Cell Reproduction Mitosis & Meiosis

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Cell Reproduction Mitosis & Meiosis"

Transcription

1 Cell Reproduction Mitosis & Meiosis

2 Outcomes 1. Describe mitosis in detail ( ) interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis (the cell cycle) explain the importance of maintaining chromosome number through the processes of cell and organism reproduction. ( ) Observe, identify and describe the events of the cell cycle. Include: growth, cytokinesis, chromosome behaviour.

3

4 Cell Cycle G1 (Gap 1)- cells carry out normal metabolic activities for day to day functions. S (Synthesis)- DNA is replicated (duplicated, copied). G2 (Gap 2)- cell prepares for cell division by doubling cell organelles.

5 Mitosis (Asexual Reproduction) A stage of the cell cycle that involves the division of the nucleus into two new nuclei that contain identical copies of the genetic information. Mitosis is divided into 4 stages based on the cellular events: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase. (PMAT) (PMAT - Please Make A Twin) If you include Interphase The Full Cell Cycle (IPMAT I ll Produce Me A Twin)

6 Functions of Mitosis 1. Growth 2. Repair regenerate damaged tissues. 3. Regeneration of entire body parts simpler organisms. 4. Maintenance of the body. Mitosis and cytokinesis occur in our body cells (aka somatic cells)

7 Stages of the Cell Cycle

8 G2 Cell prepared to divide by increasing size and number of organelles. Interphase - G1, S, G2 G1 - Normal period of growth & development for a cell. S- DNA/Chromatin becomes Synthesized or copied (replicated/duplicated)

9 Replication of Chromosomes Replication is the process of duplicating a chromosome Occurs prior to division Replicated copies are called sister chromatids Held together at centromere Occurs in Interphase 9

10 Key Features: 1. A sharp, round nucleus. 2. Any dark staining regions (nucleolus) 3. A more uniform color background for the nucleus Cells that do not divide (like neurons) are always in interphase.

11 Prophase DNA begins to shorten & thicken Now called chromatids/chromosomes Centromeres form Nuclear membrane breaks apart Spindle fibers begin to form

12 Key Features: 1. Nucleus is breaking up, not as circular. 2. The DNA becomes clumpy. Clumpy & Bumpy

13 Metaphase Sister Chromatids (Chromosomes) line up in the Middle Spindle fibers attach to the Centromere (visible)

14 Key Features: 1. Chromosomes are lined up at the Middle.

15 Anaphase Centromeres divide Spindle fibers shorten Sister chromatids separate to opposite ends of the cell.

16 Key Features: 1. The sister chromatids are being pulled apart. They look as though they are reaching for each other. (Help me sister, I don t want to go!!!)

17 Telophase Spindle fibers begin to disappear Chromosomes begin to uncoil Nuclear membrane starts to re-form For the Cell Membrane: Cell plate (plant cell) or Cleavage furrow (animal cell) becomes highly noticeable.

18

19 Cytokinesis (Cell Cutting) The division of the cytoplasm is know as cell cutting. This signals the end of Mitosis. After the cells membrane or wall forms a complete new barrier between the two sister cells. We would say cytokinesis has just occurred. Note: Cytokinesis is therefore not a technical stage in Mitosis/Meiosis; it is a process ends telophase.

20

21 Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Interphase

22

23 Mitosis Animation

24 Results of Mitosis Division of nucleus Nuclei are identical to each other Same number & type of chromosomes

25 Asexual Reproduction Offspring are produced from one original organism The DNA between the parent and offspring is identical Mitosis is one form of asexual reproduction Link to Curriculum appendix

26 Cellular Sexual Reproduction Meiosis

27 Sexual Reproduction A type of reproduction in which two sex cells, usually an egg and a sperm, join to form a zygote, which will develop into a new organism with a unique identity.

28 Sexual reproduction results in a great variety, or diversity, of offspring.

29

30

31 Why Do we Need Meiosis? It is the fundamental basis of sexual reproduction Two haploid (n) gametes are brought together through fertilization to form a diploid (2n) zygote 31

32 Fertilization Putting it all together 2n = 6 1n =3 32

33 Facts About Meiosis Follows normal Interphase (G 1, S, G 2 ) Two stages Meiosis I (Reduction Division) Meiosis II Know as: Original cell is diploid (2n) (full number of chromosomes) Four daughter cells produced that are haploid (n) (half the number of X-somes 33

34 More Meiosis Facts Start with 46 duplicated chromosomes (2n) After 1 division - 23 duplicated chromosomes (n) After 2nd division - 23 single chromosomes (n) Occurs in our germ cells that produce gametes 34

35 Produces gametes through gametogenesis (eggs & sperm) Occurs in the testes in males to make sperm (Spermatogenesis) Occurs in the ovaries in females ova/eggs (Oogenesis) 35

36 Meiosis Forms Haploid Gametes Meiosis must reduce the chromosome number by half Fertilization then restores the 2n number from mom from dad child meiosis reduces genetic content too much! The right number! 36

37

38

39 Interphase Same as in Mitosis. Normal life cycle functions of the cell Divided into 3 stages: G1 (Gap 1)- Growth and development S (Synthesis Phase) - DNA is duplicated G2 (Gap 2)- Organelles double in preparation for separation

40 Prophase I DNA begins to shorten & thicken Chromatin now called sister chromatids or chromosomes Centromeres form Nuclear membrane breaks apart Spindle fibers begin to form NEW from Mitosis Sister chromatids find their match (similar chromosome from your other parent) and CROSSING OVER may occur.

41 Tetrads Form in Prophase I Homologous chromosomes (each with sister chromatids) Join to form a TETRAD Called Synapsis 41

42 Homologous Chromosomes Crossing over happens in Prophase 1

43 Crossing-Over Crossing-over multiplies the already huge number of different gamete types produced by independent assortment 43

44 A Replicated Chromosome - Tetrad Gene X Homologs (same genes, different alleles) Sister Chromatids (same genes, same alleles) Homologs separate in meiosis I and therefore different alleles separate. 44

45

46 Metaphase I Homologous Chromosomes (AKA Tetrads two matching pairs of sister chromatids) - line up in middle of cell in HOMOLOGOUS PAIRS Centromeres attach to spindle fibers

47

48 Anaphase I Homologous chromosome pairs separate and move to the poles. NOTE: Sister chromatids are NOT pulled apart The sisters DO NOT separate A pair of sister chromatids move to each ends of cell

49

50 Telophase I May or May Not occur. BUT Cytokinesis does! If it does: Normal telophase, X-somes uncoil, nucleus appears, cell divides. No INTERPHASE i.e. there is No further replication of the DNA

51

52 What we have at this Point - Two new cells are created, each carrying ½ the original # of chromosomes. - These cells are now HAPLOID (n) - normal somatic cells are diploid (2n) - This means each cells now carries only one (duplicated) copy of a homologous chromosome pair.

53 The two new cells are not normally or necessarily the same. They can carry different combinations of genetic information from the parent cell or the other sister cell because of crossing over. Because the chromosome number has decreased at this point meiosis 1 is known as Reduction Division stage of meiosis.

54 Prophase II Similar to mitosis but: Starts with TWO cells instead of one Spindle fibers appear Nucleus disappears (if it reformed)»(just like Mitosis)

55 Prophase II Nuclear envelope fragments. Spindle forms. 55

56 Metaphase II Now - Duplicated sister chromatids/chromosomes line up in middle of cell Spindle fibers attach to centromeres (just like Mitosis)

57 Metaphase II Chromosomes align along equator of cell. 57

58 Anaphase II Centromere divides Sister chromatids separate & move to ends of cell Chromatids are now individual chromosomes»(just like Mitosis)

59 Equator Anaphase II Pole Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles. 59

60 Telophase II Spindle fibers disappear Nuclear membranes reform and cytokinesis takes place.»(just like Mitosis) Results in 4 NEW cells Each with ½ the original number of chromosomes and all are unique (NOT like Mitosis)

61 Telophase II Nuclear envelope assembles. Chromosomes decondense. Spindle disappears. Cytokinesis divides cell into two. 61

62 Meiosis Animation

63 In summary: Meiosis Two cells form during meiosis I with half the original number of chromosomes, then in meiosis II both of these cells divide again to separate sister chromatids. These two divisions result in four sex cells (gametes), each with one-half the original number of chromosomes as the parents cell.

64 Gametogenesis Oogenesis or Spermatogenesis 64

65 Spermatogenesis Occurs in the testes Two divisions produce 4 spermatids Spermatids mature into sperm Men produce about 250,000,000 sperm per day 65

66 Spermatogenesis Begins as a diploid (2n) germ cell called a spermatogonium. This cell enlarges and undergoes Meiosis 1 & 2 Final product is 4 haploid (n) spermatid cells. Each cell has equal amount of cytoplasm and the same number of chromosomes Spermatids then move off to the epididymis for maturation. 66

67 Spermatogenesis in the Testes Spermatid 67

68 Spermatogenesis 68

69 Oogenesis Occurs in the ovaries Immature Begins as a diploid (2n) germ cell called an oogonium and then through the two meiotic divisions will create 3 polar bodies that die and 1 healthy egg. Polar bodies die because of unequal division of cytoplasm Immature eggs at the time of birth are called locked in Prophase 1 and called Primary oocytes. 69

70 Starting at puberty, one primary oocyte is selected to mature and be ovulated as a secondary oocyte. Only if fertilization occurs will the final round of meiosis be completed. NOTE: The stages of Meiosis 1 & 2 are not continuous. 70

71 Why the unequal distribution?? To provide the ovum with sufficient nutrients to support the developing zygote in the first few days following fertilization. 71

72 Oogenesis in the Ovaries 72

73 73

74 Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis 74

75 See Page 478 in Text Make Sure you are able to describe and compare the structure differences between sperm and egg. Sizes, energy reserves, mitochondria, numbers produced, motility, and additional structures (acrosomes) 75

76 Comparison of Divisions Mitosis Meiosis Number of divisions 1 2 Number of daughter cells 2 4 Genetically identical? Yes No Chromosome # Same as parent Half of parent Where Somatic cells Germ cells When Throughout life At sexual maturity Role Growth and repair Sexual reproduction 76

CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION. Chapter 10

CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION. Chapter 10 CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION Chapter 10 Cell division = The formation of 2 daughter cells from a single parent cell Increases ratio of surface area to volume for each cell Allows for more efficient exchange

More information

Mitosis & Meiosis. PPT Questions. 4. Why must each new cell get a complete copy of the original cell s DNA?

Mitosis & Meiosis. PPT Questions. 4. Why must each new cell get a complete copy of the original cell s DNA? 1. From where do new cells arise? Mitosis & Meiosis PPT Questions 2. Why does the body constantly make new cells? 3. Is cell division the same in all cells? Explain. 4. Why must each new cell get a complete

More information

Sexual Reproduction. The two parent cells needed for sexual reproduction are called gametes. They are formed during a process known as meiosis.

Sexual Reproduction. The two parent cells needed for sexual reproduction are called gametes. They are formed during a process known as meiosis. Sexual Reproduction Recall that asexual reproduction involves only one parent cell. This parent cell divides to produce two daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent. Sexual reproduction,

More information

Cell Reproduction Review

Cell Reproduction Review Name Date Period Cell Reproduction Review Explain what is occurring in each part of the cell cycle --- G 0, G1, S, G2, and M. 1 CELL DIVISION Label all parts of each cell in the cell cycle and explain

More information

Biology 067 Section 14 Cell Division. A. Definitions:

Biology 067 Section 14 Cell Division. A. Definitions: Biology 067 Section 14 Cell Division A. Definitions: In a human cell, a nucleus holds all the chromatin that condenses to form chromosomes when cells divide every cell in the body has the same set of chromosomes

More information

11-4 Meiosis Meiosis. Slide 1 of 35. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

11-4 Meiosis Meiosis. Slide 1 of 35. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 11-4 Meiosis 1 of 35 Each organism must inherit a single copy of every gene from each of its parents. Gametes are formed by a process that separates the two sets of genes so that each gamete ends up with

More information

Meiosis. Two distinct divisions, called meiosis I and meiosis II

Meiosis. Two distinct divisions, called meiosis I and meiosis II Meiosis A process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes to form gametes, or sex cells Two distinct divisions, called meiosis I and

More information

Meiosis. The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the regular number of chromosomes, are produced.

Meiosis. The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the regular number of chromosomes, are produced. MEIOSIS Meiosis The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the regular number of chromosomes, are produced. diploid (2n) haploid (n) (complete set of chromosomes) (half the regular number of

More information

Meiosis B-4.5. Summarize the characteristics of the phases of meiosis I and meiosis II.

Meiosis B-4.5. Summarize the characteristics of the phases of meiosis I and meiosis II. Meiosis B-4.5 Summarize the characteristics of the phases of meiosis I and meiosis II. Key Concepts Daughter cells Diploid Haploid Zygote Gamete Meiosis I vs. Meiosis II What You Already Know This concept

More information

The Cell Cycle & Cell Division

The Cell Cycle & Cell Division The Cell Cycle & Cell Division http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/2001/press.html The Cell Cycle Animated Cycle http://www.cellsalive.com/cell_cycle.htm MITOSIS Mitosis The process of cell division

More information

MEIOSIS CELL DIVISION Chapter

MEIOSIS CELL DIVISION Chapter Section 6.1: Meiosis MEIOSIS CELL DIVISION Chapter 6.1 6.2 WHAT DETERMINES WHAT YOU LOOK LIKE? Meiosis Animation Meiosis creates 4 genetically different gametes (haploid) Mitosis creates 2 identical daughter

More information

Mitosis and. Meiosis. Presented by Kesler Science

Mitosis and. Meiosis. Presented by Kesler Science Mitosis and Meiosis Presented by Kesler Science Essential Questions: 1. What are mitosis and meiosis? 2. What occurs at different phases in cell division? 3. How are mitosis and meiosis similar and different?

More information

GENERAL SAFETY: Follow your teacher s directions. Do not work in the laboratory without your teacher s supervision.

GENERAL SAFETY: Follow your teacher s directions. Do not work in the laboratory without your teacher s supervision. Name: Bio AP Lab: Cell Division B: Mitosis & Meiosis (Modified from AP Biology Investigative Labs) BACKGROUND: One of the characteristics of living things is the ability to replicate and pass on genetic

More information

CELL GROWTH & DIVISION. Preview (Honors)

CELL GROWTH & DIVISION. Preview (Honors) CELL GROWTH & DIVISION Mitosis & Meiosis Preview (Honors) Read: Chapter 10-1 Page 256: Define ALL vocabulary Page 257: #1-10 & 14 Page 282: Define Section 11-4 vocabulary 1 Preview (Academic) Read: Chapter

More information

MEIOSIS DR. A. TARAB DEPT. OF BIOCHEMISTRY HKMU

MEIOSIS DR. A. TARAB DEPT. OF BIOCHEMISTRY HKMU MEIOSIS DR. A. TARAB DEPT. OF BIOCHEMISTRY HKMU Meiosis is a special type of cell division necessary for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes such as animals, plants and fungi The number of sets of chromosomes

More information

11.4 Meiosis. Vocabulary: Homologous Diploid Haploid Meiosis Crossing-over Tetrad

11.4 Meiosis. Vocabulary: Homologous Diploid Haploid Meiosis Crossing-over Tetrad 11.4 Meiosis Vocabulary: Homologous Diploid Haploid Meiosis Crossing-over Tetrad Key Concept: What happens during the process of meiosis? How is MEIOSIS different than mitosis? Blast from the past What

More information

Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. Chapter 11

Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. Chapter 11 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Chapter 11 1 Sexual life cycle Made up of meiosis and fertilization Diploid cells Somatic cells of adults have 2 sets of chromosomes Haploid cells Gametes (egg and sperm)

More information

CELL CYCLE, MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS NOTES

CELL CYCLE, MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS NOTES CELL CYCLE, MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS NOTES DNA - Genetic information is stored in the DNA strand in the form of genes. DNA stands for deoxyribose nucleic acid Genes located on the DNA strand 2 Types of DNA

More information

Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual S Section 1: S Gamete: Haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote. S Zygote: The cell that results from the fusion of gametes

More information

Lesson Overview Meiosis

Lesson Overview Meiosis 11.4 THINK ABOUT IT As geneticists in the early 1900s applied Mendel s laws, they wondered where genes might be located. They expected genes to be carried on structures inside the cell, but which structures?

More information

Cell Division: the process of copying and dividing entire cells The cell grows, prepares for division, and then divides to form new daughter cells.

Cell Division: the process of copying and dividing entire cells The cell grows, prepares for division, and then divides to form new daughter cells. Mitosis & Meiosis SC.912.L.16.17 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis and relate to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation. 1. Students will describe

More information

2 points: Easy - Chromosomes. 2 points: Easy - Chromosomes. 2 points: Easy - Chromosomes. 2 points: Easy - Chromosomes. 2 points: Easy - Chromosomes

2 points: Easy - Chromosomes. 2 points: Easy - Chromosomes. 2 points: Easy - Chromosomes. 2 points: Easy - Chromosomes. 2 points: Easy - Chromosomes the cell cycle are these cells in? Be sure to hide the Interphase What are the two Chromatids halves of a called? By definition, which cells have ½ the total number of s? Haploid the cell cycle is this

More information

Anaphase, Telophase. Animal cells divide their cytoplasm by forming? Cleavage furrow. Bacteria, Paramecium, Amoeba, etc. reproduce by...

Anaphase, Telophase. Animal cells divide their cytoplasm by forming? Cleavage furrow. Bacteria, Paramecium, Amoeba, etc. reproduce by... The 4 phases of mitosis Animal cells divide their cytoplasm by forming? Bacteria, Paramecium, Amoeba, etc. reproduce by... Cell which after division is identical to the original is called a Prophase, Metaphase,

More information

BW #16. What are the phases of mitosis in order?

BW #16. What are the phases of mitosis in order? BW #16 What are the phases of mitosis in order? COMPARING MITOSIS & MEIOSIS CELL DIVISION! Cell Cycle.how living things GROW!! Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase --------------- Cytokinesis

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11. Reproduction Section 1

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11. Reproduction Section 1 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11 Reproduction Section 1 Reproduction Key Idea: An individual formed by asexual reproduction is genetically identical to its parent. Asexual Reproduction In asexual

More information

Bell Ringer 02/02/15. Match the stages of mitosis to their descriptions and pictures.

Bell Ringer 02/02/15. Match the stages of mitosis to their descriptions and pictures. Match the stages of mitosis to their descriptions and pictures. 1. Nuclear membrane disappears and chromosomes condense 2. Nuclear membrane reappears and cells begin to fully separate Bell Ringer 02/02/15

More information

CHAPTER 10 : CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION K C MEENA PGT BIOLOGY KVS

CHAPTER 10 : CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION K C MEENA PGT BIOLOGY KVS CHAPTER 10 : CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION K C MEENA PGT BIOLOGY KVS Cell cycle It is a series of events that takes place in a cell, leading to the formation of two daughter cells from a single mother cell.

More information

biology Slide 1 of 35 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

biology Slide 1 of 35 End Show Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall biology 1 of 35 Why do you look a little like your mom and your dad? Why do you look a little like your grandma but your brother or sister looks a little like your grandpa? How is the way you look and

More information

CLASS XI CHAPTER 10 CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION

CLASS XI CHAPTER 10 CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION CLASS XI CHAPTER 10 CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION Cell cycle It is a series of events that takes place in a cell, leading to the formation of two daughter cells from a single mother cell. Phases of cell

More information

Gametes are the reproductive cells - the egg or the sperm. Gametes.

Gametes are the reproductive cells - the egg or the sperm. Gametes. Meiosis Meiosis is the type of cell division for that produces the cells ( ) which are also known as gametes. Two important characteristics of meiosis is that it reduces the number of chromosomes to half

More information

CELL DIVISION MITOSIS & MEIOSIS

CELL DIVISION MITOSIS & MEIOSIS CELL DIVISION MITOSIS & MEIOSIS Cell Cycle 2 distinct phases S Chromosome duplication Interphase G 2 Mitotic What's the most important event of interphase? What is significant about DNA in the S and G

More information

LAB 8 EUKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS

LAB 8 EUKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS LAB 8 EUKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS Name: Date: INTRODUCTION BINARY FISSION: Prokaryotic cells (bacteria) reproduce asexually by binary fission. Bacterial cells have a single circular chromosome,

More information

THE CELL CYCLE & MITOSIS. Asexual Reproduction: Production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent.

THE CELL CYCLE & MITOSIS. Asexual Reproduction: Production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent. THE CELL CYCLE & MITOSIS Asexual Reproduction: Production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent. Sexual Reproduction: The fusion of two separate parent cells that produce offspring with

More information

Honors Biology Test Chapter 8 Mitosis and Meiosis

Honors Biology Test Chapter 8 Mitosis and Meiosis Honors Biology Test Chapter 8 Mitosis and Meiosis 1. In mitosis, if a parent cell has 16 chromosomes, each daughter cell will have how many chromosomes? a. 64 b. 32 c. 16 d. 8 e. 4 2. Chromatids that are

More information

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction (Ch. 13)

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction (Ch. 13) Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction (Ch. 13) Cell division / Asexual reproduction Mitosis produce cells with same information identical daughter cells exact copies clones same amount of DNA same number of chromosomes

More information

Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Cell Cycle and Cell Division Cell Cycle and Cell Division Why Do Cells Divide? Reproduction Growth and Development Tissue Renewal The Cell Cycle What Structures Do Divide When The Cell Divides? 33% 33% 33% 1. DNA 2. chromosomes 3.

More information

Sexual Reproduction and Genetics

Sexual Reproduction and Genetics 10 Sexual Reproduction and Genetics section 1 Meiosis Before You Read Think about the traits that make people unique. Some people are tall, while others are short. People can have brown, blue, or green

More information

Overview. Overview: Variations on a Theme. Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes. Inheritance of Genes

Overview. Overview: Variations on a Theme. Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes. Inheritance of Genes Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Overview I. Cell Types II. Meiosis I. Meiosis I II. Meiosis II III. Genetic Variation IV. Reproduction Overview: Variations on a Theme Figure 13.1 Living organisms

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

More information

What is Meiosis? Form of nuclear division Creates FOUR haploid cells from ONE diploid cell. Two rounds of cell division=meiosis I & Meiosis II

What is Meiosis? Form of nuclear division Creates FOUR haploid cells from ONE diploid cell. Two rounds of cell division=meiosis I & Meiosis II Process of Meiosis What is Meiosis? Form of nuclear division Creates FOUR haploid cells from ONE diploid cell Diploid=2N=46 chromosomes (somatic cell) Haploid=1N=23 chromosomes (sex cells) Two rounds of

More information

CH 13 Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles

CH 13 Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles CH 13 Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles AP Biology 2005-2006 Cell division / Asexual reproduction Mitosis produce cells with same information identical daughter cells exact copies clones same amount of DNA

More information

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction 2007-2008 Turn in warm ups to basket! Prepare for your test! Get out your mitosis/meiosis foldable After the test: New vocabulary! 2/23/17 Draw and label the parts of the

More information

Cell cycle, mitosis & meiosis. Chapter 6

Cell cycle, mitosis & meiosis. Chapter 6 Cell cycle, mitosis & meiosis Chapter 6 Why do cells divide? Asexual reproduction Growth Replacement / repair Cell division: The big picture Two steps Before cells can divide, DNA needs to replicate DNA

More information

Mitosis. Meiosis MP3. Why do cells divide? Why Do Cells Need To Divide? Vocab List Chapter 10 & 11. What has to happen before a cell divides? divides?

Mitosis. Meiosis MP3. Why do cells divide? Why Do Cells Need To Divide? Vocab List Chapter 10 & 11. What has to happen before a cell divides? divides? MP3 Vocab List Chapter 10 & 11 Mitosis Anaphase Mitosis Cell Cycle Telophase Cytokinesis Cell Division Metaphase 4 Daughter Cells Prophase Meiosis Diploid Somatic Cells Interphase Haploid Parent Cell Gametes

More information

The division of a unicellular organism reproduces an entire organism, increasing the population. Here s one amoeba dividing into 2.

The division of a unicellular organism reproduces an entire organism, increasing the population. Here s one amoeba dividing into 2. 1. Cell division functions in 3 things : reproduction, growth, and repair The division of a unicellular organism reproduces an entire organism, increasing the population. Here s one amoeba dividing into

More information

MEIOSIS LAB INTRODUCTION PART I: SIMULATION OF MEIOSIS EVOLUTION. Activity #9

MEIOSIS LAB INTRODUCTION PART I: SIMULATION OF MEIOSIS EVOLUTION. Activity #9 AP BIOLOGY EVOLUTION Unit 1 Part 7 Chapter 13 Activity #9 NAME DATE PERIOD MEIOSIS LAB INTRODUCTION Meiosis involves two successive nuclear divisions that produce four haploid cells. Meiosis I is the reduction

More information

Visualizing Meiosis Poster Illustrated Teacher's Guide

Visualizing Meiosis Poster Illustrated Teacher's Guide Visualizing Meiosis Poster Illustrated Teacher's Guide #35-1140 Paper #35-1141 Laminated Background Meiosis Basics Organisms with cells that contain a nucleus are called eukaryotes. The nucleus contains

More information

The Cellular Basis of Inheritance

The Cellular Basis of Inheritance CHAPTER 9 The Cellular Basis of Inheritance Summary of Key Concepts Concept 9.1 All cells come from cells. (pp. 180 181) Cell reproduction is an important process. Three functions of cell reproduction

More information

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION & MEIOSIS

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION & MEIOSIS SEXUAL REPRODUCTION & MEIOSIS Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind. Offspring resemble their parents more than they do less closely related individuals of the

More information

Meiosis and Life Cycles - 1

Meiosis and Life Cycles - 1 Meiosis and Life Cycles - 1 We have just finished looking at the process of mitosis, a process that produces cells genetically identical to the original cell. Mitosis ensures that each cell of an organism

More information

Meiosis * OpenStax. This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0.

Meiosis * OpenStax. This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0. OpenStax-CNX module: m45466 1 Meiosis * OpenStax This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 By the end of this section, you will be able to: Abstract

More information

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction 2007-2008 Cell division / Asexual reproduction Mitosis u produce cells with same information identical daughter cells u exact copies clones u same amount of DNA same number

More information

Sexual reproduction & Meiosis

Sexual reproduction & Meiosis Sexual reproduction & Meiosis Sexual Reproduction When two parents contribute DNA to the offspring The offspring are the result of fertilization the unification of two gametes (sperm & egg) Results in

More information

Typical Life Cycle of Algae and Fungi. 5 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Typical Life Cycle of Algae and Fungi. 5 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Module 3B Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles In this module, we will examine a second type of cell division used by eukaryotic cells called meiosis. In addition, we will see how the 2 types of eukaryotic cell

More information

Cell Division THE MAJOR STEPS OF CELL DIVISION: 10/28/2013. When does DNA replicate? The first step of cell division is DNA replication:

Cell Division THE MAJOR STEPS OF CELL DIVISION: 10/28/2013. When does DNA replicate? The first step of cell division is DNA replication: Cell Division Biology 105 Laboratory 8 THE MAJOR STEPS OF CELL DIVISION: When does DNA replicate? The first step of cell division is DNA replication: This occurs just prior to cell division. Cells need

More information

Cellular Reproduction = Cell Division. Passes on Genes from Cells to Cells Reproduction of Organisms

Cellular Reproduction = Cell Division. Passes on Genes from Cells to Cells Reproduction of Organisms Cellular Reproduction = Cell Division Passes on Genes from Cells to Cells Reproduction of Organisms Genes DNA Chromatin fiber Chromosomes Fig. 9.6 Genes, the segments of DNA, are part of chromatin fiber

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

More information

Chapter 10.2 Notes. Genes don t exist free in the nucleus but lined up on a. In the body cells of animals and most plants, chromosomes occur in

Chapter 10.2 Notes. Genes don t exist free in the nucleus but lined up on a. In the body cells of animals and most plants, chromosomes occur in Chapter 10.2 Notes NAME Honors Biology Organisms have tens of thousands of genes that determine individual traits Genes don t exist free in the nucleus but lined up on a Diploid and Haploid Cells In the

More information

Chapter 2 Cells and Cell Division

Chapter 2 Cells and Cell Division Chapter 2 Cells and Cell Division MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The process of meiosis results in: A. the production of four identical cells B. no change in chromosome number from parental cells C. a doubling of

More information

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction. AP Biology

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction. AP Biology Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction Cell division / Asexual reproduction! Mitosis " produce cells with same information! identical daughter cells " exact copies! clones " same amount of DNA! same number of chromosomes!

More information

THINK ABOUT IT. Lesson Overview. Meiosis. As geneticists in the early 1900s applied Mendel s laws, they wondered where genes might be located.

THINK ABOUT IT. Lesson Overview. Meiosis. As geneticists in the early 1900s applied Mendel s laws, they wondered where genes might be located. Notes THINK ABOUT IT As geneticists in the early 1900s applied Mendel s laws, they wondered where genes might be located. They expected genes to be carried on structures inside the cell, but which structures?

More information

AP Biology Fall Semester Set 1

AP Biology Fall Semester Set 1 1. During which stage does DNA replication occur? A. Prophase B. Metaphase C. Anaphase D. none of these 2. At what phase in the cell cycle does DNA replication occur? A. G1 B. S C. G2 D. M 3. Which of

More information

Unit 2: Cellular Chemistry, Structure, and Physiology Module 5: Cellular Reproduction

Unit 2: Cellular Chemistry, Structure, and Physiology Module 5: Cellular Reproduction Unit 2: Cellular Chemistry, Structure, and Physiology Module 5: Cellular Reproduction NC Essential Standard: 1.2.2 Analyze how cells grow and reproduce in terms of interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis

More information

Cell Division. the formation of new cells. 5/19/14 lev 1cell division.ppt 1

Cell Division. the formation of new cells. 5/19/14 lev 1cell division.ppt 1 Cell Division the formation of new cells 5/19/14 lev 1cell division.ppt 1 1. Bacteria divide in a simple form of reproduction called Binary Fission.! CHROMOSOME A. Bacterium - the single circular chromosome

More information

Foldable. You need 6 pieces of printer paper. Stagger the pages about 1cm (width of pinky finger) DO NOT make the tabs too large!!!!!

Foldable. You need 6 pieces of printer paper. Stagger the pages about 1cm (width of pinky finger) DO NOT make the tabs too large!!!!! Meiosis Notes Foldable You need 6 pieces of printer paper Stagger the pages about 1cm (width of pinky finger) DO NOT make the tabs too large!!!!! Fold the stack of pages to make the foldable as diagramed

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS URRY CAIN WASSERMAN MINORSKY REECE 10 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Lecture Presentations by Kathleen Fitzpatrick and Nicole Tunbridge, Simon Fraser University SECOND EDITION

More information

= Sexual Reproduction. 2 Types of Reproduction. Key Terms Gonads- sex organs (testes, ovaries) Sexual Reproduction. What is Meiosis?

= Sexual Reproduction. 2 Types of Reproduction. Key Terms Gonads- sex organs (testes, ovaries) Sexual Reproduction. What is Meiosis? Sexual And Meiosis 2 Types of Asexual Sexual Sexual Increases survival for both plants and animals by passing genetic material within generations. Creates VARIETY in a species by the reassortment (mixing)

More information

Bellwork. Many organisms reproduce via asexual and sexual reproduction. How would we look if we reproduced mitotically?

Bellwork. Many organisms reproduce via asexual and sexual reproduction. How would we look if we reproduced mitotically? Bellwork Many organisms reproduce via asexual and sexual reproduction. How would we look if we reproduced mitotically? SC.912.L.16.17 Meiosis Functions in Sexual Reproduction Other Standards Addressed:

More information

Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction Chapter 11: Cellular Reproduction What is Cellular Reproduction? Answer: The division of a parent cell into two daughter cells Requirements of

More information

BIOLOGY. COLLEGE PHYSICS Chapter 11 MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Chapter # Chapter Title PowerPoint Image Slideshow

BIOLOGY. COLLEGE PHYSICS Chapter 11 MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Chapter # Chapter Title PowerPoint Image Slideshow BIOLOGY COLLEGE PHYSICS Chapter 11 MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Chapter # Chapter Title PowerPoint Image Slideshow CAMPBELL BIOLOGY TENTH EDITION Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson 13 Meiosis

More information

Sexual life cycle. Sexual life cycle. Fertilization. Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. Made up of meiosis and fertilization Diploid cells (2n)

Sexual life cycle. Sexual life cycle. Fertilization. Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. Made up of meiosis and fertilization Diploid cells (2n) Sexual life cycle Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Made up of meiosis and fertilization Diploid cells (2n) Chapter 11 Somatic cells of adults have 2 sets of Haploid cells (n) Gametes have only 1 set of

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

More information

Biology, 7e (Campbell) Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Biology, 7e (Campbell) Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Biology, 7e (Campbell) Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter Questions 1) What is a genome? A) the complete complement of an organism's genes B) a specific sequence of polypeptides within

More information

Mitosis, development, regeneration and cell differentiation

Mitosis, development, regeneration and cell differentiation Mitosis, development, regeneration and cell differentiation Mitosis is a type of cell division by binary fission (splitting in two) which occurs in certain eukaryotic cells. Mitosis generates new body

More information

Human Biology Chapter 13.4: Meiosis and Genetic Variation

Human Biology Chapter 13.4: Meiosis and Genetic Variation OpenStax-CNX module: m58013 1 Human Biology Chapter 13.4: Meiosis and Genetic Variation Willy Cushwa Based on Meiosis by OpenStax This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons

More information

Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction. What is Cellular Reproduction?

Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction. What is Cellular Reproduction? Chapter 11: The Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction What is Cellular Reproduction? Answer: The division of a parent cell into two daughter cells Requirements of Each Daughter Cell: 1) Necessary genomic

More information

Name Class Date. Term Definition How I m Going to Remember the Meaning

Name Class Date. Term Definition How I m Going to Remember the Meaning 11.4 Meiosis Lesson Objectives Contrast the number of chromosomes in body cells and in gametes. Summarize the events of meiosis. Contrast meiosis and mitosis. Describe how alleles from different genes

More information

Meiosis. The sexy shuffling machine. LO: Describe the events of meiosis Explain how meiosis creates uniqueness Compare & contrast mitosis & meiosis

Meiosis. The sexy shuffling machine. LO: Describe the events of meiosis Explain how meiosis creates uniqueness Compare & contrast mitosis & meiosis Meiosis The sexy shuffling machine LO: Describe the events of meiosis Explain how meiosis creates uniqueness Compare & contrast mitosis & meiosis http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kvmb4js99ta Meiosis Intro

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction. Chapter 9

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction. Chapter 9 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 9 9.1 Genes and Alleles Genes Sequences of DNA that encode heritable traits Alleles Slightly different forms of the same gene Each specifies a different version

More information

5.3 Reproduction and Meiosis

5.3 Reproduction and Meiosis 5.3 Reproduction and Meiosis Lesson Objectives Compare and contrast asexual and sexual reproduction. Give an overview of sexual reproduction, and outline the phases of meiosis. Explain why sexual reproduction

More information

The Cell Cycle. Chapter 12

The Cell Cycle. Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle Chapter 12 Why are cells small? As cells get bigger they don t work as well WHY? Difficulties Larger Cells Have: More demands on its DNA Less efficient in moving nutrients/waste across its

More information

Lecture 12 - Meiosis

Lecture 12 - Meiosis Lecture 12 - Meiosis In this lecture Types of reproduction Alternation of generations Homologous chromosomes and alleles Meiosis mechanism Sources of genetic variation Meiosis and Mitosis Mitosis the production

More information

Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycle

Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycle Chapter 13. Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycle 1 Cell reproduction Mitosis produce cells with same information identical daughter cells exact copies (clones) same amount of DNA same number of chromosomes asexual

More information

STUDY UNIT 1 MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS. Klug, Cummings & Spencer Chapter 2. Morphology of eukaryotic metaphase chromosomes. Chromatids

STUDY UNIT 1 MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS. Klug, Cummings & Spencer Chapter 2. Morphology of eukaryotic metaphase chromosomes. Chromatids STUDY UNIT 1 MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS Klug, Cummings & Spencer Chapter 2 Life depends on cell division and reproduction of organisms. Process involves transfer of genetic material. New somatic (body) cells

More information

Question 1: What is the average cell cycle span for a mammalian cell? The average cell cycle span for a mammalian cell is approximately 24 hours. Question 2: Distinguish cytokinesis from karyokinesis.

More information

LECTURE 10A: MEIO S S

LECTURE 10A: MEIO S S LECTURE 10A: MEIOSIS Meiosis Definition INTRODUCTION 1. Meiosis is the production of gametes, which is a reduction division which means a diploid gamete produces haploid gametes - from a full complement

More information

Name Chapter 10: Chromosomes, Mitosis, and Meiosis Mrs. Laux Take home test #7 DUE: MONDAY, NOVEMBER 16, 2009 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Name Chapter 10: Chromosomes, Mitosis, and Meiosis Mrs. Laux Take home test #7 DUE: MONDAY, NOVEMBER 16, 2009 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. A bacterial chromosome consists of: A. a linear DNA molecule many times larger than the cell. B. a circular DNA molecule many times larger than the cell. C. a circular DNA

More information

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction

Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction 2007-2008 Cell division / Asexual reproduction Mitosis produce cells with same information identical daughter cells exact copies clones same amount of DNA same number of chromosomes

More information

11/18/2016. Meiosis. Dr. Bertolotti. How is meiosis different from mitosis?

11/18/2016. Meiosis. Dr. Bertolotti. How is meiosis different from mitosis? Meiosis Dr. Bertolotti How is meiosis different from mitosis? 1 3 Types of Cell Division 1. Binary fission- cell division in prokaryotes 2. Cell Cycle (with Mitosis)- cell division in eukaryotes to form

More information

Cellular Growth & Reproduction. Biology 1B Ms. Morris

Cellular Growth & Reproduction. Biology 1B Ms. Morris Cellular Growth & Reproduction Biology 1B Ms. Morris Friday, February 7, 2014 Warm Up: Look around at the other people in the classroom. What types of variation (differences) do you see? What similarities

More information

Homologous Chromosomes and Chromatids How many chromatids in a pair of duplicated homologous chromosomes? (instant math question) Meiosis

Homologous Chromosomes and Chromatids How many chromatids in a pair of duplicated homologous chromosomes? (instant math question) Meiosis 10.1 Meiosis Meiosis Section 10.1 ody ells & Gametes somatic = body do NOT pass on N to offspring 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) gametes = sex eggs (females) and sperm (males) pass on N to offspring 23 chromosomes,

More information

10.1 Cell Growth, Division, and Reproduction

10.1 Cell Growth, Division, and Reproduction 10.1 Cell Growth, Division, and Reproduction Lesson Objectives Explain the problems that growth causes for cells. Compare asexual and sexual reproduction. Lesson Summary Limits to Cell Size There are two

More information

2. is the period of growth and development for a cell. 3. During interphase, most cells go through three stages rapid growth and

2. is the period of growth and development for a cell. 3. During interphase, most cells go through three stages rapid growth and Chapter 5 Lesson 1- General Lesson Outline Directions: Use the words below to fill in the outline of the text from lesson one. If the word is used more than once, it is followed by the number of times

More information

Cell division / Asexual reproduction

Cell division / Asexual reproduction Meiosis Ch. 13 Cell division / Asexual reproduction Mitosis produce cells with same information identical daughter cells exact copies clones same amount of DNA same number of chromosomes same genetic information

More information

Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Cell Cycle and Cell Division Cell Cycle and Cell Division The Cell Cycle is the series of events that take place in the cell from one cell division to another. Cell Cycle includes: 1-Interphase 2-Mitosis 3-Cytokinesis Phases of the

More information

MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS STUDY GUIDE CREATED BY : Alistaire Rauch (Mr. Galego s Class) Definition of Mitosis and Meiosis (Basic):

MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS STUDY GUIDE CREATED BY : Alistaire Rauch (Mr. Galego s Class) Definition of Mitosis and Meiosis (Basic): MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS STUDY GUIDE CREATED BY : Alistaire Rauch (Mr. Galego s Class) Definition of Mitosis and Meiosis (Basic): Mitosis and Meiosis are basically cycles of cells but they are different in

More information

1. CHROMOSOMES AND MEIOSIS

1. CHROMOSOMES AND MEIOSIS Meiosis and Mendel Answer Key SECTION 1. CHROMOSOMES AND MEIOSIS 1. somatic/body cells; germ cells/gametes 2. in the reproductive organs; ovaries and testes 3. 46 4. mother 5. father 6. autosomes 7. X

More information