2 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 2 CLASSIFICATION: Domain: Bacteria Group: Proteobacteria Group: Chlamydias Group: Spirochetes Group: Cyanobacteria Group: Gram-Positive Bacteria Domain: Archaea Group: Methanogens Group: Halophiles Group: Thermophiles Viruses Station 1 Prokaryotic Cells 1. What general characteristics and structures are found in the clade Prokaryotes? 2. When did the first prokaryote appear in the fossil record? 3. What form did the fossil Prokaryote take? 4. How long were prokaryotes on earth by themselves? 5. Where are prokaryotes found? 6. Be able to label the diagram below.
3 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 3 Station 2 Bacterial Shapes Be able to identify the following shapes: Coccus, Bacillus, Helical and Filamentous Use the slide of Streptococcus lactis (in a chain) to become familiar with this shape. Streptococcus lactis Clostridium tetani Spirillum volutans Oscillatoria sp. Station 3 Gram Stain (Gram Positive and Gram Negative) Be able to recognize the difference between a slide that is gram-positive and one that is gram-negative. 1. What do cell walls of prokaryotes contain? 2. What is the structure of the cell wall in gram-positive bacteria? What color does it Gram Stain? 3. What is the structure of the cell wall in gram-negative bacteria? What color does it Gram Stain?
4 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 4 Station 4 Bacterial Colonies When growing on a nutrient medium which has been hardened with agar (a derivative of red algae), each species of bacteria will form a characteristic colony that can be identified. A colony is a cluster of millions of bacteria. Observe the Petri dishes that have been contaminated with bacteria. Note the colonies vary in size, shape and color. They usually have a smooth or glossy surface, unlike mold (fungi) colonies, which have a fluffy, cottony, or filamentous appearance. Their height, edges or color may identify colonies. Be able to recognize that these are bacterial colonies. You will not be asked to know the different terms on the station card (round, wavy, wrinkled, etc.) or the type of bacteria colony. Station 5 Bacteria and Antibiotics Observe the Petri dishes that contain antibiotic discs. Antibiotics are used to treat infections because they inhibit growth of the bacterial colony. Each disc contains a different antibiotic. A clear area denotes the inhibition of bacterial growth. You will not be asked to recognize any specific antibiotic and how it works on any specific bacteria. 1. What characteristics allow antibiotics to work on bacterial cells but do not affect eukaryotic cells? 2. Do the same antibiotics work differently on different colonies of bacteria? 3. How does this affect the use of antibiotics to fight disease? 4. What is a narrow spectrum antibiotic? 5. What is a broad spectrum antibiotic?
5 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 5 Station 6 Bacterial Pigments 1. What are the reasons that some bacteria are pigmented? 2. Be able to recognize the pigmented bacteria located at this station. Station 7 Luminescent Bacteria 1. Where can luminescent bacteria be found? 2. What enzyme do these species have that allows them to give off light? 3. What industrial application do these bacteria serve? Station 8 Prokaryote Classification 1. What did Carl Woese use to separate the kingdom Monera into different domains? 2. What are the major groups included in the Domain Bacteria? 3. What were the first Archaea called? What were the two types? 4. What is the name of the group in the more moderate environments?
6 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 6 Station 9 Domain: Bacteria Classification 1. The Scientists interested in the evolution of microorganisms are more interested in using what technique to determine classification? What test do they use to analyze these genes? 2. What ability does bacteria have that make classification difficult? 3. What is the average % of the bacterial genome made by this process? 4. What phenotypic typing schemes do clinicians and clinical microbiologists rely on for identifying bacterial species? Station 10 - Domain: Bacteria Group: Proteobacteria 1. How is this group divided into subgroups? 2. Be able to answer the following questions about the example E. coli (You will not be asked to identify E. coli by sight) a) Is E. coli gram-positive or gram-negative? b) What are the oxygen requirements of E. coli? c) What shape does E. coli demonstrate? d) Where can E. coli be found? e) What structure do some of the pathogenic strains have? f) What are the causes of outbreaks of E. coli in the United States?
7 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 7 Station 11 Domain: Bacteria Group: Chlamydias 1. What shape do these organisms demonstrate? 2. Where are these organisms found? 3. How are these organisms transmitted? 4. Is this group Gram-positive or Gram-negative? 5. What is lacking in the cell wall of this group? 6. Why don t we have an example of this group? 7. Know the example Chlamydia trachomatis. a) What two problems are associated with Chlamydia trachomatis? Station 12 Domain: Bacteria Group: Spirochetes 1. What shape do these organisms demonstrate? 2. What are the nutritional requirements for this organism? 3. What is the name of the special structure involved in this group s movement? 4. Be able to recognize the example Treponema pallidum a) What disease does Treponema pallidum cause? b) What are the four stages and symptoms of this disease? Stage 1 - Stage 3 - Stage 2 - Stage 4 - c) How is this disease transmitted and what are the requirements for transmission? d) What is the oxygen requirement for Treponema pallidum?
8 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 8 Station 13 Domain: Bacteria Group: Cyanobacteria 1. What are the nutritional requirements for most of the bacteria in this group? 2. What are the oxygen requirements for the bacteria in this group? 3. What is the name of the pigment that gives the bacteria in this group their blue-green color? 4. What are the two processes that are only found together in this group of organisms? 5. Be able to recognize the prepared and live examples of Oscillatoria a) Where can Oscillatoria be found? b) What shape does Oscillatoria demonstrate? c) What causes Oscillatoria to go through a bloom? d) What is the eventual outcome of these blooms? Station 14 Domain: Bacteria Group: Gram-positive bacteria 1. What type of gram stain do most of the bacteria in this group demonstrate? 2. What are the nutritional requirements for most of the bacteria in this group? 3. Be able to recognize the example of Clostridium tetani a) Is Clostridium gram-positive or gram-negative? b) What are the oxygen requirements of Clostridium? c) What shape does Clostridium demonstrate? Endospore d) Where can Clostridium be found? e) What is the function of the endospore? f) What type of toxin does Clostridium release? g) What disease does Clostridium tetani cause?
9 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 9 Station 15 Classification Domain: Archaea 1. What are the three groups in this domain and how are they separated? 2. What types of cells make up these organisms? 3. What characteristics do these organisms have in common with eukaryotes? 4. What are these organisms most closely related to? 5. Know the example slide for this domain (You will not be asked to identify Archaea by sight) Station 16 Viruses 1. What are viruses made up of? What are the 6 different forms of nucleic acid found in viruses? 2. What size are they? 3. How do viruses reproduce? What are the two cycles? How do they differ?
10 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 10 CLASSIFICATION: Domain: Eukarya Supergroup: Excavata Clade 2: Diplomonads Clade 2: Parabasalids Clade 2: Euglenozoans Clade 3: Euglenids Clade 3: Kinetoplastids Supergroup: SAR Clade1: Alveolates Clade 2: Dinoflagellates Clade 2: Apicomplexans Clade 2: Ciliates Clade1: Stramenopila Clade 2: Bacillariophyta Clade 2: Chrysophyta Clade 2: Phaeophyta Clade 2: Oomycetes Clade 1: Rhizaria Clade 2: Cercozoans Clade 2: Foraminiferans Clade 2: Radiolarians Supergroup: Archaeplastida Clade 2: Rhodophyta Clade 2: Chlorophyta Clade 2: Charophyta Supergroup: Unikonta Clade 1: Amoebozoans Clade 2: Slime Molds Clade 3: Plasmodial Clade 3: Cellular Clade 2: Gymnamoebas Clade 2: Entamoebas Clade 1: Opisthokonts Clade 2: Nucleariids Clade 2: Choanoflagellates INTRODUCTION FOR PROTISTA The kingdom Protista (in the five kingdom system) contains mostly unicellular eukaryotes. This taxonomic grouping is polyphyletic and based only on cellular structure and life styles not on any molecular evidence. Using molecular biology and detailed comparison of cell structure, scientists are now beginning to see evolutionary history in the protists. The following classification suggests 4 supergroups within the original protista kingdom and the taxonomy is still being worked out. This lab is looking at one current hypothesis shown on the right. Some of the organisms are grouped together because of very strong support. It is important to focus on the characteristics of each clade which explains why they are grouped together. This lab will only look at the groups that were once included in the Protista kingdom and the other groups (higher plants, fungi, and animals) will be examined in future labs. Starting with the four Supergroups, we will divide the rest into different levels called clades. A Clade is defined as a group of biological taxa (as species) that includes all descendants of one common ancestor. Too simplify this process, we have included a cladogram we will be using throughout the course. We will divide or expand parts of the cladogram to emphasize evolutionary relationships. For the protists, we will divide the supergroups into smaller clades assigning them artificial numbers (clade1, clade2, clade3) to establish a grouping at a specific level.
11 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 11 Station 17 - Protista 1. What general characteristics and structures are found in the Clade Protista? 2. When did the first Protista appear in the fossil record? 3. What form did the first Protista take? 4. What is the name of the hypothesis that suggests that mitochondria evolved before plastids through a series of endosymbiotic events? 5. Where are protists found? 6. What are the major factors restraining their spread? Station 18 - Supergroup: Excavata 1. What characteristics are found in the supergroup Excavata? 2. Why is it hard to determine if this supergroup is monophyletic? 3. What type of taxa does this supergoup include? 4. What are the three clades included in this supergroup?
12 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 12 Station 19 Clade2: Diplomonads 1. What are the general characteristics of the Clade Diplomonads? 2. Be able to recognize the example Giardia lamblia. a) Where is this organism located in its host? b) Where can this be found in California? Haploid Nuclei c) How are people infected? d) What are the symptoms caused by this organism? Station 20 Clade2: Parabasalids 1. What are the general characteristics of the Clade Parabasalids? Flagella 2. Be able to recognize the example Trichomonas vaginalis. a) What does this organism cause? b) How is this organism transmitted? Station 21 Clade2: Euglenozoans 1. What are the general characteristics of the Clade Euglenozoans? 2. What type of taxa does this clade include? 3. What are the two best known clades in Euglenozoans?
13 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 13 Station 22 Clade3: Kinetoplastids 1. What are the general characteristics of the clade Kinetoplastids? 2. What different lifestyles do these organisms demonstrate? RBC s 3. Be able to recognize the example Trypanosoma sp. Trypanosoma a) What does this organism cause in Africa? What is its vector? b) What does this organism cause in South America? What is its vector? Station 23 Clade3: Euglenids 1. What are the general characteristics of the clade Euglenids? 2. Be able to recognize the example Euglena sp. a) Where are this organism found? b) What is the term used when an organism is autotrophic in sunlight but when unavailable, they can become heterotrophic? Station 24 - Supergroup: SAR 1. What characteristics are found in the supergroup SAR? 2. When did this supergroup evolve? What is the evidence for this? 3. What are the two clades included in this supergroup?
14 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 14 Station 25 Clade1: Alveolata 1. What are the general characteristics of the clade Alveolata? 2. What are the three clades included in the larger clade Alveolata? Station 26 Clade2: Dinoflagellates 1. What are the general characteristics of the clade Dinoflagellates? 2. Where are dinoflagellates found? 3. Be able to recognize the example as a Dinoflagellate. a) What does this organism cause? b) What does this organism release and what does it cause? c) How do they feed? Groove for flagella Station 27 Clade2: Apicomplexans 1. What are the general characteristics of the clade Apicomplexans? 2. Where are the pathenogenic species found? RBC s 3. Be able to recognize the example Plasmodium sp. a) What does this organism cause? b) How is this organism transmitted? c) What parts of the human does this organism attack? Plasmodium
15 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 15 Station 28 - Clade2: Ciliates 1. What are the general characteristics of the clade Ciliates? 2. Where are ciliates found? 3. What lifestyles do these taxa demonstrate? 4. Be able to recognize the examples Spirostomum and Vorticella. 5. Use the example Paramecium to demonstrate how Ciliates can reproduce. a) What is the name of the process where they exchange nuclei standing side by side? Which nuclei or exchanged? Is it sexual or asexual? b) What is the name of the process where they appear to reproduce end to end? Is it sexual or asexual? Station 29 Clade1: Stramenopila 1. What are the general characteristics of the clade Stramenopila? 2. What are the four clades included in the larger clade Stramenopila?
16 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 16 Station 30 Clade2: Bacillariophyta 1. What are the general characteristics of the clade Bacillariophyta? 2. Where are diatoms found? 3. Be able to recognize the example Diatoms. a) What are fossilized diatoms known as? b) What are they used for? c) How do they help reducing global climate change? Station 31 Clade2: Chrysophyta 1. What are the general characteristics of the clade Chrysophyta? 2. Where is Golden Algae found? 3. How do they feed? 4. What do they do to survive harsh conditions?
17 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 17 Station 32 Clade2: Phaeophyta 1. What are the general characteristics for the clade Phaeophyta? 2. Where are they found? 3. How is algin used? 4. Be able to recognize the examples of Brown Algae in the jars (Fucus, Laminaria, Sargassum) 5. Examine the specimen of Fucus in the fingerbowl. a) What is the name of a plant-like structure that lacks true roots, stems and leaves? b) Be able to identify the following external structures: holdfast, stipe, blades, airbladders, receptacles, and ostioles (openings). c) Observe both the male and female conceptacles. In the male, find the branched antheridia and the sperm. Surrounding the antheridia, there are sterile hairs called paraphyses, which are used for protection. In the female, observe the oogonia and their eggs along with the paraphyses. d) The Brown Algae plant looking specimen in the fingerbowl belongs to which generation? (haploid (n) or diploid (2n)) Antheridium (w/ sperm) Ostioles Oogonium w/ eggs Stipe Holdfast Conceptacle Paraphyses Conceptacle
18 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 18 Station 33 Clade2: Oomycetes 1. What are the general characteristics for the clade Oomycetes? 2. What organisms are included in this clade? 3. What lifestyle do these organisms demonstrate and why? 4. What two major agriculture problems has it caused? Station 34 Clade1: Rhizaria 1. What characteristics are found in the supergroup Rhizaria? 2. What are the three clades included in this clade? 3. Where are they found? Station 35 Clade2: Cercozoans 1. What are the general characteristics for the clade Cercozoans? 2. What lifestyle do these organisms demonstrate? 3. What have they evolved? How is this different from plastids?
19 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 19 Station 36 Clade2: Foraminiferans 1. What are general characteristics for the clade Foraminiferans? 2. Know the example of Foraminiferans. a) Where do these organisms live? b) What do they make up? c) What are their tests made of? What are they symbiotic with and what do they provide them? Station 37 Clade2: Radiolarians 1. What are the general characteristics for the clade: Radiolarians? 2. Know the example Radiolarians. a) Where do these organisms live? b) What are their tests made of? c) What do they form after they die?
20 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 20 Protista (cont.) Station 1 - Supergroup: Archaeplastida 1. What characteristics are found in the supergroup Archaeplastida? 2. When did this supergroup evolve? 3. Where are the three clades included in this supergroup? Station 2 Clade2: Rhodophyta 1. What are the general characteristics for the clade Rhodophyta? 2. Know the example Red algae: Corallina and Chondrus. a) Where do these organisms live? b) How are they used? c) The red algae plant looking specimen in the fingerbowl belongs to which generation? (haploid (n), diploid (2n) and/or tetraploid (4n) ) Station 3 Clade2: Chlorophyta 1. What are the general characteristics for the clade Chlorophyta? 2. What is the name of the kingdom some cladists what to combine Chlorophyta and Higher Plants in? 3. Where are these organisms found? 4. What two groups are commonly called Green Algae? 5. Know the following example Chlorophytes: Chara, Acetabularia, Ulva, Cladophora
21 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 21 Station 4 Clade2: Chlorophyta Examples Desmids Cellular Organization Unique Characters to identify Nucleus, isthmus, and chloroplasts. Habitat Example Nucleus at Isthmus Chloroplast Volvox Vegetative cells, protoplasmic strands, and daughter colonies Vegetative Cell Daughter Colony Protococcus None What are they often confused with? Spirogyra Chloroplasts, conjugation tube, male gamete, female gamete, and Zygospores. Chloroplast What are the gametes in the species referred to as? Why? Conjugation Tube Female Gamete Zygospore Male Gamete Ulothrix Chloroplasts What structure demonstrates specialization? Are the filaments haploid or diploid? Chloroplast
22 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 22 Station 5 Clade2: Charophytes 1. What are the general characteristics for the clade Charophytes? 2. Where are they found? 3. What two groups are commonly called Green Algae? 4. What are the four distinctive traits they have share with higher plants? Station 6 Supergroup: Unikonta 1. What characteristics are found in the supergroup Unikonta? 2. Where does evidence suggest they evolved from? 3. Where are the two main clades included in this supergroup?
23 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 23 Station 7 Clade1: Amoebozoans 1. What are the general characteristics of the clade Amoebozoans? 2. What are the three clades included in the larger clade Amoebozoans? Station 8 Clade2: Slime Molds 1. What are the general characteristics of the Slime Molds? 2. What do they feed on? 3. Where are they found? 4. What two clades are they divided into? Why? Station 9 Clade3: Plasmodial Slime Molds 1. What are the general characteristics of Plasmodial Slime Molds? 2. Where are they found? 3. Why do the form a plasmodium? Station 10 Clade3: Cellular Slime Molds 1. What are the general characteristics of Cellular Slime Molds? 2. Where are they found? 3. Why do the form a plasmodium?
24 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 24 Station 11 Clade2: Gymnamoebas 1. What are the general characteristics of Gymnamoebas? 2. Where do these organisms live? 3. How do they feed? Station 12 Clade2: Entameobas 1. What are the general characteristics of Entamoebas? 2. What species do Entamoebas infect? 3. How many species are found in humans? 4. Which is the only one that is pathogenic in humans? 5. What are the symptoms caused by this species and how many deaths occur worldwide each year? Station 13 Clade1: Opisthokonts 1. What are the general characteristics of the clade Opisthokonts? 2. What are the four clades included in the larger clade Opisthokonts? Station 14 Clade2: Nucleariids 1. What are the general characteristics found in the Nucleariids? 2. Where are Nucleariids found? 3. Why do they form pseudopods?
25 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 25 Station 15 Clade2: Choanoflagellates 1. What are the general characteristics found in the clade: Choanoflagellates? 2. Where are they found? 3. What does DNA suggest they are a sister group to? FUNGI CLASSIFICATION: Domain: Eukarya (Supergroup: Opisthokonts) Kingdom: Fungi Division: Chytrids - Chytrids Division: Zygomycetes - Coenocytic Fungi Division: Glomeromycetes - Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Division: Ascomycetes - Sac Fungi & Imperfect Fungi Division: Basidiomycetes - Club Fungi Symbiotic relationships: Lichen Chytrids Nuclerariids Zygomycetes Fungi Opisthokonts Glomeromycetes Choanoflagellates Ascomycetes Animals INTRODUCTION FOR FUNGI Basidiomycetes Fungi are multicellular eukaryotes. All fungi are heterotrophs and acquire their nutrients by absorption. Foods are digested outside the organism by enzymes released by the fungi and then the nutrients are absorbed. Lacking chlorophyll, these organisms are entirely dependent upon organic matter. Most fungi derive their nutrients from dead organic compounds (saprobes or decomposers), but some draw their nourishment from living plant or animal material (parasites). Evolutionary history suggests they are more closely related to animals than plants but historically they have been taught in botany courses and due to time constraints for each practicum, we have included them here. Station 16 Kingdom Fungi 1. What supergroup do they belong to and what characteristic are responsible for this positioning? 2. What characteristics are specific to fungi? 3. How many species have been identified? How many species of fungi probably exist? 4. When did the show up in the fossil record? How long ago did they diverge from animals? Why the discrepancy?
26 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 26 Station 17 Division: Chytridomycota Chytrids The chytrids are thought to be the most primitive type of fungi and a link between protists and fungi. 1. What are the general characteristics found in the division Chytridomycota? 2. Where are these organisms found? 3. What do these organisms have in common with protists? 4. What do these organisms have in common with fungi? No Example Available for the Chytrids Station 18 - Division: Zygomycetes 1. What is the common name of the fungi found in this division? What are some examples? 2. What are the general characteristics found in the division Zygomycetes? 3. Where are these organisms found? 4. Example Rhizopus sp. Black Bread Mold. Observe the petri dish or slant (under a dissecting microscope) of the living culture Rhizopus growing on agar. The white hairs are the hyphae that make up the mycelium. The black objects are sporangia, containing the asexually produced spores. Be able to distinguish Rhizopus from the other fungi slants or plates. a. What are the names of the hyphae that travel horizontally along the agar? b.. What are the name of the structures that travel downward?
27 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 27 Station 19 Asexual Reproduction of Rhizopus 1. What is the name of the structure these fungi use to reproduce asexually? Sporangia 2. Be able to identify the following structures: hyphae, mycelium, sporangia, sporangiophores on the slide. Station 20 Genetic Reproduction of Rhizopus 1. What is the name of the process for Genetic Reproduction in Rhizopus? 2. What is the term used for fusion of the cytoplasm? Sporangiophore Progamete 3. What is the term used when a cell has two nuclei? 4. What is the term used when the nuclei fuse together? 5. Observe a slide of Rhizopus conjugating. Be able to identify the following structures: progametes and zygospore. Zygospore
28 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 28 Station 21 - Division: Glomeromycetes - Arbuscular Mycorrhizae These individuals were once thought to be part of the Zygomycetes but molecular evidence suggests that these species should be part of their own clade. 1. What are arbuscules? 2. What percentage of plant species have symbiotic relationships with these fungi? No Example Available for the Mycorrhizae Station 22 - Division: Ascomycetes 1. What is the common name of the fungi found in this division? What are some examples? 2. What are the general characteristics found in the division Ascomycetes? 3. Where are these organisms found? 4. What is the name of the mushroom in this division? 5. Be able to recognize the preserved specimens of Peziza.
29 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 29 Station 23 Division: Ascomycetes Sexual Reproduction Be able to identify the following structures of a cross section through an ascocarp: hyphae, mycelium, hymenial layer, asci, and ascospores. Ascospores Asci Hyphae Hymenial Layer Sexual Reproduction
30 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 30 Station 24 Division: Ascomycetes Imperfect Fungi Examine living cultures of Penicillium notatum and Aspergillus niger in the petri dishes or slants. Note the coloring and texture of each culture. Be sure you are able to tell these apart from other cultures seen earlier. 1. What was the name of the division these species use to be placed in? Why are these fungi considered to be imperfect? Why are they now placed in the Ascomycetes? Penicillium notatum Aspergillus niger Station 25 Division: Ascomycetes Imperfect Fungi 1. How do Ascomycetes reproduce asexually? 2. Be able to identify each species and the following structures: condiophores and conidia Conidia Conidiophore Penicillum notatum Aspergillus niger Station 26 - Division: Basidiomycetes 1. What is the common name of the fungi found in this division? What are some examples? 2. What are the general characteristics found in the division Basidomycetes? 3. Where are these organisms found? Gills Cap Annulus Stipe 4. What is the name of the mushroom in this division? 5. Be able to recognize the preserved specimens and be able to identify the following structures: cap, annulus, gills and stipe.
31 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 31 Station 27 Division: Basidiomycetes Sexual Reproduction Examine a prepared slide of Coprinus, which shows a longitudinal cross section through a basidiocarp. Be able to identify the following structures: hyphae, mycelium, hymenial layer, basidia, and basidiospores. Basidiospores Basidia Hymenial Layer Gill made of Hyphae Sexual Reproduction
32 Biology 2: LAB PRACTICUM 1 32 Station 28 Division: Basidiomycetes Bird Nest Fungi Be able to recognize this example. 1. How does this group get its name? 2. How do they feed? 3. Where are they found? 4. What are the nests used for? How far can the spores travel? Station 29 Lichen Examine various lichens externally. 1. What two organisms make up the symbiotic relationship found in lichens? 2. What does each organism bring to the relationship?
AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 10th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Name: Chapter 27 Bacteria and Archaea Unit 8: Prokaryotes, Protists, & Fungi
Protists Chapter 28 Most eukaryotes are single-celled organisms Protists are eukaryotes Eukaryotic cells have organelles and are more complex than prokaryotic cells Most protists are unicellular, but there
Origins of Eukaryotic Diversity Protists Diversity For Lecture, Make sure you know the Water Molds (Oomycota) names and characteris6cs of the taxa at the levels indicated by the red arrows. Characteristics
There are NO typical protists. Protist General Characteristics - usually single cell - eukaryotic - paraphyletic group Traditional Classification There are three divisions of the Kingdom Protista: Protozoa,
Kingdom Fungi Molds, Sac Fungi, Mushrooms, and Lichens Essential Question(s): What makes fungi have their own kingdom? Objectives: 1. Student will be able to describe the characteristic features in the
19.1 Diversity of Protists KEY CONCEPT Kingdom Protista is the most diverse of all the kingdoms. 19.1 Diversity of Protists Protists can be animal-like, plantlike, or funguslike. Protists are eukaryotes
SECTION 19.1 DIVERSITY OF PROTISTS Study Guide KEY CONCEPT Kingdom Protista is the most diverse of all the kingdoms. VOCABULARY protist Protists can be animal-like, plantlike, or funguslike. 1. Are protists
Protists and Fungi Answer Key SECTION 1. DIVERSITY OF PROTISTS 1. eukaryotes 2. protists may be single-celled, colonial, or multicellular 3. No, the size of protists range from microscopic to very large.
Major Events in the History of Earth Cenozoic Humans Land plants Animals Origin of solar system and Earth Multicellular eukaryotes 1 Proterozoic eon 2 Archaean eon 3 4 Single-celled eukaryotes Atmospheric
Kingdom Protista Mr. Krause Edina Public Schools ISD273 Kingdom Protista General Characteristics Animal-Like Protists Plant-Like Protists Fungus-Like Protists General Characteristics Protozoa - Greek name
Chapter 28 Protists PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Overview:
Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. FUNGI FUNGI Fungi are absorptive heterotrophic eukaryotes that digest their food externally and absorb the nutrients Most fungi consist of a mass of threadlike hyphae
BIOLOGY 1021 UNIT 1: MULTICELLULAR STRUCTURE CHAPTER 15 P. 307-311 AND CHAPTER 16 P. 328-331 Be sure to know flow chart an understanding from atoms to multicellular organisms. Importance of carbon, hydrogen,
Practice Test for Exam 1 1. An explanation for natural phenomena that is well supported by many reliable observations describes which of the following? a. Fact b. Hypothesis c. Law d. Scientific theory
Kingdom Fungi Revised Fall 2017 ** You will require your text book Biological Science during this lab ** Learning Objectives Building on the learning objectives from your lab syllabus, you will be expected
KINGDOM FUNGI (MYCOPHYTA) Mycology = the study of fungi fossil record dates to 900 million years ago at one time classified in the Plantae Kingdom Recent molecular evidence suggests that fungi are probably
In what ways are protists important? The Protists A diverse assemblage of eukaryotes that ARENʼT fungi, plants, or animals Base of many food chains - especially in aquatic settings Clarify water by filtering
Fig. 28-01 PROTISTS Eukaryotic Single, colonial or multicellular Fungal-like, plant-like, animal-like or mixotrophs (combo) Cilia, flagellum/(a) or psuedopodia Worldwide (aquatic or terrestrial) Aerobic
VIII. Kingdom Protista- (protists) A. General characteristics of protists: 1. Protists are unicellular organisms that have a nucleus to organize their hereditary material. 2. Some protists help their host
Randa, Bio 1151 1 Chapter 28 / Protists I. Introduction A. Eukaryotes 1. 1 st eukaryotic organisms 2. most are unicellular 3. considered simple B. Protist diversity (ecological grouping) 1. comprised of:
http://animal.discovery.com/tvshows/monsters-insideme/videos/the-brain-eatingamoeba.htm The Origins of Eukaryotic Diversity Introduction to the protists Kingdom Protista split into as many as 20 kingdoms
BIOSC 041 PROTISTS! Reference: Chapter 28 Outline v General characteristics of protists v Our understanding of the relationships among protist groups continues to change rapidly! v One hypothesis divides
Kingdom Protista Protista Traditionally a kingdom level taxon Current evidence places organisms in as many as 3-5 kingdoms We will classify all: Unicellular or simple colonial Eukaryotic Organisms that
Chapter 22: Protists Protists Protistans are Unlike Prokaryotes Have a nucleus and organelles Have proteins associated with DNA Use microtubules in a cytoskeleton, spindle apparatus, and cilia and flagella
Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: FUNGI Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs that have cell walls. They are part of the nature s recycling system. They break down organic compounds. Fungi are used in wine, beer, cheese,
PROTISTA The paraphyletic, nonfungi, non-animal, nonplant Eucarya + Even MORE new words to remember! Key Points Origin of eukaryotes via symbiosis Origin of classification based on functional (ecological)
Kingdom Protista The world of Protists: Animal-like Protists Plant-like Protists Fungus-like Protists DOMAIN EUKARYA PROTISTS KINGDOM PROTISTA Any eukaryote that is not classified as a fungus, plant, or
Life Science Chapter 9 Part 1 Protista Protista Junk drawer kingdom a little bit of everything, some w/ cell walls (composition varies), some w/out. All are Eukaryotes, autotrophs and heterotrophs represented.
Groups of Fungi Section 2 Chytrid Fungi Key Idea: The chytrids are a group of aquatic fungi that provide clues about the evolution of fungi. Chytrid Fungi Chytrids were once classified with protists because
Microbial Diversity Bacteria Archaea Protista Fungi Figure 19-1 Three common prokaryote shapes Figure 19-2 The prokaryote flagellum Figure 19-2b The structure of the bacterial flagellum cell wall wheelandaxle
Domains and Kingdoms Images, from left to right: Cholera bacteria, Volvox colony, Strep bacteria THE DOMAINS A domain is the broadest level in the classification of life. All living organisms belong to
Classification Classifying Organisms * Organisms are divided into 3 domains and 6 kingdoms based on the following characteristics Cell Type: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Prokaryotic - No nucleus Eukaryotic
KINGDOM MONERA Bacteria Lecture 2: Kingdoms Monera, Protoctista and Fungi Kingdom Monera Commonly called bacteria All monerans are unicellular All monerans are prokaryotes Prokaryotes: Single-celled organisms
Chapter 20 Protists Section Review 20-1 1. What are protists? 2. Why is it easier to define protists by what they are not, rather than by what they are? Completion On the lines provided, complete the following
Fungi Objectives: Be able to explain how fungi acquire their nutrients. Be able to explain the structural role that chitin (a substance also found in the exoskeletons of arthropods!) plays in fungi. Gain
KINGDOM MONERA The Prokaryotes: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria Bacteria are the most organisms living on the Earth. (i.e. 10mL of soil contains 1 x 10 10 bacteria. They are found in nearly every habitat
Protist Classification the Saga Continues Learning Objectives Explain what a protist is. Describe how protists are related to other eukaryotes. What Are Protists? Photosynthetic Motile Unicellular Multicellular
AP: CHAPTER 18: the Genetics of VIRUSES p328-340 1. What makes microbes good models to study molecular mechanisms? Name Per 2. How were viruses first discovered? 3. What are the two basic components of
Notes - Microbiology Protista Part 1 Animal like Protists - Kingdom Protista is a very diverse group of organisms. There are over 115 000 different kinds, with traits that fit with fungi, plants, and animals.
BIOL 221 Concepts of Botany Spring 2009 Topic 10: Cyanobacteria & Algae A. Introduction Plants are not the only organisms that are photosynthetic. In fact, photosynthetic lineages have popped up here and
Skills Worksheet Directed Reading A Section: Fungi CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI 1. What are fungi? 2. How do fungi get nutrients? 3. Many fungi are, which feed on dead plant or animal matter, while other fungi
Protists: Algae Lecture 5 Spring 2014 Meet the algae 1 Protist Phylogeny Algae - Not monophyletic What unites them as a group? Range from unicellular to multicellular From phytoplankton to kelp forests
Topic 18. Fungi Historically fungi were considered to be plants. Molecular evidence, however, indicates that they are actually more closely allied with the animals. Fungi are all heterotrophic, and live
Chapter 19 Notes Kingdoms Archaebacteria andeubacteria All bacteria are Prokaryotic. This means that they are organisms that are one-celled and do not contain a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles.
PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell, North Carolina State University C H A P T E R 12 Characterizing and Classifying Eukaryotes Eukaryotic microorganisms Fungi Algae Water
The Domain Eukarya is a large, diverse and complex group or organisms that consist of one or more Eukaryotic Cells This domain is divided into four fairly distinct kingdoms: - Protists (Protista) - Plants
Chapter 20 Protists 20 1 What are protists? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ln69k7lytsu (20 Minutes) Protist any organism that is NOT a plant, animal, fungi, prokaryote grouping for organisms that don't
Chapter 20 Protists 20 1 What are protists? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ln69k7lytsu (20 Minutes) Protist any organism that is NOT a plant, animal, fungi, prokaryote include more than 200,000 species
Biology 1of 34 20 5 Funguslike Protists 2of 34 20 5 Funguslike Protists Similarities and differences between funguslike protists and fungi Like fungi, g, funguslike protists are heterotrophs that absorb
Diversity of Life Classification - an organized scheme for grouping organisms - a tool for communication - Hierarchical - a series of successive and inclusive rankings Domain - the highest rank - contains
Kingdom Monera(Archaebacteria & All bacteria are prokaryotes Characteristics: 1. No nucleus Eubacteria) 2. No membrane bound organelles 3. Smaller & less ribosomes 4. Most are smaller than eukaryotes 5.
Characteristics of Living Things Card Sort All of these terms are characteristics of organisms that allow scientists to classify (organize) them into groups. Chapter 9 in your text covers the characteristics
XI CLASS BIOLOGY NOTES CHAPTER 2 - BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION The process of grouping living organisms into convenient categories based on simple characters is known as Biological classification. Importance
Building the Tree of Life THINK ABOUT IT The process of identifying and naming all known organisms, living and extinct, is a huge first step toward the goal of systematics. Yet naming organisms is only
Domains and Kingdoms Archaea Ancient Bacteria Bacteria Regular Bacteria Eukaryota Organisms with a nucleus DOMAIN: Archaea KINGDOM: Archaebacteria Cell Type Structural Organization Cell Wall Mode of Nutrition
Kingdom Protista CH. 20 Evolution of Eukaryotic Life ENDOSYMBIONT THEORY Early eukaryotes developed symbiotic relationships with prokaryotic cells Prokaryotic cells lived inside eukaryotic cells Over time,
Protists and Fungi Chapter 19 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Protists and Fungi Both are eukaryotes Both have nuclei and membrane bound organelles Found in water, moist soil, and in other organisms KEY
MCAT Biology - Problem Drill 09: Prokaryotes and Fungi Question No. 1 of 10 Instructions: (1) Read the problem and answer choices carefully; (2) Work the problems on paper as needed; (3) Pick the correct
Microscopy and the Diversity of Microorganisms Today we will learn how to use one of the most important tools a biologist has, the microscope. We will use the microscope to study organisms throughout the
Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Biologists estimate that there are about 5 to 100 million species of organisms living on Earth today. Evidence from morphological, biochemical, and gene sequence
Name: Date: Period: Fungi and Plant Unit Review Worksheet Part I (KEY) Directions: Treat this like an assessment and answer as much as you can without ANY help. See how much you actually know by highlighting/starring
Chapter 31: Fungi Student: 1. Specialized symbiotic associations between the roots of plants and fungi are called A) lichens. B) hyphal associations. C) heterokaryotic junctions. D) mycorrhizae. E) a mycelium
Chapter 21: Protists Section 1: Characteristics of Protists Gamete: a haploid reproductive cell that unites with another gamete to form a zygote Zygote: the cell that results from the fusion of gametes
Microbiology: A Systems Approach First Edition Cowan &Talaro Chapter 5 Eucaryotic cells and microorganisms Chapter 5 2 3 Eucaryotic cells 3 Flagella 4 Cilia similar in overall structure to flagella, but
18.3 Building the Tree of Life Changing Ideas About Kingdoms This diagram shows some of the ways in which organisms have been classified into kingdoms since the 1700s. Three Domains Genetic analysis has
INTRODUCTION Although most of our work in this lab is done on bacteria, fungi are nonetheless an important aspect in microbiology. Besides being important food providers, fungi play central roles in recycling
Biology 1of 39 2of 39 20-4 Plantlike Protists: Red, Brown, and Green Algae Plantlike Protists: Red, Brown and Green Algae Most of these algae are multicellular, like plants. Their reproductive cycles are
Skills Worksheet Directed Reading A Section: Kinds of Protists 1. What three groups can scientists use to organize protists based on shared traits? PROTIST PRODUCERS 2. What is the name for protists that
BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE FIFTH EDITION Freeman Quillin Allison 1 Lecture Presentation by Cindy S. Malone, PhD, California State University Northridge Roadmap 1 Key themes to structure your thinking about Biology
17 Organizing Life s Diversity section 3 Domains and Kingdoms The most widely used biological classification system has six kingdoms within three domains. What You ll Learn major characteristics of the
CHAPTER 11 2 s and Kingdoms SECTION Classification 7.1.a, 7.3.d California Science Standards BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: Which domains are
The Protists (Ch. 28) I. Taxon: Protista: General characteristics 1. some are unicellular, some are colonial, and some are truly multicellular 2. artificial polyphyletic grouping among kingdoms 3. comprised
INTRODUCTION This exercise is intended for you to get familiar and comfortable with using a microscope as well as identifying common microbial groups. Thus, we will observe representatives of all microbes
Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from
1 2 Bergey s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology differs from Bergey s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology in that the former a. groups bacteria into species. b. groups bacteria according to phylogenetic
Biology 211 Exam 1 Review Scientific Method: 1. List the five characteristics of science. 2. Complete the following table. Term Hypothesis Facts Theory Chapter 1 Definition 3. Name and describe are the
Lecture #9-2/8 Dr. Kopeny Protistans, Part 1 Lecture VIII Protistans Lecture Themes structure and function; recurring evolutionary themes and unifying features the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts
Bacteria outline-- CHAPTER 19 Bacteria Structure and Function Prokaryote & Eukaryote Evolution Cellular Evolution Current evidence indicates that eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes between 1 and 1.5 billion
Section 3: The most widely used biological classification system has six kingdoms within three domains. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions What are the major characteristics
Plant Diversity & Evolution (Outline) Review the Life cycle of Fungi Characteristics of organisms in the Kingdom Plantae. Evolution of plants: Challenges and adaptations to living on land Highlights of
Outline Classification of Living Things Chapter 20 Mader: Biology 8th Ed. Taxonomy Binomial System Species Identification Classification Categories Phylogenetic Trees Tracing Phylogeny Cladistic Systematics
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