Lipid transfer proteins confer resistance to trichothecenes

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1 Lipid transfer proteins confer resistance to trichothecenes John McLaughlin and Anwar Bin-Umer Tumer Laboratory National Fusarium Head Blight Forum December 6th, 2012

2 FY09-11: Identify trichothecene resistance genes by genomewide screening in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Translation, mito morphology, lipid metabolism FY11-13 Identify plant genes for trichothecene resistance by activation tagging in Arabidopsis thaliana FY13-14 Demonstrate resistance in wheat 2

3 Screening Arabidopsis (Col-0) for Tcin sensitivity using a germination assay (14 dpg) 0 µm Tcin 1 µm Tcin 2 µm Tcin 3 µm Tcin

4 Root/vegetative growth is severely inhibited at Tcin concentrations greater than 1 µm 0 µm 1 µm 2 µm 3 µm

5 Activation tagging: Dominant Gain-of-function promoter transcription pattern ORF Susceptible to toxin Insertion of activation tagged vector containing 4X enhancers enhancers promoter new transcription pattern ORF Resistance to toxin

6 Activation Tagging in Arabidopsis Transformation of Col-O with pski015 (floral dip) Generate M1 and M2 populations TAIL PCR To Identify Flanking Sequence RNA isolation and qrt PCR to measure gene expression?? Overexpression Detected 1º Screen Identify M2 plants which set root Test independently generated knockout (SALK) Transform Col-0 With overexpression gene vector 2º Screen Confirmation of Phenotype Specific controlling gene Introduce gene into crop (or knockout) 6

7 250,000 activation tagged lines were screened Chr. 5 At5G55430 Unknown At5G55440 (AtTRRF1) Unknown Ltp4.4 Ltp4.5 CaMV 35S enhancers LB 1k b

8 Non-specific Lipid Transfer Proteins (nsltps) Plant nsltps are small cysteine-rich lipid-binding proteins Key role in formation of cuticular wax layers Role in plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stress Upregulated during F. graminearum infection of wheat & barley. A wheat nsltp gene expression is correlated with 5A QTL associated with type I resistance to FHB

9 Plant nsltp functions LTPs bind to and transfer phospholipids between membranes in vitro Plant nsltps contain an internal hydrophobic pocket, which can accommodate a lipid Plant nsltps contain signal peptides, which target them to cell wall/apoplast Some nsltps are upregulated in response to infection and exhibit antibacterial and antifungal activity

10 LTP4.4 LTP4.5 LTP4.1 Predicted Structures for LTP4.4 and LTP4.5 compared to the X-ray crystal structure of DIR1 (Defective in induced resistance) from Arabidopsis (Type 4.1 LTP) bound to a lipid

11 A.t. Type IV nsltps: LTP4.1 (DIR1) In Arabidopsis 49 nsltps are grouped into nine types based on sequence homology. LTP4.2 LTP4.3 LTP4.4 LTP4.5 Boutrot, F. et al. BMC Genomics. 9:86 (2008)

12 LTP4.4:GFP is localized in the cell wall 20 µm

13 LTP4.5:GFP Localization in Arabidopsis

14 LTP4.4:GFP is expressed in the roots Col-0 LTP4.4 (Line 13)

15 LTP4.4 protein expression in Arabidopsis LTP4:GFP SAT1 Immunoblot Analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing LTP4.4:GFP.

16 Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing LTP4.4 Col-0 LTP LTP µm Tcin 0 µm Tcin Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing LTP4.4 are phenotypically normal and show resistance to Tcin

17 Transgenic Arabidopsis lines overexpressing LTP4.4 and LTP4.5 are able to form roots on media containing 4 μm Tcin better than wild type control plants

18 Conclusions Activation tagging in Arabidopsis identified a trichothecin resistant mutant containing a modified T-DNA vector, which enhanced expression of two nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsltp) genes. Overexpression of each nsltp gene in Arabidopsis provided resistance to trichothecin, demonstrating that resistance in the T-DNA tagged line was due to overexpression of the nsltp genes LTP4.4 and LTP4.5 localize to the cell wall/apoplast in the mesophyll, the epidermis, and root tissues.

19 Ongoing and future work Determine if expression of LTP4.4 and LTP4.5 confers resistance to DON and FHB in transgenic wheat and barley Lipid peroxidation is associated with trichothecene toxicity- Connection between LTPs and lipid damage? LTP genes may function in the production of a mobile signal for resistance, affect lipid composition of membranes/cuticle, or they may bind to trichothecenes Isolate recombinant LTP4.4 and LTP4.5 proteins using the Pichia system Binding of LTPs to trichothecenes using Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis

20 Characterizing LTPs in yeast Can At. LTP4.4 & At. LTP4.5 provide resistance to Tcin in yeast?

21 OD600 OD600 LTP expression leads to Tcin resistance in yeast Cloned LTPs into a yeast expression system and transformed them into yeast. Grew yeast in selective media +/- Tcin Growth at 3µM Tcin VC LTP4.4 LTP Hours Post Treatment Growth at 4µM Tcin VC LTP4.4 LTP Hours Post Treatment

22 Is LTP-mediated resistance a general response?

23 OD600 LTP-mediated resistance is specific to Tcin Inhibitors of yeast growth & translation: Cycloheximide Growth at 0.25µg/mL Cycloheximide VC LTP4.4 LTP Hours Post Treatment

24 OD600 LTP-mediated resistance is specific to Tcin Inhibitors of yeast growth & translation: Anisomycin Growth at 7.5µg/mL Anisomycin VC LTP4.4 LTP Hours Post Treatment

25 OD600 LTP-mediated resistance is specific to Tcin Inhibitors of yeast growth & translation: Chloramphenicol Growth at 5mg/mL Chloramphenicol VC LTP4.4 LTP Hours Post Treatment

26 Do all LTPs provide resistance to trichothecenes?

27 OD600 OD600 Not all LTPs mediate resistance to trichothecenes At. LTP1.1 done not confer resistance but rather increases susceptibility Growth at 3µM Tcin VC LTP Hours Post Treatment Growth at 4µM Tcin VC LTP Hours Post Treatment

28 Are early and late time point events due to Tcin affected by LTP overexpression?

29 ROS generating cells LTP overexpression lowers ROS levels Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were detected by DCFH-DA staining and quantified by flow cytometry 10% 8% 6% VC LTP4 LTP5 4% 2% 0% [Tcin] µm

30 Tcin Treatment Untreated Tcin causes mitochondrial fragmentation in yeast DIC GFP Wild type cells: Tubular network 6h post treatment fragmented mitochondria

31 GFP DIC LTP overexpression minimize mitochondrial fragmentation VC LTP4.4 LTP4.5

32 Is inhibition of total & mitochondrial translation affected by LTP overexpression?

33 Total TL% Relative to Untreated Total translation is inhibited in LTP overexpressing cells µM 0.5µM 1µM 2µM VC-HA LTP4-HA LTP5-HA 4µM [Tcin]

34 Mito TL% Relative to Untreated Mitochondrial translation is not significantly inhibited in LTP overexpressing cells µM 0.5µM 1µM 2µM 4µM VC LTP4 LTP [Tcin] µm

35 To summarize Yeast serves as an ideal tool to identify plant LTPs that confer trichothecene resistance at the single cell level. At. LTPs participate directly in resistance to Tcin. LTP-mediated resistance is specific to trichothecenes and is not part of a general response against other translation inhibitors. Mitochondria plays a role in LTP-mediated resistance to Tcin.

36 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Tumer Lab Dr. Susan McCormick Dr. Nilgun Tumer Dr. John McLaughlin Dr. Xiao-Ping Li Dr. Jennifer Nielson Kahn Dr. Mike Pierce Dr. Kerrie May Qing Yan Debaleena Basu Project Funding:

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