Biology, 7e (Campbell) Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Biology, 7e (Campbell) Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles"

Transcription

1 Biology, 7e (Campbell) Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter Questions 1) What is a genome? A) the complete complement of an organism's genes B) a specific sequence of polypeptides within each cell C) a specialized polymer of four different kinds of monomers D) a specific segment of DNA that is found within a prokaryotic chromosome E) an ordered display of chromosomes arranged from largest to smallest Topic: Concept ) Which of the following statements about genes is incorrect? A) Genes correspond to segments of DNA. B) Many genes contain the information needed for cells to synthesize enzymes and other proteins. C) During fertilization, both the sperm and the ovum contribute genes to the resulting fertilized egg. D) Under normal circumstances, each chromosome contains precisely one gene. E) Genetic differences can result from changes in the DNA called mutations. Topic: Concept ) Asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction are different in that A) individuals reproducing asexually transmit 100% of their genes to their progeny, whereas individuals reproducing sexually only transmit 50%. B) asexual reproduction produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parents, whereas sexual reproduction gives rise to genetically distinct offspring. C) asexual reproduction involves a single parent, whereas sexual reproduction involves two. D) asexual reproduction only requires mitosis, whereas sexual reproduction always involves meiosis. E) all of the above Topic: Concept ) How do the two members of a pair of homologous chromosomes differ from each other? A) their length B) the identity and relative position of the genes present on each of the chromosomes C) their staining patterns D) the position of the centromere within each of the chromosomes E) the precise sequence of the DNA within each of the chromosomes 1

2 5) What is a karyotype? A) the set of unique physical characteristics that define an individual B) the collection of all the mutations present within a genome C) a unique combination of chromosomes found in a gamete D) a system of classifying cell nuclei E) a display of every pair of homologous chromosomes within a cell, organized according to size and shape 6) By examining a karyotype, it is possible to determine A) which of two related plant forms is a gametophyte, and which is a sporophyte. B) the sex of an animal. C) the age of a fungus. D) A and B only E) A, B, and C 7) At which stage of mitosis are chromosomes photographed in the preparation of a karyotype? A) prophase B) metaphase C) anaphase D) telophase E) interphase 8) The human X and Y chromosomes are A) both present in every somatic cell of males and females alike. B) of approximately equal size. C) almost entirely homologous, despite their different names. D) called "sex chromosomes" because they determine an individual's sex. E) all of the above 9) If the liver cells of an animal have 24 chromosomes, how many chromosomes do its sperm cells have? A) 6 B) 12 C) 24 D) 48 E) 64 2

3 10) Which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome number of 2n = 16? A) The species is diploid with 32 chromosomes. B) The species has 16 sets of chromosomes. C) There are 8 homologous pairs. D) During the S phase of the cell cycle there will be 32 separate chromosomes. E) A gamete from this species has 4 chromosomes. 11) Which of the following is the term for a human cell that contains 22 pairs of autosomes and two X chromosomes? A) an unfertilized egg cell B) a sperm cell C) a male somatic cell D) a female somatic cell E) both A and D 12) Eukaryotic sexual life cycles show tremendous variation. Of the following elements, which do all sexual life cycles have in common? I. alternation of generations II. meiosis III. fertilization IV. gametes V. spores, IV, and V B) I, II, and IV C) II, III, and IV D) II, IV, and V E) all of the above 13) Which of these statements is false? n humans, each of the 22 maternal autosomes has a homologous paternal chromosome. B) In humans, the 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, determines whether the person is female (XX) or male (XY). C) Single, haploid (n) sets of chromosomes in ovum and sperm unite during fertilization, forming a diploid (2n), single-celled zygote. D) At sexual maturity, ovaries and testes produce diploid gametes by meiosis. E) Sexual life cycles differ with respect to the relative timing of meiosis and fertilization. 3

4 14) In animals, meiosis results in gametes, and fertilization results in A) spores. B) gametophytes. C) zygotes. D) sporophytes. E) clones. 15) Referring to a plant sexual life cycle, which of the following terms describes the process that leads directly to the formation of gametes? A) sporophyte meiosis B) gametophyte mitosis C) gametophyte meiosis D) sporophyte mitosis E) alternation of generations 16) Which of the following is an example of alternation of generations? A) A grandparent and grandchild each have dark hair, but the parent has blond hair. B) A diploid plant (sporophyte) produces, by meiosis, a spore that gives rise to a multicellular, haploid pollen grain (gametophyte). C) A diploid animal produces gametes by meiosis, and the gametes undergo fertilization to produce a diploid zygote. D) A haploid mushroom produces gametes by mitosis, and the gametes undergo fertilization, which is immediately followed by meiosis. E) A diploid cell divides by mitosis to produce two diploid daughter cells, which then fuse to produce a tetraploid cell. 4

5 Refer to the life cycles illustrated in Figure 13.1 to answer the following questions. Figure ) Which of the life cycles is typical for animals? only only C) III only D) I and II E) I and III 18) Which of the life cycles is typical for plants and some algae? only only C) III only D) I and II E) I and III 5

6 19) Which of the life cycles is typical for most fungi and some protists? only only C) III only D) I and II E) I and III 20) Which of the following is missing from the life cycle progression shown below? sporophyte-meiosis-spore- -gametophyte-mitosis-gametes- fertilization-zygote A) meiosis B) mitosis C) synapsis D) karyotype E) fertilization 21) In animals, somatic cells are produced by mitosis and are produced by meiosis. A) gametes B) clones C) zygotes D) spores E) diploid cells 22) All of the following are functions of meiosis in plants except A) production of spores. B) reduction of chromosome number by half. C) independent assortment of chromosomes. D) crossing over and recombination of homologous chromosomes. E) production of identical daughter cells. Topic: Concepts ) After telophase I of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is A) diploid, and the chromosomes are composed of a single chromatid. B) diploid, and the chromosomes are composed of two chromatids. C) haploid, and the chromosomes are composed of a single chromatid. D) haploid, and the chromosomes are composed of two chromatids. E) tetraploid, and the chromosomes are composed of two chromatids. 6

7 24) How do cells at the completion of meiosis compare with cells that have replicated their DNA and are just about to begin meiosis? A) They have twice the amount of cytoplasm and half the amount of DNA. B) They have half the number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA. C) They have the same number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA. D) They have half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA. E) They have half the amount of cytoplasm and twice the amount of DNA. 25) When does the synaptonemal complex disappear? A) late prophase of meiosis I B) during fertilization or fusion of gametes C) early anaphase of meiosis I D) mid-prophase of meiosis II E) late metaphase of meiosis II 26) Which of the following terms belongs with the words synapsis, tetrads, and chiasmata? A) haploid B) crossing over C) autosomes D) prophase II E) fertilization For the following questions, match the key event of meiosis with the stages listed below. I. prophase I V. prophase II II. metaphase I VI. metaphase II III. anaphase I VII. anaphase II IV. telophase I VIII. telophase II 27) Tetrads of chromosomes are aligned at the center of the cell; independent assortment soon follows. C) IV D) VII E) VIII 7

8 28) Synapsis of homologous pairs occurs; crossing over may occur. C) IV D) VI E) VII 29) Centromeres of sister chromatids uncouple and chromatids separate. I I C) IV D) V E) VII 30) Which of the following happens at the conclusion of meiosis I? A) Homologous chromosomes are separated. B) The chromosome number is conserved. C) Sister chromatids are separated. D) Four daughter cells are formed. E) The sperm cells elongate to form a head and a tail end. 31) Which of the following is true of the process of meiosis? A) Two diploid cells result. B) Four diploid cells result. C) Four haploid cells result. D) Four autosomes result. E) Four chiasmata result. 32) Crossing over occurs during which phase of meiosis? A) prophase I B) anaphase I C) telophase I D) prophase II E) metaphase II 8

9 Refer to the drawings in Figure 13.2 of a single pair of homologous chromosomes as they might appear during various stages of either mitosis or meiosis, and answer the following questions. 33) Which diagram represents prophase I of meiosis? C) III D) IV E) V 34) Which drawing represents anaphase of mitosis? I I C) IV D) V E) VI Figure ) Which drawing represents metaphase II of meiosis? C) IV D) V E) VI 9

10 36) Which drawing represents a stage of meiosis in which independent assortment might occur if there were more than one pair of chromosomes represented? C) IV D) V E) VI Use the following key to answer the following questions. Each answer may be used once, more than once, or not at all. A. The statement is true for mitosis only. B. The statement is true for meiosis I only. C. The statement is true for meiosis II only. D. The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis I. E. The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II. 37) A cell divides to produce two daughter cells that are genetically identical. 38) Homologous chromosomes synapse and crossing over occurs. 39) Centromeres uncouple and chromatids are separated from each other. 40) Independent assortment of chromosomes occurs. 41) The process is preceded by replication of the DNA. 42) You have in your possession a microscope slide with meiotic cells on it and a light microscope. What would you look for if you wanted to identify metaphase I cells on the slide? A) a visible nuclear envelope B) separated sister chromatids at each pole of the cell C) tetrads lined up at the center of the cell D) a synaptonemal complex E) a cleavage furrow 10

11 You isolate DNA from three different cell types of an organism, determine the relative DNA content for each type, and plot the results on the graph shown in Figure Refer to the graph to answer the following questions. Figure ) If the cells were from a plant, which sample might represent a gametophyte cell? C) III D) either I or II E) either II or III 44) Which sample of DNA might be from a nerve cell arrested in G 0 of the cell cycle? C) III D) either I or II E) either II or III 45) Which sample might represent an animal cell in G 2 phase of the cell cycle? C) III D) both I and II E) both II and III 11

12 46) Which sample might represent a sperm cell? C) III D) either I or II E) either II or III 47) During meiosis, cells go from what number to what number? to II to I to III B) I to II to III C) II to I D) III to I E) always remain at I 48) During mitosis, diploid cells go from what number to what number? to III B) I to II C) II to III D) II to I E) always remain at II The following questions refer to the essential steps in meiosis described below. 1. formation of four new nuclei, each with half the chromosomes present in the parental nucleus 2. alignment of tetrads at the metaphase plate 3. separation of sister chromatids 4. separation of the homologues; no uncoupling of the centromere 5. synapsis; chromosomes moving to the middle of the cell in pairs 49) From the descriptions above, which of the following is the order that most logically illustrates a sequence of meiosis? A) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 B) 5, 4, 2, 1, 3 C) 5, 3, 2, 4, 1 D) 4, 5, 2, 1, 3 E) 5, 2, 4, 3, 1 12

13 50) Which of the steps take place in both mitosis and meiosis? A) 2 B) 3 C) 5 D) 2 and 3 only E) 2, 3, and 5 51) When comparing prophase I of meiosis with prophase of mitosis, which of the following occurs only in meiosis? A) The chromosomes condense. B) Tetrads form. C) The nuclear envelope disassembles. D) A spindle forms. E) Each chromosome is composed of two chromatids. 52) Which of the following occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis? A) chromosome replication B) synapsis C) production of daughter cells D) alignment of tetrads at metaphase plate E) both B and D 53) How does the sexual life cycle increase the genetic variation in a species? A) by allowing independent assortment of chromosomes B) by allowing random fertilization C) by allowing crossing over D) A and B only E) A, B, and C Topic: Concept ) For a species with a haploid number of 23 chromosomes, how many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes are possible for the gametes? A) 23 B) 46 C) 460 D) 920 E) about 8 million Topic: Concept

14 55) For a species with a diploid number of 10 chromosomes, how many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes are possible for the gametes? A) 5 B) 25 C) 32 D) 100 E) about 10,000 Topic: Concept ) Independent assortment of chromosomes is a result of A) the random and independent way in which each pair of homologous chromosomes lines up at the metaphase plate during meiosis I. B) the random nature of the fertilization of ova by sperm. C) the random distribution of the sister chromatids to the two daughter cells during anaphase II. D) the relatively small degree of homology shared by the X and Y chromosomes. E) all of the above Topic: Concept ) When pairs of homologous chromosomes separate during anaphase I, A) the maternal chromosomes all move to one daughter cell, and the paternal chromosomes all move to the other daughter cell. B) the sister chromatids remain linked to one another. C) most of the recombination has already occurred, with the remainder taking place during prophase II. D) the synaptonemal complex is visible under the light microscope. Topic: Concepts ) Which of the following statements about crossing over is incorrect? A) Crossing over combines sections of the maternal and paternal chromosomes. B) Crossing over plays a role in both sexual and asexual reproduction. C) There are on average one to three crossover events per chromosome. D) Crossing over increases the extent of genetic variation beyond what is possible through independent assortment alone. E) Crossing over results in recombinant chromosomes. Topic: Concepts

15 Media Activity Questions 59) What name is given to the process that restores the diploid number of chromosomes? A) fertilization B) asexual reproduction C) meiosis D) mitosis E) the cell cycle Topic: Web/CD Activity: Asexual and Sexual Life Cycles 60) At the end of and cytokinesis, haploid cells contain chromosomes that each consist of two sister chromatids. A) metaphase II B) telophase I C) telophase D) telophase II E) interphase Topic: Web/CD Activity: Meiosis Animation 61) Synapsis occurs during A) prophase I. B) telophase I and cytokinesis. C) prophase II. D) metaphase II. E) anaphase II. Topic: Web/CD Activity: Meiosis Animation 62) Homologous chromosomes migrate to opposite poles during A) telophase II and cytokinesis. B) prophase II. C) anaphase I. D) metaphase I. E) metaphase II. Topic: Web/CD Activity: Meiosis Animation 63) In a cell in which 2n = 6, the independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis can by itself give rise to genetically different gametes. A) two B) four C) five D) six E) eight Topic: Web/CD Activity: Origins of Genetic Variation 15

16 Self-Quiz Questions 64) A human cell containing 22 autosomes and a Y chromosome is A) a somatic cell of a male. B) a zygote. C) a somatic cell of a female. D) a sperm cell. E) an ovum. 65) Homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles of a dividing cell during A) mitosis. B) meiosis I. C) meiosis II. D) fertilization. E) binary fission. 66) Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that A) homologous chromosomes synapse. B) DNA replicates before the division. C) the daughter cells are diploid. D) sister chromatids separate during anaphase. E) the chromosome number is reduced. 67) If the DNA content of a diploid cell in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle is x, then the DNA content of the same cell at metaphase of meiosis I would be A) 0.25x B) 0.5x C) x. D) 2x. E) 4x. 68) If we continued to follow the cell lineage from question 4, then the DNA content at metaphase of meiosis II would be A) 0.25x. B) 0.5x. C) x. D) 2x. E) 4x. 69) How many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes can be packaged in gametes made by an organism with a diploid number of 8 (2n = 8)? A) 2 B) 4 C) 8 D) 16 E) 32 16

17 70) The immediate product of meiosis in a plant is a A) spore. B) gamete. C) sporophyte. D) gametophyte. E) zygote. 71) Multicellular haploid organisms A) are typically called sporophytes. B) produce new cells for growth by meiosis. C) produce gametes by mitosis. D) are found only in aquatic environments. E) are the direct result of fertilization. 72) Crossing over usually contributes to genetic variation by exchanging chromosomal segments between A) sister chromatids of a chromosome. B) chromatids of nonhomologues. C) nonsister chromatids of homologues. D) nonhomologous loci of the genome. E) autosomes and sex chromosomes. 73) In comparing the typical life cycles of plants and animals, a stage found in plants but not in animals is a A) gamete. B) zygote. C) multicellular diploid. D) multicellular haploid. 17

Chapter 13: Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles

Chapter 13: Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13: Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles What you must know The difference between asexual and sexual reproduction. The role of meiosis and fertilization in sexually reproducing organisms. The importance

More information

For a species to survive, it must REPRODUCE! Ch 13 NOTES Meiosis. Genetics Terminology: Homologous chromosomes

For a species to survive, it must REPRODUCE! Ch 13 NOTES Meiosis. Genetics Terminology: Homologous chromosomes For a species to survive, it must REPRODUCE! Ch 13 NOTES Meiosis Genetics Terminology: Autosomes Somatic cell Gamete Karyotype Homologous chromosomes Meiosis Sex chromosomes Diploid Haploid Zygote Synapsis

More information

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Overview: Hereditary Similarity and Variation

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Overview: Hereditary Similarity and Variation Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Overview: Hereditary Similarity and Variation Living organisms Are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind Biology, 7 th Edition Neil Campbell

More information

Ladies and Gentlemen.. The King of Rock and Roll

Ladies and Gentlemen.. The King of Rock and Roll Ladies and Gentlemen.. The King of Rock and Roll Learning Objectives: The student is able to construct an explanation, using visual representations or narratives, as to how DNA in chromosomes is transmitted

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS URRY CAIN WASSERMAN MINORSKY REECE 10 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Lecture Presentations by Kathleen Fitzpatrick and Nicole Tunbridge, Simon Fraser University SECOND EDITION

More information

Ch. 13 Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles

Ch. 13 Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles Introduction Ch. 13 Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles 2004-05 Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind. -Offspring resemble their parents more than they do less closely

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Lecture Outline Overview Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind. Offspring resemble their parents more than they do less

More information

Chapter 13: Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles

Chapter 13: Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13: Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles What you must know The difference between asexual and sexual reproduction. The role of meiosis and fertilization in sexually reproducing organisms. The importance

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Lecture Presentation by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick CAMPBELL BIOLOGY TENTH EDITION Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson Variations on a Theme Living

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

More information

BIOLOGY. Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles CAMPBELL. Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson

BIOLOGY. Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles CAMPBELL. Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson CAMPBELL BIOLOGY TENTH EDITION Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Lecture Presentation by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick Variations on a Theme Living

More information

Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual S Section 1: S Gamete: Haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote. S Zygote: The cell that results from the fusion of gametes

More information

You have body cells and gametes Body cells are known as somatic cells. Germ cells develop into gametes or sex cells. Germ cells are located in the

You have body cells and gametes Body cells are known as somatic cells. Germ cells develop into gametes or sex cells. Germ cells are located in the MEIOSIS You have body cells and gametes Body cells are known as somatic cells. Germ cells develop into gametes or sex cells. Germ cells are located in the ovaries and testes. Gametes are sex cells: egg

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11. Reproduction Section 1

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11. Reproduction Section 1 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11 Reproduction Section 1 Reproduction Key Idea: An individual formed by asexual reproduction is genetically identical to its parent. Asexual Reproduction In asexual

More information

Lecture 12 - Meiosis

Lecture 12 - Meiosis Lecture 12 - Meiosis In this lecture Types of reproduction Alternation of generations Homologous chromosomes and alleles Meiosis mechanism Sources of genetic variation Meiosis and Mitosis Mitosis the production

More information

QQ 10/5/18 Copy the following into notebook:

QQ 10/5/18 Copy the following into notebook: Chapter 13- Meiosis QQ 10/5/18 Copy the following into notebook: Similarities: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Differences: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Figure 13.1 Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their

More information

Outline for today s lecture (Ch. 13)

Outline for today s lecture (Ch. 13) Outline for today s lecture (Ch. 13) Sexual and asexual life cycles Meiosis Origins of Genetic Variation Independent assortment Crossing over ( recombination ) Heredity Transmission of traits between generations

More information

Meiosis and Life Cycles - 1

Meiosis and Life Cycles - 1 Meiosis and Life Cycles - 1 We have just finished looking at the process of mitosis, a process that produces cells genetically identical to the original cell. Mitosis ensures that each cell of an organism

More information

MEIOSIS LAB INTRODUCTION PART I: SIMULATION OF MEIOSIS EVOLUTION. Activity #9

MEIOSIS LAB INTRODUCTION PART I: SIMULATION OF MEIOSIS EVOLUTION. Activity #9 AP BIOLOGY EVOLUTION Unit 1 Part 7 Chapter 13 Activity #9 NAME DATE PERIOD MEIOSIS LAB INTRODUCTION Meiosis involves two successive nuclear divisions that produce four haploid cells. Meiosis I is the reduction

More information

Topic 8 Mitosis & Meiosis Ch.12 & 13. The Eukaryotic Genome. The Eukaryotic Genome. The Eukaryotic Genome

Topic 8 Mitosis & Meiosis Ch.12 & 13. The Eukaryotic Genome. The Eukaryotic Genome. The Eukaryotic Genome Topic 8 Mitosis & Meiosis Ch.12 & 13 The Eukaryotic Genome pp. 244-245,268-269 Genome All of the genes in a cell. Eukaryotic cells contain their DNA in long linear pieces. In prokaryotic cells, there is

More information

Typical Life Cycle of Algae and Fungi. 5 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Typical Life Cycle of Algae and Fungi. 5 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Module 3B Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles In this module, we will examine a second type of cell division used by eukaryotic cells called meiosis. In addition, we will see how the 2 types of eukaryotic cell

More information

Meiosis. The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the regular number of chromosomes, are produced.

Meiosis. The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the regular number of chromosomes, are produced. MEIOSIS Meiosis The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the regular number of chromosomes, are produced. diploid (2n) haploid (n) (complete set of chromosomes) (half the regular number of

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Lecture Outline Overview: Variations on a Theme Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind. Offspring resemble their parents

More information

Biology Unit 6 Chromosomes and Mitosis

Biology Unit 6 Chromosomes and Mitosis Biology Unit 6 Chromosomes and Mitosis 6:1 Chromosomes DNA GENES CHROMATIN/CHROMOSOMES CHROMOSOMES/CHROMATIN are made of units called GENES. GENES are made of a compound called deoxyribonucleic acid or

More information

MEIOSIS C H A P T E R 1 3

MEIOSIS C H A P T E R 1 3 MEIOSIS CHAPTER 13 CENTRAL DOGMA OF BIOLOGY DNA RNA Protein OFFSPRING ACQUIRE GENES FROM PARENTS Genes are segments of DNA that program specific traits. Genetic info is transmitted as specific sequences

More information

Learning Objectives LO 3.7 The student can make predictions about natural phenomena occurring during the cell cycle. [See SP 6.4]

Learning Objectives LO 3.7 The student can make predictions about natural phenomena occurring during the cell cycle. [See SP 6.4] Big Ideas 3.A.2: In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis or meiosis plus fertilization. CHAPTER 13 MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL

More information

Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. Chapter 11

Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. Chapter 11 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Chapter 11 1 Sexual life cycle Made up of meiosis and fertilization Diploid cells Somatic cells of adults have 2 sets of chromosomes Haploid cells Gametes (egg and sperm)

More information

CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION. Chapter 10

CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION. Chapter 10 CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION Chapter 10 Cell division = The formation of 2 daughter cells from a single parent cell Increases ratio of surface area to volume for each cell Allows for more efficient exchange

More information

Meiosis. Bởi: OpenStaxCollege

Meiosis. Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Meiosis Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Sexual reproduction requires fertilization, a union of two cells from two individual organisms. If those two cells each contain one set of chromosomes, then the resulting cell

More information

Reproduction & Cell Types

Reproduction & Cell Types Reproduction & Cell Types TYPES OF REPRODUCTION Asexual Relies on MITOSIS All of the parent s DNA goes to the offspring Sexual Relies on MEIOSIS Used to create sex cells TYPES OF CELLS Body Cells Includes

More information

Cellular Division. copyright cmassengale

Cellular Division. copyright cmassengale Cellular Division 1 Cell Division All cells are derived from pre- existing cells New cells are produced for growth and to replace damaged or old cells Differs in prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes (protists,

More information

MEIOSIS DR. A. TARAB DEPT. OF BIOCHEMISTRY HKMU

MEIOSIS DR. A. TARAB DEPT. OF BIOCHEMISTRY HKMU MEIOSIS DR. A. TARAB DEPT. OF BIOCHEMISTRY HKMU Meiosis is a special type of cell division necessary for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes such as animals, plants and fungi The number of sets of chromosomes

More information

Overview. Overview: Variations on a Theme. Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes. Inheritance of Genes

Overview. Overview: Variations on a Theme. Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes. Inheritance of Genes Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Overview I. Cell Types II. Meiosis I. Meiosis I II. Meiosis II III. Genetic Variation IV. Reproduction Overview: Variations on a Theme Figure 13.1 Living organisms

More information

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION & MEIOSIS

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION & MEIOSIS SEXUAL REPRODUCTION & MEIOSIS Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind. Offspring resemble their parents more than they do less closely related individuals of the

More information

Human biology Laboratory. Cell division. Lecturer Maysam A Mezher

Human biology Laboratory. Cell division. Lecturer Maysam A Mezher Human biology Laboratory Cell division Lecturer Maysam A Mezher CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE 1. During nuclear division, the DNA (as chromatin) in a Eukaryotic cell's nucleus is coiled into very tight compact

More information

Meiosis Production of Chromosome Hybrids & Gametes. Packet #29

Meiosis Production of Chromosome Hybrids & Gametes. Packet #29 Meiosis Production of Chromosome Hybrids & Gametes Packet #29 Introduction Meiosis, discovered in 1883, was first observed through the fertilized egg and individual gametes, sperm and unfertilized egg,

More information

Mitosis and Meiosis Review

Mitosis and Meiosis Review 1 What is a chromatid? a special region that holds two centromeres together a chromosome found outside the nucleus a chromosome in G1 of the cell cycle a replicated chromosome another name for the chomosomes

More information

Meiosis. Section 8-3

Meiosis. Section 8-3 Meiosis Section 8-3 Meiosis process of nuclear division that reduces the number of chromosomes in new cells to half the number in the original cell For example, in humans, meiosis produces haploid reproductive

More information

GENERAL SAFETY: Follow your teacher s directions. Do not work in the laboratory without your teacher s supervision.

GENERAL SAFETY: Follow your teacher s directions. Do not work in the laboratory without your teacher s supervision. Name: Bio AP Lab: Cell Division B: Mitosis & Meiosis (Modified from AP Biology Investigative Labs) BACKGROUND: One of the characteristics of living things is the ability to replicate and pass on genetic

More information

Unit 6 Test: The Cell Cycle

Unit 6 Test: The Cell Cycle Name Date Class Mrs. Knight Biology EHS Unit 6 Test: The Cell Cycle 1. What are the four main stages of the cell cycle (correct order)? A. G 1, S, G 0, M C. G 2, S, G 1, M B. G 1, S, G 2, M D. M, G 2,

More information

Meiosis. Introduction. A life cycle is the generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism.

Meiosis. Introduction. A life cycle is the generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism. Meiosis The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is believed to have originated near Iran and southern Afghanistan. The flowers are bright red with five petals. After the flower is fertilized with pollen the

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction. Chapter 10. Halving the Chromosome Number. Homologous Pairs

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction. Chapter 10. Halving the Chromosome Number. Homologous Pairs Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 10 Outline Reduction in Chromosome Number Homologous Pairs Meiosis Overview Genetic Recombination Crossing-Over Independent Assortment Fertilization Meiosis I Meiosis

More information

LAB 8 EUKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS

LAB 8 EUKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS LAB 8 EUKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS Name: Date: INTRODUCTION BINARY FISSION: Prokaryotic cells (bacteria) reproduce asexually by binary fission. Bacterial cells have a single circular chromosome,

More information

MEIOSIS LAB INTRODUCTION PART I: MEIOSIS

MEIOSIS LAB INTRODUCTION PART I: MEIOSIS MEIOSIS LAB INTRODUCTION Meiosis involves two successive nuclear divisions that produce four haploid cells. Meiosis I is the reduction division. It is this first division that reduces the chromosome number

More information

Warm up. sexual life cycle. 1. Compare sexual to asexual reproduction. 2. What are homologous chromosomes?

Warm up. sexual life cycle. 1. Compare sexual to asexual reproduction. 2. What are homologous chromosomes? Warm up 1. Compare sexual to asexual reproduction. 2. What are homologous chromosomes? 1. Describe what major processes occur during a sexual life cycle. Warm up 1. Describe what occurs during crossing

More information

gametes Gametes somatic cells diploid (2n) haploid (n)

gametes Gametes somatic cells diploid (2n) haploid (n) Overview of Meiosis Meiosis is a form of cell division that leads to the production of gametes. Gametes: egg cells and sperm cells (reproductive) -contain half the number of chromosomes of an adult body

More information

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Name: AP Biology Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles 13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes 1. Define the following terms: gene locus gamete male gamete female gamete

More information

Essential Knowledge: In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis OR

Essential Knowledge: In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis OR Essential Knowledge: In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis OR meiosis plus fertilization Objective: You will be able

More information

CELL REPRODUCTION VOCABULARY- CHAPTER 8 (33 words)

CELL REPRODUCTION VOCABULARY- CHAPTER 8 (33 words) CELL REPRODUCTION- CHAPTER 8 CELL REPRODUCTION VOCABULARY- CHAPTER 8 (33 words) 1. Chromosome 2. histone 3. chromatid 4. Centromere 5. chromatin 6. autosome 7. Sex chromosome 8. homologous chromosome 9.

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction. Chapter 9

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction. Chapter 9 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 9 9.1 Genes and Alleles Genes Sequences of DNA that encode heritable traits Alleles Slightly different forms of the same gene Each specifies a different version

More information

Sexual Reproduction ( Cell Division ) - Chromosome # s

Sexual Reproduction ( Cell Division ) - Chromosome # s Sexual Reproduction ( Cell Division ) - Chromosome # s somatic cells: all the cells in the body except for specialized sex cells each somatic cell has a specific # of chromosomes - ( humans have 46, 23

More information

Agenda. 1. Lesson Learning Goals 2. Meiosis 3. Meiosis Bingo

Agenda. 1. Lesson Learning Goals 2. Meiosis 3. Meiosis Bingo Meiosis SBI 3U Agenda 1. Lesson Learning Goals 2. Meiosis 3. Meiosis Bingo Learning Goals By the end of today s lesson, you will be able: To use proper vocabulary related to this unit, including meiosis,

More information

Sexual Cell Reproduction Chapter 17

Sexual Cell Reproduction Chapter 17 Sexual Cell Reproduction Chapter 17 1 The Importance of Meiosis Meiosis is a two stage cell division in which the chromosome number of the parental cell is reduced by half. Meiosis is the process by which

More information

Lesson Overview Meiosis

Lesson Overview Meiosis 11.4 THINK ABOUT IT As geneticists in the early 1900s applied Mendel s laws, they wondered where genes might be located. They expected genes to be carried on structures inside the cell, but which structures?

More information

Cell Division: the process of copying and dividing entire cells The cell grows, prepares for division, and then divides to form new daughter cells.

Cell Division: the process of copying and dividing entire cells The cell grows, prepares for division, and then divides to form new daughter cells. Mitosis & Meiosis SC.912.L.16.17 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis and relate to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation. 1. Students will describe

More information

Chapter 11 - Concept Mapping

Chapter 11 - Concept Mapping Chapter 11 - Concept Mapping Using the terms and phrases provided below, complete the concept map showing the process of meiosis. chromatids crossing-over haploid sperm and ovum homologous chromosomes

More information

BIOLOGY - CLUTCH CH.13 - MEIOSIS.

BIOLOGY - CLUTCH CH.13 - MEIOSIS. !! www.clutchprep.com CONCEPT: SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Meiosis is a special type of cell division that occurs as part of the sexual life cycle of eukaryotes Sexual reproduction parents donate a unique mixture

More information

Cellular Reproduction = Cell Division. Passes on Genes from Cells to Cells Reproduction of Organisms

Cellular Reproduction = Cell Division. Passes on Genes from Cells to Cells Reproduction of Organisms Cellular Reproduction = Cell Division Passes on Genes from Cells to Cells Reproduction of Organisms Genes DNA Chromatin fiber Chromosomes Fig. 9.6 Genes, the segments of DNA, are part of chromatin fiber

More information

Honors Biology Test Chapter 8 Mitosis and Meiosis

Honors Biology Test Chapter 8 Mitosis and Meiosis Honors Biology Test Chapter 8 Mitosis and Meiosis 1. In mitosis, if a parent cell has 16 chromosomes, each daughter cell will have how many chromosomes? a. 64 b. 32 c. 16 d. 8 e. 4 2. Chromatids that are

More information

Fertilization of sperm and egg produces offspring

Fertilization of sperm and egg produces offspring In sexual reproduction Fertilization of sperm and egg produces offspring In asexual reproduction Offspring are produced by a single parent, without the participation of sperm and egg CONNECTIONS BETWEEN

More information

Cell Division. Mitosis

Cell Division. Mitosis Cell division consists of two phases, nuclear division followed by cytokinesis. Nuclear division divides the genetic material in the nucleus, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm. There are two kinds

More information

Biology Kevin Dees. Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Biology Kevin Dees. Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Reproduction Characteristic of all living things Reproduction also involves the transmission of traits from one generation to the next; inheritance Heredity Latin

More information

Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles. Reproduction

Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles. Reproduction Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Reproduction Characteristic of all living things Reproduction also involves the transmission of traits from one generation to the next; inheritance Heredity Latin

More information

MGC New Life Christian Academy

MGC New Life Christian Academy A. Meiosis Main Idea: Meiosis produces haploid gametes. Key Concept: Asexual reproduction involves one parent and produces offspring that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent. Sexual

More information

A diploid somatic cell from a rat has a total of 42 chromosomes (2n = 42). As in humans, sex chromosomes determine sex: XX in females and XY in males.

A diploid somatic cell from a rat has a total of 42 chromosomes (2n = 42). As in humans, sex chromosomes determine sex: XX in females and XY in males. Multiple Choice Use the following information for questions 1-3. A diploid somatic cell from a rat has a total of 42 chromosomes (2n = 42). As in humans, sex chromosomes determine sex: XX in females and

More information

Anaphase, Telophase. Animal cells divide their cytoplasm by forming? Cleavage furrow. Bacteria, Paramecium, Amoeba, etc. reproduce by...

Anaphase, Telophase. Animal cells divide their cytoplasm by forming? Cleavage furrow. Bacteria, Paramecium, Amoeba, etc. reproduce by... The 4 phases of mitosis Animal cells divide their cytoplasm by forming? Bacteria, Paramecium, Amoeba, etc. reproduce by... Cell which after division is identical to the original is called a Prophase, Metaphase,

More information

Sexual Reproduction. The two parent cells needed for sexual reproduction are called gametes. They are formed during a process known as meiosis.

Sexual Reproduction. The two parent cells needed for sexual reproduction are called gametes. They are formed during a process known as meiosis. Sexual Reproduction Recall that asexual reproduction involves only one parent cell. This parent cell divides to produce two daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent. Sexual reproduction,

More information

Meiosis * OpenStax. This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0.

Meiosis * OpenStax. This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0. OpenStax-CNX module: m45466 1 Meiosis * OpenStax This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 By the end of this section, you will be able to: Abstract

More information

BIOLOGY. COLLEGE PHYSICS Chapter 11 MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Chapter # Chapter Title PowerPoint Image Slideshow

BIOLOGY. COLLEGE PHYSICS Chapter 11 MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Chapter # Chapter Title PowerPoint Image Slideshow BIOLOGY COLLEGE PHYSICS Chapter 11 MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Chapter # Chapter Title PowerPoint Image Slideshow CAMPBELL BIOLOGY TENTH EDITION Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson 13 Meiosis

More information

11-4 Meiosis. Chromosome Number

11-4 Meiosis. Chromosome Number 11-4 Meiosis Chromosome Number Sexual reproduction shuffles and recombines genes from two parents. During gametogenesis, genes are segregated and assorted (shuffled) into gemetes, and at fertilization,

More information

Mitosis and. Meiosis. Presented by Kesler Science

Mitosis and. Meiosis. Presented by Kesler Science Mitosis and Meiosis Presented by Kesler Science Essential Questions: 1. What are mitosis and meiosis? 2. What occurs at different phases in cell division? 3. How are mitosis and meiosis similar and different?

More information

Cell Reproduction Review

Cell Reproduction Review Name Date Period Cell Reproduction Review Explain what is occurring in each part of the cell cycle --- G 0, G1, S, G2, and M. 1 CELL DIVISION Label all parts of each cell in the cell cycle and explain

More information

THE CELL CYCLE & MITOSIS. Asexual Reproduction: Production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent.

THE CELL CYCLE & MITOSIS. Asexual Reproduction: Production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent. THE CELL CYCLE & MITOSIS Asexual Reproduction: Production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent. Sexual Reproduction: The fusion of two separate parent cells that produce offspring with

More information

2:1 Chromosomes DNA Genes Chromatin Chromosomes CHROMATIN: nuclear material in non-dividing cell, composed of DNA/protein in thin uncoiled strands

2:1 Chromosomes DNA Genes Chromatin Chromosomes CHROMATIN: nuclear material in non-dividing cell, composed of DNA/protein in thin uncoiled strands Human Heredity Chapter 2 Chromosomes, Mitosis, and Meiosis 2:1 Chromosomes DNA Genes Chromatin Chromosomes CHROMATIN: nuclear material in non-dividing cell, composed of DNA/protein in thin uncoiled strands

More information

Cell Division. Mitosis 11/8/2016

Cell Division. Mitosis 11/8/2016 Cell division consists of two phases, nuclear division followed by cytokinesis. Nuclear division divides the genetic material in the nucleus, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm. There are two kinds

More information

Almost all human cells contain 46 chromosomes, and are diploid (2n). Q: If a sperm cell has 46 chromosomes (2n) & an egg cell has 46 chromosomes

Almost all human cells contain 46 chromosomes, and are diploid (2n). Q: If a sperm cell has 46 chromosomes (2n) & an egg cell has 46 chromosomes Almost all human cells contain 46 chromosomes, and are diploid (2n). Q: If a sperm cell has 46 chromosomes (2n) & an egg cell has 46 chromosomes (2n), when they combine during fertilization, how many chromosomes

More information

Human Biology Chapter 13.4: Meiosis and Genetic Variation

Human Biology Chapter 13.4: Meiosis and Genetic Variation OpenStax-CNX module: m58013 1 Human Biology Chapter 13.4: Meiosis and Genetic Variation Willy Cushwa Based on Meiosis by OpenStax This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Single parent produces offspring All offspring are genetically identical to one another and to parent Produces identical somatic (body) cells Sexual

More information

Cell Division (Meiosis)

Cell Division (Meiosis) Cell Division (Meiosis) Meiosis The form of cell division by which gametes, with half the number of chromosomes, are produced. Diploid (2n) haploid (n) Meiosis is sexual reproduction. Two divisions (meiosis

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Lecture Outline Overview: Variations on a Theme Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind. Offspring resemble their parents

More information

CHAPTER 6. Chromosomes and Meiosis

CHAPTER 6. Chromosomes and Meiosis CHAPTER 6 Chromosomes and Meiosis CHROMOSOMES DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a long, thin molecule that directs cellular functions and heredity. DNA contains information that is encoded in segments called

More information

Meiosis. Two distinct divisions, called meiosis I and meiosis II

Meiosis. Two distinct divisions, called meiosis I and meiosis II Meiosis A process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes to form gametes, or sex cells Two distinct divisions, called meiosis I and

More information

Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. Outline. Random?? fertilization. Chapter 13

Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis. Outline. Random?? fertilization. Chapter 13 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Chapter 13 Outline Reduction Division Unique Features of Meiosis Prophase I Metaphase I Completing Meiosis Second Meiotic Division Sexual Reproduction Origin and Maintenance

More information

Dr. Ramesh U4L3 Meiosis

Dr. Ramesh U4L3 Meiosis Dr. Ramesh U4L3 Meiosis The Cell Cycle and Cell Division: MEIOSIS The Cell Cycle and Cell Division KEY CONCEPT: Meiosis Halves the Nuclear Chromosome Content and Generates Diversity Organisms have two

More information

CELL REPRODUCTION NOTES

CELL REPRODUCTION NOTES CELL REPRODUCTION NOTES CELL GROWTH AND DIVISION The adult human body produces roughly cells every day. WHY DO CELLS REPRODUCE? So that the organism can and As multicellular organisms grow larger, its

More information

BIOLOGY 111. CHAPTER 5: Chromosomes and Inheritance

BIOLOGY 111. CHAPTER 5: Chromosomes and Inheritance BIOLOGY 111 CHAPTER 5: Chromosomes and Inheritance Chromosomes and Inheritance Learning Outcomes 5.1 Differentiate between sexual and asexual reproduction in terms of the genetic variation of the offspring.

More information

Mitosis & Meiosis. PPT Questions. 4. Why must each new cell get a complete copy of the original cell s DNA?

Mitosis & Meiosis. PPT Questions. 4. Why must each new cell get a complete copy of the original cell s DNA? 1. From where do new cells arise? Mitosis & Meiosis PPT Questions 2. Why does the body constantly make new cells? 3. Is cell division the same in all cells? Explain. 4. Why must each new cell get a complete

More information

Name Chapter 10: Chromosomes, Mitosis, and Meiosis Mrs. Laux Take home test #7 DUE: MONDAY, NOVEMBER 16, 2009 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Name Chapter 10: Chromosomes, Mitosis, and Meiosis Mrs. Laux Take home test #7 DUE: MONDAY, NOVEMBER 16, 2009 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. A bacterial chromosome consists of: A. a linear DNA molecule many times larger than the cell. B. a circular DNA molecule many times larger than the cell. C. a circular DNA

More information

LECTURE 10A: MEIO S S

LECTURE 10A: MEIO S S LECTURE 10A: MEIOSIS Meiosis Definition INTRODUCTION 1. Meiosis is the production of gametes, which is a reduction division which means a diploid gamete produces haploid gametes - from a full complement

More information