7 Two steps Before cells can divide, DNA needs to replicate DNA strands separate nucleotides bind to complimentary bases on each strand Result: two molecules of identical DNA
8 Cell division in prokaryotes Called binary fission 1 st DNA replicates 2 nd the original cell (the parent cell) pinches itself in two new cells (daughter cells) result: two genetically identical cells; identical to each other & identical to the parent cell Why does the DNA need to replicate first?
9 The eukaryotic cell cycle (protein synthesis) (DNA replication)
10 The cell cycle in words... Interphase G 1 S G 2 Mitotic phase (division of the nucleus) prophase metaphase anaphase telophase cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm)
11 Interphase In the nucleus, DNA and associated proteins are a loose, diffuse mass called chromatin Why is it loose?
13 Prophase Chromatin condenses to become chromosomes (sister chromatids are held together by a centromere) Spindle fibers begin to form Nuclear envelope starts to break apart
14 Sister chromatids are 2 identical copies of DNA held together by a centromere
15 Metaphase Spindle fibers move sister chromatids to center of cell (Metaphase: Meet in the Middle)
16 Anaphase Sister chromatids are pulled apart by spindle fibers and drawn to each pole of the cell (Anaphase: A and Away)
17 Telophase & cytokinesis Roughly the opposite of prophase Nuclear envelopes start to form Chromosomes begin to uncoil and loosen Spindle fibers shorten Cytoplasm & organelles divide (cytokinesis)
18 Cytokinesis in animal cells
19 Cytokinesis in plant cells
20 The eukaryotic cell cycle
21 I pee on the mat, cee?! I-PMAT-C Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis
26 Let s review so far... How many parent cells? How many daughter cells? How many times did the DNA replicate/duplicate/copy before division? How many mitotic divisions are there in each cycle? How many chromosomes in daughter cells? How are the daughter cells related to each other? Why? How are the daughter cells related to the parent cell? Why is this important? What is a sister chromatid? How are they related?
27 Influences on cell division Chemical factors Physical factors
28 Chemical factors Growth factors; proteins that are released from one cell signaling another cell to divide different cell types respond to different growth factors
29 Physical factors Density-dependent inhibition a condition where crowded cells stop dividing Anchorage dependence cells must be in contact with a solid surface to divide
30 What happens when the cell cycle malfunctions? Cancer disease of cell cycle Cancerous leukemia cells (L) & normal marrow cells (R)
31 Cancer cells are not normal Larger & may have lost specialized features of parent cell Produce their own signals to divide Do not display growth inhibition No adhesion dependence Can stimulate the development of blood vessels Are essentially immortal ( HeLa cells, 1951)
32 Cell death: part of the life Called apoptosis Part of the life of a cell (most cells divide ~50 times) Eliminates excess cells, especially during embryonic development Some research suggests it is the default option in cell cycle that needs to be overcome for mitosis to continue for protection, ex. skin peel after sunburn
33 Apoptosis in development of digits
34 Apoptosis of human hand
35 Malfunction of apoptosis: syndactyly
36 Then what happens? After a cell s death receptor receives signal to die, apoptosis-specific enzymes begin to destroy the cell s proteins It s all over in about an hour and the immune system takes over, engulfing the remains (phagocytosis!!)
37 Quick mitosis summary Purpose asexual reproduction growth replace and repair damaged cells Process DNA replication division of cell Products 2 genetically identical daughter cells
38 Asexual reproduction by mitosis Advantages reproduce without a mate can produce lots of offspring all individuals can potentially reproduce Disadvantages no genetic diversity
39 Sexual reproduction When two different parents contribute DNA to the offspring The offspring are the result of fertilization the unification of two gametes (sperm & egg) Results in genetically unique offspring
40 Meiosis: the production of gametes Meiosis is a special type of cell division that only produces gametes; takes place in ovaries & testes Gametes have only 1/2 the number of chromosomes as the rest of the cells in an organism (Why?) Diploid refers to cells that have 2 sets of chromosomes (all somatic cells) humans have 2 sets of 23 chromosomes Haploid refers to cells that have 1 set of chromosomes (ONLY gametes) There are two cell divisions necessary in meiosis to produce four haploid daughter cells
41 Homologous chromosomes The matching chromosomes of a pair, one from each parent, that carry the same genes, in the same order May have different alleles (versions) for each gene
42 Big picture of the two cell divisions Meiosis I separation of homologous chromosomes Meiosis II separation of sister chromatids
43 Interphase before meiosis I DNA replicates **Cells that undergo meiosis do not have a cell cycle gametes produced do not also go through meiosis; it s a one way street
44 Meiosis I: a lot happens! Prophase I chromosomes condense homologous chromosomes pair up & crossing over takes place increases genetic diversity! nuclear membrane disappears spindle fibers form
45 Crossing over The exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes Creates new combinations of alleles Occurs between non-sister chromatids. Why?
46 Meiosis I: a lot happens! Metaphase I homologous pairs meet in the middle & independent orientation takes place increases genetic diversity!
47 Independent assortment
48 Meiosis I: a lot happens Anaphase I homologous chromosomes separate Telophase I & cytokinesis nuclear membrane reforms & cytoplasm divides 2 genetically unique, haploid daughter cells are produced
49 Meiosis II Basically the same as mitosis, but starting with a haploid cell Prophase II chromosomes condense (varies by species) nuclear membrane disappears & spindles fibers form Metaphase II sister chromatids meet in the middle Anaphase II sister chromatids separate Telophase II & cytokinesis haploid daughter cells form (sperm or eggs)
51 Origins of genetic diversity Crossing over mixes genes anywhere on chromosome (prophase I) Independent assortment the way the homologous chromosomes meet in the middle (metaphase I) Fertilization haploid sperm & haploid egg fuse to make diploid zygote
52 Sexual reproduction Advantages genetic diversification (**This is a big one!! Why is genetic diversity important?) Disadvantages requires a mate may not be readily available finding and keeping a mate is time consuming and expensive (resources) not all individuals get to reproduce not all offspring will be well adapted
53 Meiosis summary Purpose reduce # of chromosomes from diploid to haploid (make gametes) (Why do they have to be haploid?) Process DNA replicates (when does this happen?) division of cell 2 nd division of cell Product 4 genetically unique, haploid daughter cells
54 Let s review (again)... How many parent cells in meiosis? How many daughter cells after meiosis? How many times did the DNA replicate/duplicate/copy before meiosis began? How many divisions are there? How many chromosomes in daughter cells? How are the daughter cells related to each other? Why? How are the daughter cells related to the parent cell? Why is this important?
55 What is the difference between sister chromatids & homologous chromosomes? What does diploid mean? What cells in humans are diploid? What does haploid mean? What cells in humans are haploid? Where does genetic diversity originate?
56 When meiosis goes wrong Non-disjunction: when members of a pair of chromosomes fail to separate Meiosis I homologous chromosomes don t separate Meiosis II sister chromatids don t separate Result: abnormal number of chromosomes in gamete (& then potentially in zygote) Unknown what causes non-disjunction
58 Non-disjunction of autosomal chromosomes Most result in spontaneous abortion (miscarriage) or death shortly after birth The exception: Trisomy 21(Down Syndrome) 3 copies of chromosome 21 most common chromosomal number abnormality this is slightly misleading...
59 Non-disjunction of sex Seems to upset the balance less than chromosomes autosomal abnormalities may be because Y chromosome carries relatively few genes may be because in females, one X chromosome is randomly deactivated in each cell
60 Sex chromosomes XXY (most common) XYY XXX XO (the only known case when having only 45 chromosomes is not fatal Syndrome Klinefelter syndrome (male) none (normal male) none (normal female) Turner syndrome (female) Characteristics Underdeveloped testes, sterile; often includes breast enlargement & other female body characteristics; normal intelligence cannot be distinguished from XY male except by karyotype cannot be distinguished from XX female except by karyotype short in stature & often a web of skin b/w neck and shoulders; underdeveloped ovaries, sterile; poor development of secondary sex characteristics
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