossing over. Because the chromosome number has decreased at this point meiosis 1 is known as Reduction Division stage of meiosis.
54 Prophase II Similar to mitosis but: Starts with TWO cells instead of one Spindle fibers appear Nucleus disappears (if it reformed)»(just like Mitosis)
55 Prophase II Nuclear envelope fragments. Spindle forms. 55
56 Metaphase II Now - Duplicated sister chromatids/chromosomes line up in middle of cell Spindle fibers attach to centromeres (just like Mitosis)
57 Metaphase II Chromosomes align along equator of cell. 57
58 Anaphase II Centromere divides Sister chromatids separate & move to ends of cell Chromatids are now individual chromosomes»(just like Mitosis)
59 Equator Anaphase II Pole Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles. 59
60 Telophase II Spindle fibers disappear Nuclear membranes reform and cytokinesis takes place.»(just like Mitosis) Results in 4 NEW cells Each with ½ the original number of chromosomes and all are unique (NOT like Mitosis)
61 Telophase II Nuclear envelope assembles. Chromosomes decondense. Spindle disappears. Cytokinesis divides cell into two. 61
62 Meiosis Animation
63 In summary: Meiosis Two cells form during meiosis I with half the original number of chromosomes, then in meiosis II both of these cells divide again to separate sister chromatids. These two divisions result in four sex cells (gametes), each with one-half the original number of chromosomes as the parents cell.
64 Gametogenesis Oogenesis or Spermatogenesis 64
65 Spermatogenesis Occurs in the testes Two divisions produce 4 spermatids Spermatids mature into sperm Men produce about 250,000,000 sperm per day 65
66 Spermatogenesis Begins as a diploid (2n) germ cell called a spermatogonium. This cell enlarges and undergoes Meiosis 1 & 2 Final product is 4 haploid (n) spermatid cells. Each cell has equal amount of cytoplasm and the same number of chromosomes Spermatids then move off to the epididymis for maturation. 66
67 Spermatogenesis in the Testes Spermatid 67
68 Spermatogenesis 68
69 Oogenesis Occurs in the ovaries Immature Begins as a diploid (2n) germ cell called an oogonium and then through the two meiotic divisions will create 3 polar bodies that die and 1 healthy egg. Polar bodies die because of unequal division of cytoplasm Immature eggs at the time of birth are called locked in Prophase 1 and called Primary oocytes. 69
70 Starting at puberty, one primary oocyte is selected to mature and be ovulated as a secondary oocyte. Only if fertilization occurs will the final round of meiosis be completed. NOTE: The stages of Meiosis 1 & 2 are not continuous. 70
71 Why the unequal distribution?? To provide the ovum with sufficient nutrients to support the developing zygote in the first few days following fertilization. 71
72 Oogenesis in the Ovaries 72
74 Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis 74
75 See Page 478 in Text Make Sure you are able to describe and compare the structure differences between sperm and egg. Sizes, energy reserves, mitochondria, numbers produced, motility, and additional structures (acrosomes) 75
76 Comparison of Divisions Mitosis Meiosis Number of divisions 1 2 Number of daughter cells 2 4 Genetically identical? Yes No Chromosome # Same as parent Half of parent Where Somatic cells Germ cells When Throughout life At sexual maturity Role Growth and repair Sexual reproduction 76
Cellular Division 1 Cell Division All cells are derived from pre- existing cells New cells are produced for growth and to replace damaged or old cells Differs in prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes (protists,
Cellular Division 1 Cell Division All cells are derived from pre-existing cells New cells are produced for growth and to replace damaged or old cells Differs in prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes (protists,
Meiosis Section 8-3 Meiosis process of nuclear division that reduces the number of chromosomes in new cells to half the number in the original cell For example, in humans, meiosis produces haploid reproductive
CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION Chapter 10 Cell division = The formation of 2 daughter cells from a single parent cell Increases ratio of surface area to volume for each cell Allows for more efficient exchange
MEIOSIS MEIOSIS KEY CONCEPT Gametes have half the number of chromosomes that body cells have. MEIOSIS : CELL TYPES You have Body cells and Gametes Body cells are also called somatic cells. Germ cells develop
Biology 3201 Unit II Reproduction 14.2 How Reproductive Cells are Produced Asexual vs single parent offspring identical to parent parent passes on ALL its genes results in a clone Sexual two parents offspring
1. From where do new cells arise? Mitosis & Meiosis PPT Questions 2. Why does the body constantly make new cells? 3. Is cell division the same in all cells? Explain. 4. Why must each new cell get a complete
Biology Unit 6 Chromosomes and Mitosis 6:1 Chromosomes DNA GENES CHROMATIN/CHROMOSOMES CHROMOSOMES/CHROMATIN are made of units called GENES. GENES are made of a compound called deoxyribonucleic acid or
Reproduction & Cell Types TYPES OF REPRODUCTION Asexual Relies on MITOSIS All of the parent s DNA goes to the offspring Sexual Relies on MEIOSIS Used to create sex cells TYPES OF CELLS Body Cells Includes
Sexual Reproduction Recall that asexual reproduction involves only one parent cell. This parent cell divides to produce two daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent. Sexual reproduction,
Overview of Meiosis Meiosis is a form of cell division that leads to the production of gametes. Gametes: egg cells and sperm cells (reproductive) -contain half the number of chromosomes of an adult body
MEIOSIS You have body cells and gametes Body cells are known as somatic cells. Germ cells develop into gametes or sex cells. Germ cells are located in the ovaries and testes. Gametes are sex cells: egg
Human Heredity Chapter 2 Chromosomes, Mitosis, and Meiosis 2:1 Chromosomes DNA Genes Chromatin Chromosomes CHROMATIN: nuclear material in non-dividing cell, composed of DNA/protein in thin uncoiled strands
Cell Cycle (mitosis and meiosis) Test Review Name: Chapter 10 1. What problems are caused when a cell becomes too large? When a cell becomes too large the cell is strained and has a hard time moving enough
Biology 067 Section 14 Cell Division A. Definitions: In a human cell, a nucleus holds all the chromatin that condenses to form chromosomes when cells divide every cell in the body has the same set of chromosomes
MEIOSIS Meiosis The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the regular number of chromosomes, are produced. diploid (2n) haploid (n) (complete set of chromosomes) (half the regular number of
A. Meiosis Main Idea: Meiosis produces haploid gametes. Key Concept: Asexual reproduction involves one parent and produces offspring that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent. Sexual
Almost all human cells contain 46 chromosomes, and are diploid (2n). Q: If a sperm cell has 46 chromosomes (2n) & an egg cell has 46 chromosomes (2n), when they combine during fertilization, how many chromosomes
Mitosis and Meiosis Presented by Kesler Science Essential Questions: 1. What are mitosis and meiosis? 2. What occurs at different phases in cell division? 3. How are mitosis and meiosis similar and different?
Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Single parent produces offspring All offspring are genetically identical to one another and to parent Produces identical somatic (body) cells Sexual
Mitosis and Meiosis for AP Biology by Mark Anestis Practice problems for these concepts can be found at : Cell Division Review Questions for AP Biology Mitosis During mitosis, the fourth stage of the cell
Meiosis B-4.5 Summarize the characteristics of the phases of meiosis I and meiosis II. Key Concepts Daughter cells Diploid Haploid Zygote Gamete Meiosis I vs. Meiosis II What You Already Know This concept
MEIOSIS LAB INTRODUCTION Meiosis involves two successive nuclear divisions that produce four haploid cells. Meiosis I is the reduction division. It is this first division that reduces the chromosome number
The Cell Cycle & Cell Division http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/2001/press.html The Cell Cycle Animated Cycle http://www.cellsalive.com/cell_cycle.htm MITOSIS Mitosis The process of cell division
Name: Bio AP Lab: Cell Division B: Mitosis & Meiosis (Modified from AP Biology Investigative Labs) BACKGROUND: One of the characteristics of living things is the ability to replicate and pass on genetic
Biology Chapter 10 Cell Reproduction I. Chromosomes Long thin molecules that store genetic information. A. Chromosome Structure 1. Rod shaped structure composed of DNA and protein. 2. DNA is wrapped around
11-4 Meiosis 1 of 35 Each organism must inherit a single copy of every gene from each of its parents. Gametes are formed by a process that separates the two sets of genes so that each gamete ends up with
MEIOSIS DR. A. TARAB DEPT. OF BIOCHEMISTRY HKMU Meiosis is a special type of cell division necessary for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes such as animals, plants and fungi The number of sets of chromosomes
11.4 Meiosis Vocabulary: Homologous Diploid Haploid Meiosis Crossing-over Tetrad Key Concept: What happens during the process of meiosis? How is MEIOSIS different than mitosis? Blast from the past What
Meiosis SBI 3U Agenda 1. Lesson Learning Goals 2. Meiosis 3. Meiosis Bingo Learning Goals By the end of today s lesson, you will be able: To use proper vocabulary related to this unit, including meiosis,
9-4 Meiosis 11-4 Meiosis 1 of 35 11-4 Meiosis Each organism must inherit a single copy of every gene from each of its parents. Gametes are formed by a process that separates the two sets of genes so that
9-3 Meiosis 11-4 Meiosis 1 of 35 11-4 Meiosis Each organism must inherit a single copy of every gene from each of its parents. Gametes are formed by a process that separates the two sets of genes so that
Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual S Section 1: S Gamete: Haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote. S Zygote: The cell that results from the fusion of gametes
11.4 Chromosomes strands of DNA and protein contain the genes. genes are located in specific positions on chromosomes. Humans receive a set (23) of chromosomes from each parent. 23 chromosomes from mom
Cell division / Asexual reproduction Mitosis produces cells with same information identical daughter cells exact copies clones same amount of DNA same number of chromosomes same genetic information Asexual
Topic 8 Mitosis & Meiosis Ch.12 & 13 The Eukaryotic Genome pp. 244-245,268-269 Genome All of the genes in a cell. Eukaryotic cells contain their DNA in long linear pieces. In prokaryotic cells, there is
Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Chapter 11 1 Sexual life cycle Made up of meiosis and fertilization Diploid cells Somatic cells of adults have 2 sets of chromosomes Haploid cells Gametes (egg and sperm)
MEIOSIS Stages of Meiosis, Gametogenesis, Sex Determination, & Abnormalities. Stages and Steps of Meiosis Interphase Same as in Mitosis 3 stages G1, S, G2 DNA replication and cell growth Meiosis I Prophase
Cellular Reproduction Ratio of Surface Area to Volume As the cell grows, its volume increases much more rapidly than the surface area. The cell might have difficulty supplying nutrients and expelling enough
Mitosis & Meiosis SC.912.L.16.17 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis and relate to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation. 1. Students will describe
MEIOSIS http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer2a.htm Making gametes Remember from Chapter 1: CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS ALL LIVING THINGS REPRODUCE Planaria animation: http://www.t3.rim.or.jp/~hylas/planaria/title.htm
Sexual Cell Reproduction Chapter 17 1 The Importance of Meiosis Meiosis is a two stage cell division in which the chromosome number of the parental cell is reduced by half. Meiosis is the process by which
Intitial Question: How can the mathematically impossible become the biologically possiblenamely, a cell with 46 chromosomes splits to form tow cells each with 46 chromosomes/ This means 46 divided by 2
Meiosis Production of Chromosome Hybrids & Gametes Packet #29 Introduction Meiosis, discovered in 1883, was first observed through the fertilized egg and individual gametes, sperm and unfertilized egg,
Sexual Reproduction Science 9- Mr. Klasz Why sexual reproduction? Imagine a world where everyone was IDENTICAL. If we reproduced asexually, that would be our world Boring! Asexual Reproduction vs. Sexual
M-Phase part 2 Meiosis and Cytokinesis Meiosis: A special type of cell division that produces gametes. Cell division that occurs in sex organs. 2 successive nuclear divisions Genetic mistakes (gene and
CHAPTER 13 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from diploid to haploid
the cell cycle are these cells in? Be sure to hide the Interphase What are the two Chromatids halves of a called? By definition, which cells have ½ the total number of s? Haploid the cell cycle is this
biology 1 of 35 Do Now: Turn in mitosis worksheet Write down your homework http://www.richannel.org/collection s/2013/chromosome#/chromosome -2 http://www.richannel.org/collection s/2013/chromosome#/chromosome
BW #16 What are the phases of mitosis in order? COMPARING MITOSIS & MEIOSIS CELL DIVISION! Cell Cycle.how living things GROW!! Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase --------------- Cytokinesis
Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11 Reproduction Section 1 Reproduction Key Idea: An individual formed by asexual reproduction is genetically identical to its parent. Asexual Reproduction In asexual
Meiosis Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Sexual reproduction requires fertilization, a union of two cells from two individual organisms. If those two cells each contain one set of chromosomes, then the resulting cell
Mitosis occurs only in eukaryotes. Prokaryotes (i.e., archaea and bacteria) divide via binary fission. Mitosis is the process by which the somatic cells of all multicellular organisms multiply. Somatic
The 4 phases of mitosis Animal cells divide their cytoplasm by forming? Bacteria, Paramecium, Amoeba, etc. reproduce by... Cell which after division is identical to the original is called a Prophase, Metaphase,
Cell Reproduction Lecture 10 Objectives At the end of this series of lectures you should be able to: Define terms. Describe the functions of cellular reproduction. Compare the parent offspring relationship
Answers to Review for Unit Test #3: Cellular Reproduction: Mitosis, Meiosis, Karyotypes and Non-disjunction Disorders 1. Clearly explain the difference between the following: a) chromosomes and chromatin
11.4 THINK ABOUT IT As geneticists in the early 1900s applied Mendel s laws, they wondered where genes might be located. They expected genes to be carried on structures inside the cell, but which structures?
BIOLOGY 111 CHAPTER 5: Chromosomes and Inheritance Chromosomes and Inheritance Learning Outcomes 5.1 Differentiate between sexual and asexual reproduction in terms of the genetic variation of the offspring.
Meiosis 1of 35 Each organism must inherit a single copy of every gene from each of its parents. Gametes are formed by a process that separates the two sets of genes so that each gamete ends up with just
MEIOSIS & SEXUAL LIFE CYCLES CHAPTER 13 THE PROBLEM In mitosis, 2 diploid (2n) daughter cells are produced exactly like the parent cell. If these 2n cells united through fertilization, the result would
Section 1: produces haploid gametes. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions How does the reduction in chromosome number occur during meiosis? What are the stages of
Cell Division (Meiosis) Meiosis The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the number of chromosomes, are produced. Diploid (2n) haploid (n) Meiosis is sexual reproduction. Two divisions (meiosis
Each organism must inherit a single copy of every gene from each of its parents. Gametes are formed by a process that separates the two sets of genes so that each gamete ends up with just one set. Chromosome
LIMITS TO CELL GROWTH Mitosis and Meiosis Cell growth and division The larger the cell, the more trouble the cell has moving nutrients and waste across the cell membrane. LIMITS TO CELL GROWTH 1. DNA/information
For a species to survive, it must REPRODUCE! Ch 13 NOTES Meiosis Genetics Terminology: Autosomes Somatic cell Gamete Karyotype Homologous chromosomes Meiosis Sex chromosomes Diploid Haploid Zygote Synapsis
Cellular Reproduction MXMS 7th Grade Science What is cell division? 2 primary methods allow for cells to divide and reproduce themselves: A. Mitosis: produces identical offspring B. Meiosis: produces genetically
CHAPTER 10 : CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION K C MEENA PGT BIOLOGY KVS Cell cycle It is a series of events that takes place in a cell, leading to the formation of two daughter cells from a single mother cell.
Sexual Reproduction ( Cell Division ) - Chromosome # s somatic cells: all the cells in the body except for specialized sex cells each somatic cell has a specific # of chromosomes - ( humans have 46, 23
11.4 Question #1 What must occur in order for Mendel s principles to hold true? An organism with two parents must inherit a single copy of every gene from each parent When that organism produces gametes,
Match the stages of mitosis to their descriptions and pictures. 1. Nuclear membrane disappears and chromosomes condense 2. Nuclear membrane reappears and cells begin to fully separate Bell Ringer 02/02/15
Module B Unit 5 Cell Growth and Reproduction Mr. Mitcheltree DNA and Genetics - The Cell and Inheritance Gene = group of codons that code for a specific protein Allele = alternate form of a gene A dominant,
Asexual Reproduction: SEXUAL REPRODUCTON & MEOSS Many single-celled organisms reproduce by splitting, budding, parthenogenesis. Some multicellular organisms can reproduce asexually, produce clones (offspring
Cell Cycle and Mitosis THE CELL CYCLE The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a eukaryotic cell between its formation and the moment it replicates itself. These
The Cell Cycles Mitosis and Meiosis Essential question: How do cells reproduce and why? Objectives Section 10.1 Explain why cells divide in terms of growth and cell size Review - Types of Cell Division
CLASS XI CHAPTER 10 CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION Cell cycle It is a series of events that takes place in a cell, leading to the formation of two daughter cells from a single mother cell. Phases of cell
http://abiogenisis.deviantart.com http://commons.wikimedia.org Ascaris http://commons.wikimedia.org 1. Why don t people give birth to chickens or cats? 2. How many kids could your parents have before two
Review of Terms Haploid cells (1n) with one copy of each chromosome Diploid cells (2n) with two copies of each chromosome Somatic non-germline cells Gametes sex cells (eggs and sperm) Reductional division
REPRODUCTION 1 THE PROCESS OF LIVING THINGS CREATING OFFSPRING. Offspring are the next generation. It happens on multiple levels for multicellular organisms 2 SPECIES SURVIVAL Think back to 7th grade Organisms
What is mitosis? -Process in which a cell divides, creating TWO complete Sets of the original cell with the same EXACT genetic Material (DNA) Cell Division Produces CLONES with the same # of chromosomes
The Cell Cycle B-2.6: Summarize the characteristics of the cell cycle: interphase (G 1, S, G 2 ); the phases of mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase); and plant and animal cytokinesis. Key