The information in this document is meant to cover Topic 2 and Topic of the IB Syllabus.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The information in this document is meant to cover Topic 2 and Topic of the IB Syllabus."

Transcription

1 The information in this document is meant to cover Topic 2 and Topic of the IB Syllabus. Characteristics of Living Things (summary) Living organisms obtain and use energy to power activities such as movement and growth. heterotrophs consume other organisms or their products autotrophs convert sunlight to food Living organisms try to maintain a constant internal environment. e.g. body temperature, water balance Living organisms reproduce. Living organisms are made of cells. The Cell Theory was originally proposed by Matthias Schleiden & Theodor Schwann (~1840) The cell theory states: 1. All life forms are made from one or more cells. 2. Cells only arise from pre-existing cells. 3. The cell is the smallest form of life. Note: Some biologists consider unicellular organisms to be acellular. Skeletal muscle and fungal hyphae are multinucleate not technically organised into cells. Evidence for the Cell Theory Cells had been observed as early as the 1600 s (by Robert Hooke in 1662 and Anthony van Leeuwenhoek in 1680) by using simple microscopes. By the 1800 s there was sufficient evidence that biologists were able to state the cell theory: Concept Living things are made of cells Cells are the smallest units of life Cells come from pre-existing cells Evidence The branch of biology which studies cells specifically is called histology. Histologists can observe cells using light and electron microscopes, and have studied many unicellular and multicellular organisms to learn about cellular structure. Viruses are crystalline, non-cellular particles that may only reproduce themselves by infecting a cell and taking over its metabolic processes. They are made of components that are found in cells (DNA or RNA and protein), but are not cells themselves. Organelles are sub-structures found in cells. Some (e.g. chloroplasts) have been shown to survive outside the cell for only brief periods of time in laboratory experiments. Louis Pasteur demonstrated that spontaneous generation (life from non-living substances) does not occur, using a simple experiment. Sterilised broth only grew bacteria when it had been exposed to air meaning that the microbes had to have come from the air itself, and couldn t just magically appear. A. De Jong/TFSS of 19

2 Some microorganisms have a dormant spore phase as part of their life cycles this allows for survival during unfavourable conditions, and could account for living things magically appearing when conditions are favourable again. Observations of cells during mitosis and meiosis; one cell becomes two (or more). Cells contain a blueprint for growth, development and behaviour Cells are the site of the chemical reactions of life Observations on the behaviour of chromosomes provided insight into the nature of genes (DNA) and both day-to-day activity and heredity. Experimental evidence of the effect of gene transfer between organisms (genetic engineering). Enzymes are biological catalysts responsible for almost all cellular processes, and most importantly those involved in extracting energy from food (cellular respiration, fermentation). Biochemical synthesis of macromolecules such as proteins (from amino acids) and complex carbohydrates (from sugars). Cell ultra-structure, the presence of discrete organelles with specific functions. This also includes the discovery that certain biochemical processes are restricted to particular regions or organelles within the cell. Unicellular Organisms carry out all the functions of life. This includes metabolism, response (to stimuli), homeostasis, growth, reproduction and nutrition. Multicellular Organisms have cells that are organized into tissues and organs. During early development, cells differentiate by turning off certain genes and leaving other genes turned on. All body cells of a multicellular organism still have the same DNA, but a skin cell doesn't need to have the insulin gene turned on. Tissues are groups of cells that develop in the same way, with the same structure and function. (e.g. heart muscle) Organs are groups of tissues that have combined to form a single structure. In an organ the tissues work together to perform an overall function. (e.g. the heart) Organ systems are groups of organs within an organism that together carry out a process. (e.g. cardiovascular system) Multicellular organisms show emergent properties, which is a result of the interactions between component parts. In essence, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Life itself can be seen as an emergent property. Stem Cells Most of the cells in a multicellular organism are highly specialised, and may not continue to divide once they have reached maturity. Some specialised cells never divide (e.g. brain neurons), and others only divide when damaged (e.g. liver cells). Stem cells are unspecialised cells that may continue to divide A. De Jong/TFSS of 19

3 throughout the life of the organisms. Adult stem cells can divide an unlimited number of times, producing a new stem cell and a body tissue cell each time. This is how blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. Stem cell researchers use embryonic stem cells, which may grow into any type of cell, unlike adult stem cells. These researchers hope that stem cell therapy will be used to treat diseases such as Parkinson s, Alzheimer s and Type I diabetes. It is also possible that stem cell therapy could be used to treat spinal cord injuries. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells All cells can be classified as either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus. Instead they have a loop of naked DNA (nucleoid). Eukaryotic cells DNA is contained within a membrane, forming a nucleus. Eukaryotic chromosomes are linear, not loops. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are organized into discrete structures called organelles, which have specific functions within the cell. Eukaryotic cells have more, and they are more complex. Note: Any eukaryotic cell is more similar to any other eukaryotic cell than any prokaryotic cell. Prokaryotic Cells These cells do not have a membrane-bound nucleus, just a simple loop of DNA. They also have very few organelles. Functions of Prokaryotic Cell Structures: cell wall: forms a protective outer layer that prevents damage from outside and bursting if internal pressure is too high plasma membrane: controls exchange of substances (nutrients and waste) between cytoplasm and extra-cellular environment; some may be pumped in by active transport mesosome: increases the area of the membrane (internally) for ATP production; may be involved in moving DNA to the cell's poles before cell division cytoplasm: contains enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions of metabolism and DNA in a region called the nucleoid A. De Jong/TFSS of 19 Biology/Units/Classification and Diversity/bacteria diagram.jpg

4 ribosomes: synthesize proteins by translating messenger RNA; some proteins stay in the cell while others may be secreted naked DNA: stores the genetic information that controls the cell and is passed on to the daughter cells pili: hair-like structures that enable attachment to surfaces and to other bacteria Prokaryotes (bacteria) may be classified according to their metabolism: Photosynthesis: Blue-green bacteria make their own food by photosynthesis making them photoautotrophs. Nitrogen fixation: Nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert nitrogen gas from the air into nitrogen compounds. Fermentation: Many bacteria absorb organic substances, convert them into other organic substances and release them. For example, the bacteria which is used to produce yoghurt converts lactose (sugar) into lactic acid. All prokaryote cells are capable of extremely rapid growth when conditions are favourable to them this occurs by binary fission and can result in doubling every 20 minutes. Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus which is enclosed by a membrane, and many organelles, some of which are also membrane-bound. DNA is enclosed within the nucleus. The liver cell below is a typical eukaryotic cell. Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Structures Image from ribosomes: may be free-floating in the cytoplasm, or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum; they perform protein synthesis by translating information on mrna Golgi apparatus: modifies proteins which are being exported from the cell; produces lysosomes A. De Jong/TFSS of 19

5 lysosomes: contain digestive enzymes; used to digest food particles brought in to the cell or may break open to digest the cell when it becomes damaged ( suicide sac ) rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER): is the site of protein synthesis for any proteins which are being exported from the cell (free-floating ribosomes make proteins for use within the cell) mitochondrion: is the site of aerobic cellular respiration nucleus: contains the cell's genetic material (chromosomes) within the nuclear membrane nucleolus: makes ribosomes for the cell In addition to these internal components, there may also be extra-cellular structures such as glycoproteins for support and adhesion (in animal cells) and a cell wall for support and maintaining shape (in plant cells). Comparing Plant & Animal Cells Feature Animal Plant Cell wall Not present. Animal cells only have a plasma membrane. Cell wall and plasma membrane are both present. Cell wall is composed of cellulose (polysaccharide) fibres. Chloroplasts Not present. Present in plant cells involved in photosynthesis (i.e. Not found in root cells). Carbohydrate storage Carbohydrates are stored as glycogen. Vacuoles Shape Cell division Small and temporary. May not be present at all. Usually rounded, but able to change shape. Centrioles present form the spindle apparatus during mitosis. Cleavage furrow forms during cytokinesis and cells pinch apart. Carbohydrates are stored as starch (amylose). Large and permanent the fluid-filled vacuole helps support the plant. Usually square, and does not change shape. Centrioles absent spindle apparatus formed from cytoskeleton. New cell wall forms between daughter cells. Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Feature Prokaryote Eukaryote Size Extremely small, 5-10 µm Larger, µm Type of genetic material Location of genetic material A naked loop of DNA. In the cytoplasm, in a region called the nucleoid. Chromosomes consisting of strands of DNA associated with protein (chromatin). Four or more chromosomes present. In the nucleus inside a double nuclear membrane called the nuclear envelope. A. De Jong/TFSS of 19

6 Cell wall Mitochondria Generally present, made of peptidoglycan Not present. The plasma membrane and mesosomes are used for cellular respiration. Present only in plants (cellulose) and fungi (chitin) Always present. Ribosomes Smaller (70S) Larger (80S) Organelles bounded by a single membrane Few or none are present. *Usually none Many are present including ER, Golgi apparatus and lysosomes Motile organelles Some may have simple flagella, 20 nm in diameter Some may have cilia or flagella with internal structures, 200 nm in diameter Most cells are too small to see with the naked eye. How Small is Small? Eukaryotic Cell µm Prokaryotic Cell 1 5 µm Nucleus µm Chloroplast 2 10 µm Mitochondrion µm Large Virus (HIV) 100 nm Ribosome 25 nm Cell Membrane 7.5 nm thick DNA Double Helix 2 nm thick H atom In order to observe cells, we can use magnifying lenses (hand lens, microscopes) to bring them into focus... Microscopes Light microscopes were the first type to be developed, and are in wide use still today. They use light and glass lenses to magnify the image of a cell or tissue being observed. Electron microscopes use narrow beams of electrons instead of light, and produce highly magnified images. There are two types of electron microscope: Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM): an electron beam passes through a very thin section of material. An image is formed because some electrons pass through and others do not, similar to how light microscopes work. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM): a beam of electrons is scanned in a series of lines across the surface of the specimen. This results in a three-dimensional image of the specimen. A. De Jong/TFSS of 19

7 Limitations to Cell Size Cells cannot continue growing indefinitely. Once they reach a maximum size, they usually divide. If a cell becomes too large, it develops problems related to its surface area-to-volume ratio: as the overall size of the cell increases, its surface area-to-volume ratio decreases. Since the surface area represents the cell's plasma membrane (through which all nutrients and oxygen enter, and wastes exit) and the volume represents the cell's cytoplasm & organelles (which require nutrients and oxygen, and produce wastes), it is important for cells to have a high surface area-to-volume ratio. Example: One 2 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm cell VS. eight 1 cm x 1 cm x 1 cm cells : SA = 6(2 cm x 2 cm) SA = 8 x 6(1 cm x 1 cm) = 6(4 cm 2 ) = 8(6 cm 2 ) = 24 cm 2 = 48 cm 2 V = 2 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm V = 8(1 cm x 1 cm x 1 cm) = 8 cm 3 = 8 cm 3 SA:V = 24:8 SA:V = 48:8 = 3:1 = 6:1 The eight smaller cells have the same total volume, but double the membrane, and so overall have a better surface area-to-volume ratio. This is a recurring theme in biology, and not strictly related to the size of cells. Calculating Magnification When viewing images of microscopic objects such as cells, it is often useful to know the magnification at which you are viewing said object. The linear magnification is one way to indicate the size of an object: 1. Measure the cell's length or diameter on your drawing. 2. Measure the cell's actual length or diameter (may involve estimating size using FOV). 3. Make sure both measurements are in the same units. 4. Divide the diagram size by the actual or estimated size this value is your magnification. A scale bar ( ) may also be used to indicate size similar to the scale on a map, it represents a specific distance on the diagram or photograph. A. De Jong/TFSS of 19

8 Biological Membranes Biological membranes, whether they are the plasma (cell) membrane, or a part of the endoplasmic reticulum, all have a similar structure. They are composed of amphiphilic fats called phospholipids in a bilayer. There are also various proteins embedded within the bilayer. This model of the plasma membrane is called the Fluid Mosaic Model. Image from phospholipids are amphiphilic, which means that they are both hydrophobic (the fatty acids) and hydrophilic (the phosphate) it is because of this unique structure, that the phospholipid molecules arrange themselves in a bilayer the hydrophilic heads arrange themselves facing the watery extracellular fluid and cytoplasm, while the hydrophobic tails hide in the middle, away from water membrane proteins may be peripheral (attached to the surface) or integral (embedded within the bilayer) some integral proteins, called transmembrane proteins, pass all the way through the membrane hormone receptor sites allow the hormone to bind on the surface of the cell, and transmit a signal to the inside of the cell enzymes located in the membrane catalyse reactions inside or outside the cell, depending on the location of the active site electron carriers are arranged in chains and pass electrons from one to the next in a series of redox reactions (chemiosmosis) cell adhesion proteins allow cells to stick together (cell-cell recognition sites) pumps are used for active transport, using energy to move substances across the membrane channels are usually gated (to motion, binding of a ligand, or changes in voltage) and allow facilitated diffusion through the membrane A. De Jong/TFSS of 19

9 Membrane Transport There are various mechanisms by which substances pass through the membrane. Passive Transport is the movement of particles across a membrane with the concentration gradient with no additional input of energy. Diffusion is the passive movement of particles from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration, as a result of the random motion of particles. Particles in a liquid or gas are in constant motion this kinetic energy is the driving force behind diffusion. This is also known as Brownian movement and increases with temperature. Particles can diffuse across a membrane that is permeable to them. Plasma membranes are permeable to oxygen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. Dialysis is the diffusion of solutes across a semi-permeable membrane. Oxygen and carbon dioxide move across the cell membrane by dialysis. Osmosis is the passive movement of water molecules from a region of lower solute concentration (i.e. higher water concentration) to a region of higher solute concentration (i.e. lower water concentration) across a partially permeable membrane. Osmosis occurs in response to a high concentration of a substance that cannot cross the membrane freely, and water moves to that side of the membrane in an attempt to achieve equilibrium. Because water is a polar molecule, special pores called aquaporins allow water through. Hypertonic solutions have a lower water concentration (higher solute concentration) than cytoplasm. Salt water is generally hypertonic to cytoplasm. Hypotonic solutions have a higher water concentration (lower solute concentration) than cytoplasm. Distilled water is hypotonic to cytoplasm. Isotonic solutions have the same water concentration (and therefore solute concentration) as cytoplasm. Extracellular fluid (ECF) and blood plasma are both isotonic to cytoplasm. Facilitated diffusion occurs when a transmembrane channel protein forms a fluid-filled passageway for ions and small hydrophilic molecules such as glucose to pass through. These channels are not constantly open they open in response to a trigger such as a substance other than the one passing through the channel binding to a receptor site. Opening the channel may require some energy, due to changing the protein's shape, but transport through occurs passively, by diffusion. Active Transport Active Transport is the movement of substances across membranes using energy from ATP. Active transport can move substances against the concentration gradient (i.e. from low to high concentration). Protein pumps in the membrane are used for active transport. Each pump only transports a specific substance or substances. The sodium/potassium ion (Na + /K + ) pump is a typical example. (See next page for diagram.) A. De Jong/TFSS of 19

10 Image from Protons (H + ) are also transported actively across the membrane, during chemiosmosis in mitochondria (electron transport chain) Image from and chloroplasts (light-dependent reactions). Summary: A. De Jong/TFSS of 19

11 Bulk Transport During bulk transport, substances are transported across the membrane, or within the cell, enclosed within a bubble of membrane called a vesicle. The fluidity of the membrane allows vesicles to form from the plasma membrane or join with it (or the Golgi apparatus) quite easily. Endocytosis is the transport of materials from the ECF to the cytoplasm by wrapping a portion of the plasma membrane around it, and bringing it inside the cell. There are two forms of endocytosis: Phagocytosis cell eating occurs when the membrane engulfs relatively large particles. Some white blood cells (e.g. macrophages), and Amoeba use phagocytosis. Pinocytosis cell drinking occurs when the membrane engulfs droplets of ECF and dissolved particles. All cells use pinocytosis. Exocytosis is the reverse of endocytosis. Materials made inside the cell (hormones or neurotransmitters, for example) are brought to the membrane in a vesicle, which joins the plasma membrane, releasing the contents to the ECF. Substances can also be transported within the cell inside vesicles. Proteins made on the rough endoplasmic reticulum bud off inside a vesicle and move to the Golgi apparatus. Here, they fuse with the Golgi apparatus, and become modified sugars or lipids may be added. Then, another vesicle buds off the Golgi apparatus and moves to the plasma membrane. A. De Jong/TFSS of 19

12 The Cell Cycle Image from The cell cycle involves three distinct phases: Interphase is a period when the cell is not actively dividing. It is a period of growth for the cell. Protein synthesis, metabolism of food, and other biochemical processes occur during this time. Replication of DNA in preparation for cell reproduction also occurs during this time. It is divided into three stages: G 1 is a period of growth and normal metabolic functions, which occurs directly after cytokinesis. S is a period of synthesis, or DNA replication in preparation for mitosis. G 2 is a period of further growth and preparation for mitosis. Mitosis is the replication of a cell's nucleus in preparation for cell division. It is during this time that chromosomes become visible with a light microscope. Mitosis produces two genetically identical nuclei. Prophase is the first stage of mitosis in cells. The centrioles separate and move towards the poles of the cell, while extending microtubules that form the spindle apparatus. Chromatin super-coils around itself (like winding up a ball of yarn), resulting in visible bodies called chromosomes these are identical sister chromatids joined by a centromere. The nuclear membrane begins to break down. Metaphase is the second stage of mitosis. The chromosomes are attached to the spindle by their centromeres, and align along the cell's equatorial plate. The nuclear membrane is no longer present. A. De Jong/TFSS of 19

13 Anaphase is the third stage of mitosis. The centromeres have split, and the spindle fibres begin to contract, pulling the identical sister chromatids to opposite ends of the cell (the poles). Telophase is the final stage of mitosis. The sister chromatids have reached the poles of the cell. The spindle fibres begin to break down, and the nuclear membrane reforms. Chromosomes begin to uncoil and are no longer visible once again they are called chromatin. Telophase is followed by cytokinesis. Image from Cytokinesis is the splitting of the original (parent) cell into two new (daughter) cells. Cytokinesis is different in plant and animal cells due to the presence (or absence) of a cell wall. In animal cells, the plasma membrane begins to pull inwards at the equatorial plate after anaphase. By the end of telophase, the membrane has met in the middle, and two cells are formed as the membrane pinches off from itself. In plant cells, a new cell wall begins to form after anaphase, at the equatorial plate. Formation of the cell wall divides the original cell into two. A. De Jong/TFSS of 19

14 Comparison of Cytokinesis in Plant & Animal Cells: Image from Mitosis is used in eukaryotes whenever it is necessary to produce identical cells: growth of multicellular organisms (e.g. bone cells, muscle cells) embryonic development repair of damaged tissues (e.g. new skin cells to repair a wound) asexual reproduction How Mitosis ensures that Identical Cells are produced: During interphase (S), an exact copy of each chromosome is made by DNA replication, forming two identical sister chromatids. The sister chromatids remain attached to each other by their centromeres during metaphase, when each gets attached to a spindle fibre. In anaphase, the centromeres split and one chromatid from each pair moves towards opposite poles of the cell. The chromosomes at the poles become the nuclei of the daughter cells, each with identical sets of chromosomes. Cytokinesis splits the parent cell in between the two new nuclei, forming two cells with exact copies of the original nucleus. A. De Jong/TFSS of 19

15 When Mitosis Fails Mitosis, like any other process in cells, needs to be controlled. Normally, cells only undergo mitosis when new cells are needed (e.g. for growth or repair). Sometimes, the control mechanisms fail, and cells begin to divide uncontrollably. Repeated divisions cause the number of cells to quickly increase, forming a mass of cells called a tumour. This can occur in any organ or tissue in the body. Tumours can grow to a large size, and if cells break off from the tumour, they can spread to other parts of the body and form more tumours (this is called metastasis). Cancer is a disease caused by the growth of tumours. Tumours are harmful to the body because they use up nutrients and oxygen required by healthy cells, killing healthy cells as they take over. Image from A. De Jong/TFSS of 19

16 Meiosis Reduction Division In mitosis, the daughter cells produced have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell two of each type. This condition is called diploidy cells with two copies of each chromosome are diploid (2n). Mitosis is useful for growth, development and repair even asexual reproduction sexual reproduction requires another method of cell division to produce gametes. Gametes (sex cells) combine with other gametes during fertilization. Because of this, they must have only one set of chromosomes a condition known as haploidy. When two haploid (n) gametes combine, the resulting cell is diploid. Meiosis is the process by which gametes are formed, and is called a reduction division because the parent cells are diploid, but the resulting gametes are haploid. How does meiosis work? Meiosis involves two divisions of the nucleus, known as meiosis I and meiosis II. These divisions are similar to the process of mitosis. Both mitosis and meiosis begin with duplication of a cell s chromosomes: From this point, a cell may progress through mitosis (to regenerate diploid cells) or meiosis (to produce gametes). Meiosis I is the first stage of meiosis. It begins with prophase I, in which homologous chromosomes pair up (forming tetrads). At this time, crossing over may occur, a process in which pieces of non-sister chromatids are exchanged. A. De Jong/TFSS of 19

17 Prophase I is also when the centrioles separate and move to opposite poles of the cell. In metaphase I, the chromosomes migrate to the cell s equatorial plate, attaching to the spindle fibres. Homologous chromosomes are pulled apart by the shortening of the spindle fibres in anaphase I. The centromeres remain intact. A. De Jong/TFSS of 19

18 During telophase I, the chromosomes are divided into two separate cells. The centrioles and spindle fibres disappear. Each cell has one homologous pair (bivalent). There is no additional replication of DNA between meiosis I and meiosis II. Meiosis II very closely resembles mitosis, and occurs in both cells formed by cytokinesis after telophase I. The end result after telophase II is four haploid cells: All images in this section from: /extranet/genetics/basics_mitosis.html A. De Jong/TFSS of 19

19 Two processes ensure that the four daughter cells produced by meiosis are genetically different: independent assortment of maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes o bivalents line up randomly at the cell s equator in metaphase I o separation of homologous chromosomes is independent the new cells will have a mixture of maternal and paternal chromosomes crossing over of segments of non-sister chromatids (between maternal and paternal chromosomes) o this results in new combinations of genes on the chromosomes of the gametes produced A. De Jong/TFSS of 19

Honors Biology-CW/HW Cell Biology 2018

Honors Biology-CW/HW Cell Biology 2018 Class: Date: Honors Biology-CW/HW Cell Biology 2018 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Hooke s discovery of cells was made observing a. living

More information

CELL BIOLOGY. Which of the following cell structures does not have membranes? A. Ribosomes B. Mitochondria C. Chloroplasts D.

CELL BIOLOGY. Which of the following cell structures does not have membranes? A. Ribosomes B. Mitochondria C. Chloroplasts D. 1 CELL BIOLOGY PROKARYOTIC and EUKARYOTIC SP/1. SP/2. SP/4. Plant and animal cells both have A. ribosomes, cell walls and mitochondria. B. Golgi apparatus, chromosomes and mitochondria. C. Golgi apparatus,

More information

To help you complete this review activity and to help you study for your test, you should read SC State Standards B

To help you complete this review activity and to help you study for your test, you should read SC State Standards B Name: Test Date: PAGE: Biology I: Unit 3 Cell Structure Review for Unit Test Directions: You should use this as a guide to help you study for your test. You should also read through your notes, worksheets,

More information

Cell Theory Essential Questions

Cell Theory Essential Questions Cells Vocab words 1. Cell 2. Cell theory 3. Nucleus 4. Eukaryote 5. Prokaryote 6. Organelle 7. Cytoplasm 8. Nuclear envelope 9. Chromatin 10. Chromosome 11. Nucleolus 12. Ribosome 13. Endoplasmic reticulum

More information

Introduction to Cells

Introduction to Cells Life Science Introduction to Cells All life forms on our planet are made up of cells. In ALL organisms, cells have the same basic structure. The scientist Robert Hooke was the first to see cells under

More information

Introduction to Cells

Introduction to Cells Life Science Introduction to Cells All life forms on our planet are made up of cells. In ALL organisms, cells have the same basic structure. The scientist Robert Hooke was the first to see cells under

More information

Cells. Every organism is made up of a cell or many cells Humans have ~ 100 TRILLION cells each!

Cells. Every organism is made up of a cell or many cells Humans have ~ 100 TRILLION cells each! Cells Every organism is made up of a cell or many cells Humans have ~ 100 TRILLION cells each! History 1660 s Microscopes developed Allowed for the observation of cells for the first time Robert Hooke

More information

Chapter Life Is Cellular

Chapter Life Is Cellular Chapter 7 7-1 Life Is Cellular The Discovery of the Cell Anton van Leeuwenhoek used a single-lens microscope to observe tiny little organisms in pond water. The Discovery of the Cell In 1665, Robert Hooke

More information

BIO 210 Chapter 4 Physiology of Cells. By Beth Wyatt, Jack Bagwell, & John McGill. Introduction

BIO 210 Chapter 4 Physiology of Cells. By Beth Wyatt, Jack Bagwell, & John McGill. Introduction BIO 210 Chapter 4 Physiology of Cells By Beth Wyatt, Jack Bagwell, & John McGill Introduction The living must exchange materials with the nonliving. How does this happen? Cell transport Two major types

More information

7-1 Life Is Cellular. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

7-1 Life Is Cellular. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 7-1 Life Is Cellular The Discovery of the Cell What is the cell theory? The Discovery of the Cell The cell theory states: All living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic units of structure

More information

Chapter Outline. The Living Cell. The Cell Theory. The Nature and Variety of Cells. Cell theory. Observing Cells: The Microscope

Chapter Outline. The Living Cell. The Cell Theory. The Nature and Variety of Cells. Cell theory. Observing Cells: The Microscope Chapter Outline The Living Cell Chapter 21 The Nature and Variety of Cells How Does a Cell Work? Metabolism: Energy and Life Cell Division Great Idea: Life is based on chemistry, and chemistry takes place

More information

Cells. The basic units of a living system or organism

Cells. The basic units of a living system or organism Cells The basic units of a living system or organism Cell Theory developed by 3 German scientists: Matthias Schleiden, Theodor Schwann, and Rudolf Virchow These scientists discoveries led to the cell theory

More information

Biology Mid-Year Review Packet This packet will be collected on the day of the exam for 2 HOMEWORK GRADES.

Biology Mid-Year Review Packet This packet will be collected on the day of the exam for 2 HOMEWORK GRADES. Name: Period: Date: Biology Mid-Year Review Packet This packet will be collected on the day of the exam for 2 HOMEWORK GRADES. Topics: Observations & Inferences Making A Hypothesis Characteristics of Life

More information

Anaphase. Third phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell. Animal Cell

Anaphase. Third phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell. Animal Cell Anaphase Third phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell. Animal Cell Antony Van Leevwenhoek 1643- Dutch microscope maker and merchant, observed and described

More information

Biology 1 Notebook. Review Answers Pages 17 -?

Biology 1 Notebook. Review Answers Pages 17 -? Biology 1 Notebook Review Answers Pages 17 -? The History of Cell Studies 1. Robert Hook (1665) used a microscope to examine a thin slice of cork. The little boxes he observed reminded him of the small

More information

Topic 2: Cells (12 hours)

Topic 2: Cells (12 hours) Topic : Cells ( hours). Cell theory hours.. Outline the cell theory. Include the following. Living organisms are composed of cells. Cells are the smallest unit of life. Cells come from pre-existing cells...

More information

Objective: The Cell. The Cell Theory. Question of the day: The Plasma Membrane 11/2/09. The Generalized Cell: Parts and Organelles:

Objective: The Cell. The Cell Theory. Question of the day: The Plasma Membrane 11/2/09. The Generalized Cell: Parts and Organelles: Objective: The Cell Basic Unit of Life The student will become familiar with the structure and function of the basic cell :) The student will know the differences between and animal cell and a plant cell

More information

2. Cellular and Molecular Biology

2. Cellular and Molecular Biology 2. Cellular and Molecular Biology 2.1 Cell Structure 2.2 Transport Across Cell Membranes 2.3 Cellular Metabolism 2.4 DNA Replication 2.5 Cell Division 2.6 Biosynthesis 2.1 Cell Structure What is a cell?

More information

Cell Cycle and Mitosis

Cell Cycle and Mitosis Cell Cycle and Mitosis THE CELL CYCLE The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a eukaryotic cell between its formation and the moment it replicates itself. These

More information

Passive. mechanisms. Active. mechanisms. Cell diffusion. Movement. Movement. Movement. Mechanisms that do not require cellular energy such as:

Passive. mechanisms. Active. mechanisms. Cell diffusion. Movement. Movement. Movement. Mechanisms that do not require cellular energy such as: Passive mechanisms Mechanisms that do not require cellular energy such as: Diffusion Facilitated diffusion Osmosis Filtration Active mechanisms Mechanisms that do require cellular energy such as: Active

More information

The diagram below represents levels of organization within a cell of a multicellular organism.

The diagram below represents levels of organization within a cell of a multicellular organism. STATION 1 1. Unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have the capacity to a. assemble into multicellular organisms b. establish symbiotic relationships with other organisms c. obtain energy from the

More information

Include metabolism, response, homeostasis, growth, reproduction and nutrition.

Include metabolism, response, homeostasis, growth, reproduction and nutrition. Topic 2: Cells Topic 2: Cells 2.1 Cell theory Assessment statement IBO Notes Include the following. Living organisms are composed of cells. 2.1.1 Outline the cell theory. Cells are the smallest unit of

More information

Cells. 1. The Cell Theory

Cells. 1. The Cell Theory Cells 1. The Cell Theory Biologists started looking at the structure of animals and plants and found tiny box-like structures making up the tissues which were called cells. As more living organisms were

More information

Life is Cellular Section 7.1

Life is Cellular Section 7.1 Life is Cellular Section 7.1 Objectives Understand Cell theory Distinguish between prokaryotes and eukaryotes Understand different types of microscopy, and how they work in more detail What is a Cell?

More information

Cells Cytology = the study of cells. Nonliving Levels. Organization Levels of Life. Living Levels 11/14/13. More Living Levels

Cells Cytology = the study of cells. Nonliving Levels. Organization Levels of Life. Living Levels 11/14/13. More Living Levels Cells Cytology = the study of cells What Are the Main Characteristics of organisms? 1. Made of CELLS 2. Require ENERGY (food) 3. REPRODUCE (species) 4. Maintain HOMEOSTASIS 5. ORGANIZED 6. RESPOND to environment

More information

Human biology Cells: The Basic Units of Life. Dr. Rawaa Salim Hameed

Human biology Cells: The Basic Units of Life. Dr. Rawaa Salim Hameed Human biology Cells: The Basic Units of Life Dr. Rawaa Salim Hameed Reference Text book of human biology by John Kenneth Inglis 3 rd Ed (1985) Cells: The Basic Units of Life Cell theory Cell theory consists

More information

Chapter 7. Cell Structure & Function

Chapter 7. Cell Structure & Function Chapter 7 Cell Structure & Function Scientists & Discoveries Early 1600 s (Holland): 1st microscope was constructed Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1600 s) used single lens as a microscope to study and very carefully

More information

Mitosis and Meiosis Cell growth and division

Mitosis and Meiosis Cell growth and division Mitosis and Meiosis Cell growth and division The larger the cell, the more trouble the cell has moving nutrients and waste across the cell membrane. 1. DNA/information overload As a cell increases in size,

More information

1- Which of the following molecules stores hereditary information? A. ATP B. DNA C. protein D. carbohydrates

1- Which of the following molecules stores hereditary information? A. ATP B. DNA C. protein D. carbohydrates Question 1: Multiple Choice (20 Marks) 1- Which of the following molecules stores hereditary information? A. ATP B. DNA C. protein D. carbohydrates 2- What is the name of the molecule in plants that stores

More information

3 The Organization of Living Things

3 The Organization of Living Things CHAPTER 1 SECTION Cells: The Basic Units of Life 3 The Organization of Living Things BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are the advantages of

More information

3.1 Cell Theory. KEY CONCEPT Cells are the Basic unit of life.

3.1 Cell Theory. KEY CONCEPT Cells are the Basic unit of life. 3.1 Cell Theory KEY CONCEPT Cells are the Basic unit of life. 3.1 Cell Theory The cell theory grew out of the work of many scientists and improvements in the microscope. Many scientists contributed to

More information

1- What are rod-shaped bacteria called? A. cocci B. bacilli C. spirilla D. halophiles

1- What are rod-shaped bacteria called? A. cocci B. bacilli C. spirilla D. halophiles Question 1: Multiple Choice (20 Marks) 1- What are rod-shaped bacteria called? A. cocci B. bacilli C. spirilla D. halophiles 2- The eukaryotic nucleus houses all of the following except the A. RNA B. DNA

More information

Discovery of the Cell

Discovery of the Cell Cell Structure Discovery of the Cell Who discovered cells? 1665 Robert Hooke used a compound microscope to examine a piece of cork (20X magnification) He saw little boxes in the cork and called them cells

More information

Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. chapter 7 Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Who was one of the first people to identify and see cork cells? a. Anton van

More information

Cell Structure: What cells are made of. Can you pick out the cells from this picture?

Cell Structure: What cells are made of. Can you pick out the cells from this picture? Cell Structure: What cells are made of Can you pick out the cells from this picture? Review of the cell theory Microscope was developed 1610. Anton van Leeuwenhoek saw living things in pond water. 1677

More information

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE ORGANIZATION OF LIFE CELL THEORY TIMELINE

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE ORGANIZATION OF LIFE CELL THEORY TIMELINE CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE 1. composed of cells either uni/multi 2. reproduce sexual and/or asexual 3. contain DNA in cells 4. grow and develop 5. use material/energy in metabolic reactions 6. respond to

More information

Biology Unit 6 Chromosomes and Mitosis

Biology Unit 6 Chromosomes and Mitosis Biology Unit 6 Chromosomes and Mitosis 6:1 Chromosomes DNA GENES CHROMATIN/CHROMOSOMES CHROMOSOMES/CHROMATIN are made of units called GENES. GENES are made of a compound called deoxyribonucleic acid or

More information

Wake Acceleration Academy - Biology Note Guide Unit 3: Cell Structures and Functions

Wake Acceleration Academy - Biology Note Guide Unit 3: Cell Structures and Functions Wake Acceleration Academy - Biology Note Guide Unit 3: Cell Structures and Functions Extra Resources Website: http://waa-science.weebly.com Module 1: Overview of Cell Structures and Functions Vocabulary

More information

Topic 8 Mitosis & Meiosis Ch.12 & 13. The Eukaryotic Genome. The Eukaryotic Genome. The Eukaryotic Genome

Topic 8 Mitosis & Meiosis Ch.12 & 13. The Eukaryotic Genome. The Eukaryotic Genome. The Eukaryotic Genome Topic 8 Mitosis & Meiosis Ch.12 & 13 The Eukaryotic Genome pp. 244-245,268-269 Genome All of the genes in a cell. Eukaryotic cells contain their DNA in long linear pieces. In prokaryotic cells, there is

More information

MIDTERM EXAM Figure 7-1

MIDTERM EXAM Figure 7-1 No. MIDTERM EXAM 2014 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Mark your response on your answer sheet. (1 point each) 1. Which of the following is

More information

Basic Structure of a Cell

Basic Structure of a Cell Basic Structure of a Cell Prokaryotic Cells No nucleus Archaea & Eubacteria One circular chromosome Extremely small Eukaryotic Cells Has a nucleus!!! Membrane-bound organelles Plants, Animals, Fungi, &

More information

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Name Date Class CHAPTER 5 TEST PREP PRETEST Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each

More information

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Class: Date: Ch 7 Review Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Researchers use fluorescent labels and light microscopy to a. follow

More information

Biology. Mrs. Michaelsen. Types of cells. Cells & Cell Organelles. Cell size comparison. The Cell. Doing Life s Work. Hooke first viewed cork 1600 s

Biology. Mrs. Michaelsen. Types of cells. Cells & Cell Organelles. Cell size comparison. The Cell. Doing Life s Work. Hooke first viewed cork 1600 s Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles Cells & Cell Organelles Doing Life s Work Eukaryotes - organelles animal cells plant cells Cell size comparison Animal cell Bacterial cell most

More information

7 th Grade Science Unit 2NCFE Review

7 th Grade Science Unit 2NCFE Review 7 th Grade Science Unit 2NCFE Review Cells The basic units of a living system or organism 2 Types of Cells: Prokaryotic - Cells that don t have a membrane-covered nucleus for example: bacteria Eukaryotic

More information

Cell Theory and Structure. Discoveries What are Cells? Cell Theory Cell Structures Organelles

Cell Theory and Structure. Discoveries What are Cells? Cell Theory Cell Structures Organelles Cell Theory and Structure Discoveries What are Cells? Cell Theory Cell Structures Organelles Discoveries In 1665 Robert Hooke observed a thin slice of cork from an oak tree What he saw reminded him of

More information

Typical Life Cycle of Algae and Fungi. 5 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Typical Life Cycle of Algae and Fungi. 5 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Module 3B Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles In this module, we will examine a second type of cell division used by eukaryotic cells called meiosis. In addition, we will see how the 2 types of eukaryotic cell

More information

What is a cell? 2 Exceptions to The Cell Theory. Famous People. Can You Identify This Object? Basic Unit of all forms of Life. 1.

What is a cell? 2 Exceptions to The Cell Theory. Famous People. Can You Identify This Object? Basic Unit of all forms of Life. 1. Can You Identify This Object? CELLS Day 1: CELLULAR COMPONENTS & PROCESES What is a cell? Collection of living material enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from it s surroundings Basic Unit of

More information

Mitochondria. Nickname: Batteries. bean shaped. Structure: Function: provides energy for the cell (powerhouse of the cell)

Mitochondria. Nickname: Batteries. bean shaped. Structure: Function: provides energy for the cell (powerhouse of the cell) The Cell #1 Mitochondria Mitochondria Nickname: Batteries Structure: bean shaped Function: provides energy for the cell (powerhouse of the cell) Mitochondria #2 Nucleus Nucleus Nickname: Structure: Function:

More information

The Cell. What is a cell?

The Cell. What is a cell? The Cell What is a cell? The Cell What is a cell? Structure which makes up living organisms. The Cell Theory l All living things are composed of cells. l Cells are the basic unit of life. l Cells come

More information

Overview of Cells. Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes The Cell Organelles The Endosymbiotic Theory

Overview of Cells. Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes The Cell Organelles The Endosymbiotic Theory Overview of Cells Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes The Cell Organelles The Endosymbiotic Theory Prokaryotic Cells Archaea Bacteria Come in many different shapes and sizes.5 µm 2 µm, up to 60 µm long Have large

More information

Cell Reproduction Review

Cell Reproduction Review Name Date Period Cell Reproduction Review Explain what is occurring in each part of the cell cycle --- G 0, G1, S, G2, and M. 1 CELL DIVISION Label all parts of each cell in the cell cycle and explain

More information

THE CELL THEORY (R+R+R+E+G+N+T+S) 3).

THE CELL THEORY (R+R+R+E+G+N+T+S) 3). CELL BIOLOGY All living things are made up of small individual units called cells. Cells are the smallest functioning living unit. Cells can not normally be seen with the naked eye. To usually observe

More information

Introduction to Cells. Intro to Cells. Scientists who contributed to cell theory. Cell Theory. There are 2 types of cells: All Cells:

Introduction to Cells. Intro to Cells. Scientists who contributed to cell theory. Cell Theory. There are 2 types of cells: All Cells: Intro to Cells Key Concept: Cells are the basic unit of life. Introduction to Cells Cells are the basic units of organisms Cells can only be observed under microscope Basic types of cells: 1 Animal Cell

More information

http://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/cell/cell.html 4A: Students will compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Robert Hooke (1665) Used a compound microscope to look at thin slices of cork (oak

More information

B I O. 1. B I O A N A L Y Z E T H E C E L L A S A L I V I N G S Y S T E M.

B I O. 1. B I O A N A L Y Z E T H E C E L L A S A L I V I N G S Y S T E M. Goal 1 B I O. 1. 1 U N D E R S T A N D T H E R E L A T I O N S H I P B E T W E E N T H E S T R U C T U R E S A N D F U N C T I O N S O F C E L L S A N D T H E I R O R G A N E L L E S. B I O. 1. 2 A N A

More information

T HE C ELL C H A P T E R 1 P G. 4-23

T HE C ELL C H A P T E R 1 P G. 4-23 T HE C ELL C H A P T E R 1 P G. 4-23 A CELL IS THE SMALLEST LIVING UNIT KNOWN. IT IS OFTEN CALLED THE BUILDING BLOCK OF THE BODY, AND IS THE BASIC STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL UNIT OF AN ORGANISM. CELL THEORY

More information

Life is Cellular. Cell Structure and Function. The First Microscope Janssen Brothers/Galileo. Leeuwenhoek s Microscope

Life is Cellular. Cell Structure and Function. The First Microscope Janssen Brothers/Galileo. Leeuwenhoek s Microscope Life is Cellular Cell Structure and Function Life is Cellular, Eukaryotic Cell Structure, Cell Boundaries, The Diversity of Cellular Life Early microscopes allowed scientists to view life on a cellular

More information

Chapter: Life's Structure and Classification

Chapter: Life's Structure and Classification Table of Contents Chapter: Life's Structure and Classification Section 1: Living Things 1- What is an organism? Any living thing is called an organism. Organisms vary in size: 1)one-celled or unicellular

More information

Cell Review: Day "Pseudopodia" literally means? a) False feet b) True motion c) False motion d) True feet

Cell Review: Day Pseudopodia literally means? a) False feet b) True motion c) False motion d) True feet Cell Review: Day 1 1. "Pseudopodia" literally means? a) False feet b) True motion c) False motion d) True feet Cell Review: Day 1 2. What is the primary method of movement for Euglena? a) Flagella b) Cilia

More information

REVIEW 2: CELLS & CELL DIVISION UNIT. A. Top 10 If you learned anything from this unit, you should have learned:

REVIEW 2: CELLS & CELL DIVISION UNIT. A. Top 10 If you learned anything from this unit, you should have learned: Period Date REVIEW 2: CELLS & CELL DIVISION UNIT A. Top 10 If you learned anything from this unit, you should have learned: 1. Prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes No internal membranes vs. membrane-bound organelles

More information

Cells and Tissues PART B

Cells and Tissues PART B 3 Cells and Tissues PART B PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Jerry L. Cook, Sam Houston University ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY EIGHTH EDITION ELAINE N. MARIEB Cellular Physiology: Membrane

More information

What in the Cell is Going On?

What in the Cell is Going On? What in the Cell is Going On? Robert Hooke naturalist, philosopher, inventor, architect... (July 18, 1635 - March 3, 1703) In 1665 Robert Hooke publishes his book, Micrographia, which contains his drawings

More information

8/25/ Opening Questions: Are all living things made of cells? What are at least five things you know about cells?

8/25/ Opening Questions: Are all living things made of cells? What are at least five things you know about cells? Chapter 3 The Cell: Module Hyperlinks 3.1 Cells are the fundamental units of life 3.2 Plant vs. animal cells 3.3 Membranes: structure 3.4 Membranes: function 3.5 The nucleus 3.6 Organelles in protein production

More information

Topic 3: Cells Ch. 6. Microscopes pp Microscopes. Microscopes. Microscopes. Microscopes

Topic 3: Cells Ch. 6. Microscopes pp Microscopes. Microscopes. Microscopes. Microscopes Topic 3: Cells Ch. 6 -All life is composed of cells and all cells have a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and DNA. pp.105-107 - The development of the microscope was the key to understanding that all living

More information

Biology I Fall Semester Exam Review 2014

Biology I Fall Semester Exam Review 2014 Biology I Fall Semester Exam Review 2014 Biomolecules and Enzymes (Chapter 2) 8 questions Macromolecules, Biomolecules, Organic Compunds Elements *From the Periodic Table of Elements Subunits Monomers,

More information

Class IX: Biology Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. Chapter Notes. 1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells.

Class IX: Biology Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. Chapter Notes. 1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells. Class IX: Biology Chapter 5: The fundamental unit of life. Key learnings: Chapter Notes 1) In 1665, Robert Hooke first discovered and named the cells. 2) Cell is the structural and functional unit of all

More information

Fertilization of sperm and egg produces offspring

Fertilization of sperm and egg produces offspring In sexual reproduction Fertilization of sperm and egg produces offspring In asexual reproduction Offspring are produced by a single parent, without the participation of sperm and egg CONNECTIONS BETWEEN

More information

Biology 1 Semester Review

Biology 1 Semester Review Chapter 1 What is Science? 1 1 What Is Science? Key Concept The goal of science is to investigate and understand the natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations

More information

The cell. The cell theory. So what is a cell? 9/20/2010. Chapter 3

The cell. The cell theory. So what is a cell? 9/20/2010. Chapter 3 The cell Chapter 3 The cell theory all living organisms are made up of one or more cells, and all cells arise from other, pre-existing cells So what is a cell? The most basic unit of any organism The smallest

More information

Cell Cycle (mitosis and meiosis) Test Review

Cell Cycle (mitosis and meiosis) Test Review Cell Cycle (mitosis and meiosis) Test Review Name: Chapter 10 1. What problems are caused when a cell becomes too large? When a cell becomes too large the cell is strained and has a hard time moving enough

More information

Human Biology. THEORY Conceptual Scheme

Human Biology. THEORY Conceptual Scheme Human Biology Introduction: Definition of BIOLOGY Scientific method: 1. observation 2. hypothesis 3. experimentation 4. conclusion Terms: variables, controls, theory, law, data, repeatable Assumptions:

More information

Notes: Cell Processes 1. Movement across cell membrane 2. Photosynthesis 3. Cellular respiration 4. Cell cycle

Notes: Cell Processes 1. Movement across cell membrane 2. Photosynthesis 3. Cellular respiration 4. Cell cycle Notes: Cell Processes 1. Movement across cell membrane 2. Photosynthesis 3. Cellular respiration 4. Cell cycle AMDG 1. Notes: Movement across a cell membrane Cell Membrane-see picture in text book What

More information

Chapter 03. Lecture and Animation Outline

Chapter 03. Lecture and Animation Outline Chapter 03 Lecture and Animation Outline To run the animations you must be in Slideshow View. Use the buttons on the animation to play, pause, and turn audio/text on or off. Please Note: Once you have

More information

Number of questions TEK (Learning Target) Biomolecules & Enzymes

Number of questions TEK (Learning Target) Biomolecules & Enzymes Unit Biomolecules & Enzymes Number of questions TEK (Learning Target) on Exam 8 questions 9A I can compare and contrast the structure and function of biomolecules. 9C I know the role of enzymes and how

More information

Biology EOC Review. Scientific Method. 1. List the steps of the scientific method: Define the following: Hypothesis: Theory: Law:

Biology EOC Review. Scientific Method. 1. List the steps of the scientific method: Define the following: Hypothesis: Theory: Law: Scientific Method 1. List the steps of the scientific method: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 2. Define the following: Hypothesis: Theory: Law: Biology EOC Review 3. Three redwood trees are kept at different humidity

More information

... ",.,.' Cells ;

... ,.,.' Cells ; INTRODUCING CELLS Cells consistof cytoplasm, enclosed in a plasma, usually controlled by a single nucleus. Two cell types that can be easily lookedat under a light microscope are human cheek cells, scraped

More information

02/02/ Living things are organized. Analyze the functional inter-relationship of cell structures. Learning Outcome B1

02/02/ Living things are organized. Analyze the functional inter-relationship of cell structures. Learning Outcome B1 Analyze the functional inter-relationship of cell structures Learning Outcome B1 Describe the following cell structures and their functions: Cell membrane Cell wall Chloroplast Cytoskeleton Cytoplasm Golgi

More information

The Cell Notes 1 of 11

The Cell Notes 1 of 11 The Cell The basic unit of structure and function in living things The smallest units in living things The smallest units in living things that show the characteristics of life Organisms can be made of

More information

II. Eukaryotic Cell Structure A. Boundaries 1. plasma membrane a. serves as a boundary b/w the cell and its environment b. controls movement of

II. Eukaryotic Cell Structure A. Boundaries 1. plasma membrane a. serves as a boundary b/w the cell and its environment b. controls movement of I. History of the cell theory A. Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1600s) - dutch lens maker could see things with his lenses that were invisible to the naked eye - developed the simple microscope B. Robert Hooke

More information

Class Work 31. Describe the function of the Golgi apparatus? 32. How do proteins travel from the E.R. to the Golgi apparatus? 33. After proteins are m

Class Work 31. Describe the function of the Golgi apparatus? 32. How do proteins travel from the E.R. to the Golgi apparatus? 33. After proteins are m Eukaryotes Class Work 1. What does the word eukaryote mean? 2. What is the one major difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes? 3. List the different kingdoms of the eukaryote domain in the order in

More information

THE CELL CYCLE & MITOSIS. Asexual Reproduction: Production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent.

THE CELL CYCLE & MITOSIS. Asexual Reproduction: Production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent. THE CELL CYCLE & MITOSIS Asexual Reproduction: Production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent. Sexual Reproduction: The fusion of two separate parent cells that produce offspring with

More information

Mitosis and Meiosis Cell growth and division

Mitosis and Meiosis Cell growth and division LIMITS TO CELL GROWTH Mitosis and Meiosis Cell growth and division The larger the cell, the more trouble the cell has moving nutrients and waste across the cell membrane. LIMITS TO CELL GROWTH 1. DNA/information

More information

Cell Structure and Function Unit 4

Cell Structure and Function Unit 4 Cell Structure and Function Unit 4 Definition of Cell A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions. RECALL... Levels of Organization! Why do we call them cells? In 1665, Robert

More information

Key Concepts. n Cell Cycle. n Interphase. n Mitosis. n Cytokinesis

Key Concepts. n Cell Cycle. n Interphase. n Mitosis. n Cytokinesis The Cell Cycle B-2.6: Summarize the characteristics of the cell cycle: interphase (G 1, S, G 2 ); the phases of mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase); and plant and animal cytokinesis. Key

More information

Answers to Review for Unit Test #3: Cellular Reproduction: Mitosis, Meiosis, Karyotypes and Non-disjunction Disorders

Answers to Review for Unit Test #3: Cellular Reproduction: Mitosis, Meiosis, Karyotypes and Non-disjunction Disorders Answers to Review for Unit Test #3: Cellular Reproduction: Mitosis, Meiosis, Karyotypes and Non-disjunction Disorders 1. Clearly explain the difference between the following: a) chromosomes and chromatin

More information

NAME: PERIOD: The Cell and Its Functions

NAME: PERIOD: The Cell and Its Functions NAME: PERIOD: The Cell and Its Functions Directions: Using your notes and book as a guide, complete the following questions to review everything we have learned about cells, their parts, and any functions

More information

Honors Biology Fall Final Exam Study Guide

Honors Biology Fall Final Exam Study Guide Honors Biology Fall Final Exam Study Guide Helpful Information: Exam has 100 multiple choice questions. Be ready with pencils and a four-function calculator on the day of the test. Review ALL vocabulary,

More information

10/1/2014. Chapter Explain why the cell is considered to be the basic unit of life.

10/1/2014. Chapter Explain why the cell is considered to be the basic unit of life. Chapter 4 PSAT $ by October by October 11 Test 3- Tuesday October 14 over Chapter 4 and 5 DFA- Monday October 20 over everything covered so far (Chapters 1-5) Review on Thursday and Friday before 1. Explain

More information

GENERAL SAFETY: Follow your teacher s directions. Do not work in the laboratory without your teacher s supervision.

GENERAL SAFETY: Follow your teacher s directions. Do not work in the laboratory without your teacher s supervision. Name: Bio AP Lab: Cell Division B: Mitosis & Meiosis (Modified from AP Biology Investigative Labs) BACKGROUND: One of the characteristics of living things is the ability to replicate and pass on genetic

More information

Biology. Chapter 10 Cell Reproduction. I. Chromosomes

Biology. Chapter 10 Cell Reproduction. I. Chromosomes Biology Chapter 10 Cell Reproduction I. Chromosomes Long thin molecules that store genetic information. A. Chromosome Structure 1. Rod shaped structure composed of DNA and protein. 2. DNA is wrapped around

More information

Station What are the statements to the cell theory? 2. What are the two categories of cells?

Station What are the statements to the cell theory? 2. What are the two categories of cells? Station 1 1. What are the statements to the cell theory? 2. What are the two categories of cells? Station 2 3. List the main difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? 4. What are the similarities

More information

Cellular Reproduction

Cellular Reproduction Cellular Reproduction Ratio of Surface Area to Volume As the cell grows, its volume increases much more rapidly than the surface area. The cell might have difficulty supplying nutrients and expelling enough

More information

Meiosis. Bởi: OpenStaxCollege

Meiosis. Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Meiosis Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Sexual reproduction requires fertilization, a union of two cells from two individual organisms. If those two cells each contain one set of chromosomes, then the resulting cell

More information

Cell Theory. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function for all living things, but no one knew they existed before the 17 th century!

Cell Theory. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function for all living things, but no one knew they existed before the 17 th century! Cell Notes Cell Theory All living organisms are made of. cells The cell is the basic unit of structure and function for all living things, but no one knew they existed before the 17 th century! In 1665,

More information

The Process of Cell Division. Lesson Overview. Lesson Overview The Process of Cell Division

The Process of Cell Division. Lesson Overview. Lesson Overview The Process of Cell Division Lesson Overview 10.2 The Process of Cell Division Chromosomes genetic information passed from parent to offspring is carried by chromosomes. Chromosomes enable precise DNA separation during cell division.

More information

Now starts the fun stuff Cell structure and function

Now starts the fun stuff Cell structure and function Now starts the fun stuff Cell structure and function Cell Theory The three statements of the cell theory are: All organisms are composed of one or more cells and the processes of life occur in these cells.

More information

Biology Semester Review

Biology Semester Review Chapter 1 The Science of Biology Biology Semester Review 1 1 What is Science? One goal of science is to provide natural explanations for events in the natural world. Science also aims to use those explanations

More information

Chapter 3: Cells and Their Functions. Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Chapter 3: Cells and Their Functions. Copyright 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 3: Cells and Their Functions Overview Key Terms active transport filtration mitochondria cancer gene mitosis carcinogen hemolysis mutation chromosome hypertonic nucleus cytology hypotonic organelle

More information