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1 Name: ate: 1. One similarity between cell receptors and antibodies is that both. are produced by nerve cells B. are highly specific in their actions. slow the rates of chemical reactions. are involved in digestion 3. Just like complex organisms, cells are able to survive by coordinating various activities. omplex organisms have a variety of systems, and cells have a variety of organelles that work together for survival. escribe the roles of two organelles. In your answer be sure to include: the names of two organelles and the function of each an explanation of how these two organelles work together the name of an organelle and the name of a system in the human body that have similar functions 4. In a cell, all organelles work together to carry out 2. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the diagram, which shows some of the specialized organelles in a single-celled organism, and on your knowledge of biology.. diffusion B. active transport. information storage. metabolic processes Write the letter of one of the labeled organelles and state the name of that organelle. 5. While viewing a slide of rapidly moving sperm cells, a student concludes that these cells require a large amount of energy to maintain their activity. The organelles that most directly provide this energy are known as. vacuoles B. ribosomes. chloroplasts. mitochondria page 1

2 6. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the diagram, which represents a unicellular organism in a watery environment. The s represent molecules of a specific substance. 8. In a cell, information that controls the production of proteins must pass from the nucleus to the. cell membrane B. chloroplasts. mitochondria. ribosomes rrow represents active transport. State two ways that active transport is different from diffusion. 9. Muscle cells in athletes often have more mitochondria than muscle cells in nonathletes. Based on this observation, it can be inferred that the muscle cells in athletes. have a smaller demand for cell proteins than the muscle cells of nonathletes 7. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the two sets of cell organelles in the chart below and on your knowledge of biology. B. reproduce less frequently than the muscle cells of nonathletes. have nuclei containing more N than nuclei in the muscle cells of nonathletes. have a greater demand for energy than the muscle cells of nonathletes Select one set of organelles and record the letter of the set. Identify a cellular process that is accomplished by organelle 1 in the set you selected. Set: page 2

3 10. In the diagram below, which structure performs a function similar to a function of the human lungs? 12. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the diagrams below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagrams represent two different cells and some of their parts. The diagrams are not drawn to scale. Identify the organelle labeled X in cell! B.. 1 B Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the diagram below, which represents a sequence of events in a biological process that occurs within human cells and on your knowledge of biology. 11. Which organelle is correctly paired with its specific function?. cell membrane storage of hereditary information B. chloroplast transport of materials. ribosome synthesis of proteins. vacuole production of TP Molecule contains the. starch necessary for ribosome synthesis in the cytoplasm B. organic substance that is broken down into molecules B,, and. proteins that form the ribosome in the cytoplasm. directions for the synthesis of molecules B,, and page 3

4 14. n organelle that releases energy for metabolic activity in a nerve cell is the 16. Which cell structure contains information needed for protein synthesis?. chloroplast B. ribosome. mitochondrion. vacuole. 1 B The data table below shows the presence or absence of N in four different cell organelles. 17. The diagram below represents a cell. ata Table Organelle cell membrane cell wall mitochondrion nucleus N absent absent present present Information in the table suggests that N functions. within cytoplasm and outside of the cell membrane B. both inside and outside of the nucleus. only within energy-releasing structures. within cell vacuoles Which statement concerning TP and activity within the cell is correct?. The absorption of TP occurs at structure. B. The synthesis of TP occurs within structure B.. TP is produced most efficiently by structure.. The template for TP is found in structure. page 4

5 18. What is the main function of a vacuole in a cell?. storage B. coordination. synthesis of molecules 20. The ability of estrogen to affect certain cells depends directly on. amino acids B. receptor molecules. gametes. nerve cells. release of energy 21. Which substance is an inorganic molecule?. starch B. N. water. fat 19. The diagram below represents a cell found in some complex organisms. The enlarged section represents an organelle, labeled X, found in this cell. 22. Specialized cells and organs are necessary in multicellular organisms because in these organisms. fewer cells are in direct contact with the external environment escribe the function of organelle X and explain how it is important to the survival of the cell. In your answer, be sure to: identify organelle X B. all cells are in direct contact with the external environment. a body type evolved that relied on fewer body cells. a body type evolved that required larger sized cells state the process that this organelle performs identify the two raw materials that are needed for this process to occur identify one molecule produced by this organelle and explain why it is important to the organism 23. Within which structure of an animal cell does N replication take place?. vacuole B. cell membrane. nucleus. ribosome page 5

6 24. In a N sample, 15% of the bases are thymine (T). What percentage of the bases in this sample are adenine ()? 27. pesticide that kills an insect by interfering with the production of proteins in the insect would most directly affect the activity of. 15% B. 30%. 35%. 85%. ribosomes B. minerals. chloroplasts. mitochondria 25. substance is most likely to diffuse into a cell when. it is a large organic food molecule such as protein or starch B. it is enclosed in an organelle such as a vacuole. the concentration of the substance is greater outside the cell than inside. the ph of the substance is greater than the ph of the cell 28. The diagram below represents a cell and several molecules. The number of molecules shown represents the relative concentration of the molecules inside and outside of the cell. Key Molecule Molecule B Molecule Molecule B could enter the cell as a direct result of 26. Which substance can enter a cell by diffusion without having to be digested?. digestion B. diffusion. active transport. enzyme production. water B. protein. starch. fat page 6

7 29. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents a model cell setup. The locations of three different substances are indicated in the diagram. Which row in the chart below best explains the movement of some molecules between the model cell and the solution in the beaker? Row irection of Flow of Molecules Energy Use (1) from high to low concentration without using cellular energy (2) from high to low concentration using cellular energy (3) from low to high concentration without using cellular energy (4) from low to high concentration using cellular energy. Row (1) B. Row (2). Row (3). Row (4) 30. The chart below shows examples from two groups of organisms, multicellular and one-celled. The tissues and organs in group perform functions that are Group Multicellular Organisms Group B One-celled Organisms ow at Paramecium Vorticella. similar to those performed by the tissues and organs in group B B. similar to those performed by the cell organelles in group B. different from those performed by the tissues and organs in group B. identical to those performed by the cell organelles in group B page 7

8 31. The accompanying diagram represents part of a life process in a leaf chloroplast. 32. Which letter indicates a cell structure that directly controls the movement of molecules into and out of the cell? If the process illustrated in the diagram is interrupted by a chemical at point X, there would be an immediate effect on the release of. chlorophyll B. nitrogen. carbon dioxide. oxygen. B. B student prepared a wet-mount slide of some red onion cells and then added some salt water to the slide. The student observed the slide using a compound light microscope. iagram is typical of what the student observed after adding salt water. omplete diagram B to show how the contents of the red onion cells should appear if the cell were then rinsed with distilled water for several minutes. page 8

9 34. ata from two different cells are shown in the graphs below. Which cell is most likely a plant cell? Support your answer. 35. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. The ontrol of Transpiration Plants normally lose water from openings (stomates) in their leaves. The water loss typically occurs during daylight hours when plants are exposed to the Sun. This water loss, known as transpiration, is both beneficial and harmful to plants. Scientists believe wind and high temperatures increase the rate of transpiration, but the size of each stomate opening can be regulated. Reducing the size of the openings during drought conditions may help reduce the dehydration and wilting that would otherwise occur. leaf may lose more than its own weight in water each day. Transpiration also lowers the internal temperature of the leaf as water evaporates. On hot days, temperatures in the leaves may be from 3 to 15 cooler than the outside air. With stomates open, vital gases may be exchanged between the leaf tissues and the outside environment. Researchers have also found many plants that use another response when leaf temperatures rise. Special molecules known as heat shock proteins are produced by plant cells and help to hold enzymes in their functional shapes. State one way transpiration is beneficial to plants. 36. Identify two of the vital gases that are exchanged between leaf tissues and the outside environment. page 9

10 37. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. wet-mount slide of red onion cells is studied using a compound light microscope. drawing of one of the cells as seen under high power is shown below. escribe the proper way to add a saltwater solution to the cells without removing the coverslip. 39. Base your answers to the following question(s) on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. The sequences below represent the same portions of a N molecule from the same gene used by a student to study the relationship between two plant species. biological catalyst that recognizes the GG site is used to cut the N molecules into pieces. The catalyst cuts the N between the and G of the site. Species 1: T G G T T G T T T G G G T G Species 2: T G G T G G G T G G T T G re the two species of plants closely related? Support your answer. 38. The diagram below represents a change in guard cells that open and close pores in a plant. Th.is change directly helps to 40. The diagram below represents changes in the sizes of openings present in leaves as a result of the actions of cells X and Y. The actions of cells X and Y help the plant to. increase heterotrophic nutrition B. absorb minerals. regulate water loss. reduce seed production. maintain homeostasis by controlling water loss B. store excess heat during the day and remove the heat at night. absorb light energy necessary for cellular respiration. detect changes in the biotic factors present in the environment page 10

11 41. The diagram below represents specialized cells in the surface of the leaf of a green plant. The main function of these cells is to. change the size of the stomate to regulate water loss 43. The chart below contains characteristics that can be used to classify organisms, B, and. haracteristics Organism Organism B Organism Number of ells single celled multicellular single celled Type of Nutrition autotrophic autotrophic heterotrophic Nuclear Membrane absent present absent Ribosomes present present present State one reason why organism and organism might be placed into two different classification groups, even though they are both single celled. B. close the stomate to keep dust and dirt out of the leaf. directly provide leaf cells with the water involved in photosynthesis. allow newly formed glucose to be released from the leaf 44. In a multicellular organism, organs carry out a variety of life functions. In a single-celled organism, these functions are performed by. tissues B. organelles. organ systems. organs 42. Many scientists suggest that billions of years ago, life on Earth began with. simple, single-celled organisms B. simple, multicellular organisms. complex, single-celled organisms. complex, multicellular organisms 45. Single-celled organisms are able to maintain internal stability because they. have multiple organ systems B. work with other cells. contain structures that perform life functions. carry out photosynthesis to produce food page 11

12 Problem-ttic format version c Educide Software Licensed for use by Brooke Kneller Terms of Use at 05/25/ B 2. = vacuole (or food vacuole) B = vacuole (or contractile vacuole) = nucleus = cell membrane the cell membrane allows oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water to enter a cell OR a chloroplast uses water and carbon dioxide to make glucose OR mitochondria use food and oxygen to release energy The cell membrane allows carbon dioxide to enter a plant cell to be used by chloroplasts. food vacuole and digestive system OR cell membrane and respiratory system OR nucleus and nervous system ctive transport requires the use of energy by the organism. In active transport, molecules move from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration of those molecules. 7. Set : protein synthesis OR Set B: respiration ribosome B Identify organelle X as a mitochondrion. cceptable responses include, but are not limited to: respiration aerobic respiration releases energy sugar/glucose oxygen (O 2 ) TP This molecule makes energy available for life functions. Water This molecule is important for chemical reactions. O 2 This is a waste product that needs to be removed to maintain homeostasis. Note: llow credit for answers that are consistent with the student s response to the first part. B

13 Teacher s Key Page B B nswer should show a shaded area that is larger than the shaded area in diagram. ell 1, because it contains chloroplasts. OR ell 1, because it has a cell wall They have different nutritional requirements. is an autotroph and is a heterotroph. They have at least one very different characteristic. B 35. cceptable responses include, but are not limited to: Transpiration helps plants cool off on hot days. While transpiration is occurring, the stomates are open, allowing the exchange of important gases. 36. cceptable responses include, but are not limited to: oxygen water vapor carbon dioxide 37. cceptable responses include, but are not limited to: Place saltwater solution on one side of the coverslip. Then draw the saltwater solution under the coverslip by placing a piece of paper towel on the opposite side. Place a drop of saltwater solution on one side of a coverslip and a paper towel on the other side No, the biological catalyst made two cuts in species 1 N and only one cut in species 2 N. No, the catalyst cut the N of species 1 into three pieces and cut the N of species 2 into only two. No, 15 out of 24 bases are different. No, the base sequences are very different. 40.

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