Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Lecture 10: Plant Cell Cycle Gary Peter

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Lecture 10: Plant Cell Cycle Gary Peter"

Transcription

1 Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Lecture 10: Plant Cell Cycle Gary Peter 9/10/2008 1

2 Learning Objectives Explain similarities and differences between fungal, mammalian and plant cell cycles Explain the role of the cell cycle machinery in plant development 9/10/2008 PMCB Lecture 9: G. Peter 2

3 Plant Cell Cycle is Conserved De Veylder et al., 2007 Nature Rev. MCB 8: /10/2008 PMCB Lecture 9: G. Peter 3

4 Plant CDK, Cyclin Regulators are Conserved: All Predicted Arabidopsis CDKs and Cyclins Arabidopsis thaliana has 12 distinct bona fide CDKs and more than 49 different cyclins 9/10/2008 PMCB Lecture 9: G. Peter 4 The Plant Cell, Vol. 14, , April 2002

5 CDKs CDK classifications based on conserved sequences corresponds well with their functional diversity. The major drivers of the plant cell cycle are the A- and B- type CDKs. A-type CDKs (CDKA) are most similar to mammalian CDK1 and CDK2, they are constitutively present during the cell cycle, and they control the G1 S and G2 M transitions. B-type CDKs (CDKB) are specific to plants and their accumulation depends on the phase of the cell cycle, they reach a maximum level at the G2 M transition, the phase at which their activity is required. 9/10/2008 PMCB Lecture 9: G. Peter 5

6 Cyclins Cell-cycle progression requires the sequential association of the CDKs with different types of cyclin. D-type cyclins (CYCD) regulate the G1 S transition, although there is accumulating evidence that they also might have a role in the G2 M transition. A-type cyclins (CYCA) are mainly present from S phase to M phase. B-type cyclin (CYCB) levels peak at the G2 M transition and during M phase1. To date, the exact composition of different CDK cyclin complexes in plants is largely unknown. Arabidopsis Cyclin Type # in family A 10 B 11 D 10 H 1 9/10/2008 PMCB Lecture 9: G. Peter 6

7 Cyclin D Functional redundancy high- inferred from the lack of strong phenotypes in single gene knockouts Expression is modulated by cytokinins, auxins, brassinosteroids, sucrose, gibberellins CYCD3;1- is rate limiting for calli starved of exogenous cytokinin and overexpression is sufficient to compensate for exogenous cytokinin CYCD2;1- overexpression stimulates faster growth leading to larger plants with similar sized cells 9/10/2008 PMCB Lecture 9: G. Peter 7

8 Ectopic Expression of At Cyclin D2 Stimulates Growth Cockcroft et.al. 00 Nature 405: Dry Weight Increases 3-4.5X after 35 days Height Increases ~36% after 55 days Cell Division Rate Increased Meristem organization unaffected

9 Cyclin A Single gene knockouts show limited phenotypes Multigene knockouts with RNAi have embryo defects Lines overexpressing CYCA s have ectopic cell division and delayed differentiation high levels of S phase specific genes and CDK- CYCA activity and impaired shoot and root regeneration 9/10/2008 PMCB Lecture 9: G. Peter 9

10 Ectopic Expression of Cyclin A in Roots Stimulates Cell Division After 6 days, dry weight increased 6-8X Root apical growth rate increased 30-40% Cell # increased Root morphology was normal Doerner et al. 96 Nature 380:

11 Cyclin B Overexpression in roots stimulates growth dramatically overall root They trigger G2-M transition even in Xenopus CYCG;1 binds to and activates both A- and B- CDKs in vitro 9/10/2008 PMCB Lecture 9: G. Peter 11

12 Control of G1/S Transition Expression of cyclin Ds are regulated by hormones and sucrose Similar players and feedback mechanisms Rb (single gene) and E2F (three genes) CKI (Krps) Are different meristems regulated differently with different gene family members? Lateral roots Shoot apical meristems Annual Reviews

13 Transcriptional Control of G1/S Conserved transcriptional activators E2Fa/b and DP and retinoblastoma related protein is inactivated by CDKA-cycD Plant innovation - E2Fc is a transcriptional repressor that suppresses cell division 9/10/2008 PMCB Lecture 9: G. Peter 13 De Veylder et al., 2007 Nature Rev. MCB 8:

14 Potential Role of RBR and E2F- DP in Chromatin Remodeling Histone deacetylases are targeted to promoters via interaction with retinoblastoma like proteins which bind to E2F-DP transactivators Inactivation of RBR releases HDACs to remodel chromatin 9/10/2008 around important PMCB Lecture 9: G. genes Peter 14 De Veylder et al., 2007 Nature Rev. MCB 8:

15 G2/M Transition Cyclin B triggers this transition; however Cyclin D also expressed at this boundary and CYCD3;3 kinases were active at G2/M transition as well as G1/S 9/10/2008 PMCB Lecture 9: G. Peter 15

16 Transcriptional Control of G2/M A model for the induction of M-phase specific genes CDK phosphorylates the COOH tail of MYB3RA2 9/10/2008 PMCB Lecture 9: G. Peter 16 De Veylder et al., 2007 Nature Rev. MCB 8:

17 Mitosis to Endocycle RB-E2F pathway is crucial for endocycle for continued DNA synthesis CDKB1;1 regulation of G2-M transition critical for endocycle Elimination of mitotic CDK activity involves activation of CKIs and 9/10/2008 repression and proteolysis PMCB of G2-M-specific Lecture 9: G. Peter cyclins 17

18 The Interaction of Developmental Programs with the Cell Cycle is Critical Plant meristem formation, maintenance and function depend on proper regulation of the cell cycle machinery A whole host of genes have been identified that are critical for meristem formation, identity, and maintenance Shoot and root meristems have different genes involved in meristem formation and maintenance 9/10/2008 PMCB Lecture 9: G. Peter 18

19 Plant Shoot Apical Meristem Example of where cell division control occurs in plants External signals must interact with cell cycle control elements 9/10/2008 PMCB Lecture 9: G. Peter 19 Biochem. Molec Bio. of Plants, 2000

20 Control of Asymmetric Division within the Pericycle Cells for Lateral Root Induction Auxin induces lateral roots to form from pericycle cells at the xylem poles Early upregulation of E2Fa and CYCD genes Early repression of ICK/KRP genes Auxin regulation of De Veylder et al., 2007 Nature Rev. MCB 8: /10/2008 CYCA and CYCB? PMCB Lecture 9: G. Peter 20

21 Model for Control of Cell Differentiation: Cell Cycle for Cells Flanks of the Meristem that do not Divide Threshold of CDK Activity above a specific amount cells stay in a division pattern Below a specific amount of activity allows them to differentiate De Veylder et al., 2007 Nature Rev. MCB 8: /10/2008 PMCB Lecture 9: G. Peter 21

22 Summary The basic mechanisms are conserved, based on sequence similarity of the different proteins Plants have more gene family members which may be related to the sessile nature of plants The endoreduplication cycle in dicot plants occurs commonly Integration of the cell cycle with development is just starting to be worked out 9/10/2008 PMCB Lecture 9: G. Peter 22

Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Lecture 8: Mechanisms of Cell Cycle Control and DNA Synthesis Gary Peter

Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Lecture 8: Mechanisms of Cell Cycle Control and DNA Synthesis Gary Peter Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Lecture 8: Mechanisms of Cell Cycle Control and DNA Synthesis Gary Peter 9/10/2008 1 Learning Objectives Explain why a cell cycle was selected for during evolution

More information

Life Sciences 1a: Section 3B. The cell division cycle Objectives Understand the challenges to producing genetically identical daughter cells

Life Sciences 1a: Section 3B. The cell division cycle Objectives Understand the challenges to producing genetically identical daughter cells Life Sciences 1a: Section 3B. The cell division cycle Objectives Understand the challenges to producing genetically identical daughter cells Understand how a simple biochemical oscillator can drive the

More information

Regulation of Transcription in Eukaryotes. Nelson Saibo

Regulation of Transcription in Eukaryotes. Nelson Saibo Regulation of Transcription in Eukaryotes Nelson Saibo saibo@itqb.unl.pt In eukaryotes gene expression is regulated at different levels 1 - Transcription 2 Post-transcriptional modifications 3 RNA transport

More information

10/4/2017. Chapter 39

10/4/2017. Chapter 39 Chapter 39 1 Reception 1 Reception 2 Transduction CYTOPLASM CYTOPLASM Cell wall Plasma membrane Phytochrome activated by light Cell wall Plasma membrane Phytochrome activated by light cgmp Second messenger

More information

CELL CYCLE AND DIFFERENTIATION

CELL CYCLE AND DIFFERENTIATION CELL CYCLE AND DIFFERENTIATION Dewajani Purnomosari Department of Histology and Cell Biology Faculty of Medicine Universitas Gadjah Mada d.purnomosari@ugm.ac.id WHAT IS CELL CYCLE? 09/12/14 d.purnomosari@ugm.ac.id

More information

Major Plant Hormones 1.Auxins 2.Cytokinins 3.Gibberelins 4.Ethylene 5.Abscisic acid

Major Plant Hormones 1.Auxins 2.Cytokinins 3.Gibberelins 4.Ethylene 5.Abscisic acid Plant Hormones Lecture 9: Control Systems in Plants What is a Plant Hormone? Compound produced by one part of an organism that is translocated to other parts where it triggers a response in target cells

More information

Chapter 15 Active Reading Guide Regulation of Gene Expression

Chapter 15 Active Reading Guide Regulation of Gene Expression Name: AP Biology Mr. Croft Chapter 15 Active Reading Guide Regulation of Gene Expression The overview for Chapter 15 introduces the idea that while all cells of an organism have all genes in the genome,

More information

Dr. Fred Cross, Rockefeller (KITP Bio Networks 3/26/2003) 1

Dr. Fred Cross, Rockefeller (KITP Bio Networks 3/26/2003) 1 Outline Cell growth as the driver for cell cycle (in microbes): coordination of growth and division A basic principle organizing cell cycle control: why cyclin-dependent kinase activity must oscillate

More information

Lecture 10: Cyclins, cyclin kinases and cell division

Lecture 10: Cyclins, cyclin kinases and cell division Chem*3560 Lecture 10: Cyclins, cyclin kinases and cell division The eukaryotic cell cycle Actively growing mammalian cells divide roughly every 24 hours, and follow a precise sequence of events know as

More information

Cytokinin. Fig Cytokinin needed for growth of shoot apical meristem. F Cytokinin stimulates chloroplast development in the dark

Cytokinin. Fig Cytokinin needed for growth of shoot apical meristem. F Cytokinin stimulates chloroplast development in the dark Cytokinin Abundant in young, dividing cells Shoot apical meristem Root apical meristem Synthesized in root tip, developing embryos, young leaves, fruits Transported passively via xylem into shoots from

More information

Prokaryotic Regulation

Prokaryotic Regulation Prokaryotic Regulation Control of transcription initiation can be: Positive control increases transcription when activators bind DNA Negative control reduces transcription when repressors bind to DNA regulatory

More information

Plant Growth and Development

Plant Growth and Development Plant Growth and Development Concept 26.1 Plants Develop in Response to the Environment Factors involved in regulating plant growth and development: 1. Environmental cues (e.g., day length) 2. Receptors

More information

The Arabidopsis D-Type Cyclin CYCD2;1 and the Inhibitor ICK2/KRP2 Modulate Auxin-Induced Lateral Root Formation C W OA

The Arabidopsis D-Type Cyclin CYCD2;1 and the Inhibitor ICK2/KRP2 Modulate Auxin-Induced Lateral Root Formation C W OA The Plant Cell, Vol. 23: 641 660, February 2011, www.plantcell.org ã 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists The Arabidopsis D-Type Cyclin CYCD2;1 and the Inhibitor ICK2/KRP2 Modulate Auxin-Induced Lateral

More information

Preface The plant cell cycle in context

Preface The plant cell cycle in context Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 65, No. 10, pp. 2557 2562, 2014 doi:10.1093/jxb/eru188 Preface The plant cell cycle in context Plants have a distinctive mode of continuous development, involving the

More information

Network Dynamics and Cell Physiology. John J. Tyson Department of Biological Sciences & Virginia Bioinformatics Institute

Network Dynamics and Cell Physiology. John J. Tyson Department of Biological Sciences & Virginia Bioinformatics Institute Network Dynamics and Cell Physiology John J. Tyson Department of Biological Sciences & Virginia Bioinformatics Institute Signal Transduction Network Hanahan & Weinberg (2000) Gene Expression Signal-Response

More information

CONTROL SYSTEMS IN PLANTS

CONTROL SYSTEMS IN PLANTS AP BIOLOGY PLANTS FORM & FUNCTION ACTIVITY #5 NAME DATE HOUR CONTROL SYSTEMS IN PLANTS HORMONES MECHANISM FOR HORMONE ACTION Plant Form and Function Activity #5 page 1 CONTROL OF CELL ELONGATION Plant

More information

23-. Shoot and root development depend on ratio of IAA/CK

23-. Shoot and root development depend on ratio of IAA/CK Balance of Hormones regulate growth and development Environmental factors regulate hormone levels light- e.g. phototropism gravity- e.g. gravitropism temperature Mode of action of each hormone 1. Signal

More information

3.B.1 Gene Regulation. Gene regulation results in differential gene expression, leading to cell specialization.

3.B.1 Gene Regulation. Gene regulation results in differential gene expression, leading to cell specialization. 3.B.1 Gene Regulation Gene regulation results in differential gene expression, leading to cell specialization. We will focus on gene regulation in prokaryotes first. Gene regulation accounts for some of

More information

5.1. Cells have distinct phases of growth, reproduction, and normal functions. G 1. Cell Growth and Division CHAPTER 5 THE CELL CYCLE KEY CONCEPT

5.1. Cells have distinct phases of growth, reproduction, and normal functions. G 1. Cell Growth and Division CHAPTER 5 THE CELL CYCLE KEY CONCEPT SECTION 5.1 THE CELL CYCLE Study Guide KEY CONCEPT Cells have distinct phases of growth, reproduction, and normal functions. VOCABULARY cell cycle mitosis cytokinesis The cell cycle has four main stages.

More information

Is that artificial turf or real grass? Its thicker than Bermuda!

Is that artificial turf or real grass? Its thicker than Bermuda! Is that artificial turf or real grass? Its thicker than Bermuda! 1 Using Plant Growth Regulators Growth regulators DO NOT interfere with plant respiration, photosynthesis, or other internal plant functions

More information

Regulation of Gene Expression

Regulation of Gene Expression Chapter 18 Regulation of Gene Expression PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

More information

Bio 100 Guide 27.

Bio 100 Guide 27. Bio 100 Guide 27 http://www.offthemarkcartoons.com/cartoons/1994-11-09.gif http://www.cneccc.edu.hk/subjects/bio/album/chapter20/images/plant_growth.jpg http://pgjennielove.files.wordpress.com/2008/06/apical_meristem.png

More information

Chapter 39. Plant Response. AP Biology

Chapter 39. Plant Response. AP Biology Chapter 39. Plant Response 1 Plant Reactions Stimuli & a Stationary Life u animals respond to stimuli by changing behavior move toward positive stimuli move away from negative stimuli u plants respond

More information

Triggering the cell cycle in plants

Triggering the cell cycle in plants The development of plants, compared with that of animals, is influenced much more by the environment in which they grow, suggesting that plants have evolved mechanisms that relay environmental signals

More information

CHAPTER 12 - THE CELL CYCLE (pgs )

CHAPTER 12 - THE CELL CYCLE (pgs ) CHAPTER 12 - THE CELL CYCLE (pgs. 228-245) CHAPTER SEVEN TARGETS I. Describe the importance of mitosis in single-celled and multi-cellular organisms. II. Explain the organization of DNA molecules and their

More information

Chapter 18 Regulation of Gene Expression

Chapter 18 Regulation of Gene Expression Chapter 18 Regulation of Gene Expression Differential gene expression Every somatic cell in an individual organism contains the same genetic information and replicated from the same original fertilized

More information

Variability in the Control of Cell Division Underlies Sepal Epidermal Patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana

Variability in the Control of Cell Division Underlies Sepal Epidermal Patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana Variability in the Control of Cell Division Underlies Sepal Epidermal Patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana Adrienne H. K. Roeder 1,2., Vijay Chickarmane 1., Alexandre Cunha 2,3, Boguslaw Obara 4,B.S. Manjunath

More information

Questions for Biology IIB (SS 2006) Wilhelm Gruissem

Questions for Biology IIB (SS 2006) Wilhelm Gruissem Questions for Biology IIB (SS 2006) Plant biology Wilhelm Gruissem The questions for my part of Biology IIB, Plant Biology, are provided for self-study and as material for the exam. Please note that the

More information

Big Advantage!:Vegetative reproduction is a faster way to reproduce compared to sexual reproduction if the environment is favorable.

Big Advantage!:Vegetative reproduction is a faster way to reproduce compared to sexual reproduction if the environment is favorable. DAY 5 OF CHAPTER 25 NOTES http://www.toto.com/misha/mavica/folliage2.jpg Asexual reproduction in plants is also known as vegetative reproduction. Methods of vegetative reproduction include plant structures

More information

DIRECTORATE OF SCHOOL EDUCATION, GOVERNMENT OF TAMILNADU, CHENNAI BOTANY SYLLABUS

DIRECTORATE OF SCHOOL EDUCATION, GOVERNMENT OF TAMILNADU, CHENNAI BOTANY SYLLABUS Unit - I Taxonomy of Angiosperms 1.1 to 1.3. Analyses the Systems of Classification of plants Recalls uses of Herbaria develops skill in preparing Herbarium Sheets in a Scientific manner. Recalls Economic

More information

Written Exam 15 December Course name: Introduction to Systems Biology Course no

Written Exam 15 December Course name: Introduction to Systems Biology Course no Technical University of Denmark Written Exam 15 December 2008 Course name: Introduction to Systems Biology Course no. 27041 Aids allowed: Open book exam Provide your answers and calculations on separate

More information

Eukaryotic Gene Expression

Eukaryotic Gene Expression Eukaryotic Gene Expression Lectures 22-23 Several Features Distinguish Eukaryotic Processes From Mechanisms in Bacteria 123 Eukaryotic Gene Expression Several Features Distinguish Eukaryotic Processes

More information

AP Biology Unit 6 Practice Test 1. A group of cells is assayed for DNA content immediately following mitosis and is found to have an average of 8

AP Biology Unit 6 Practice Test 1. A group of cells is assayed for DNA content immediately following mitosis and is found to have an average of 8 AP Biology Unit 6 Practice Test Name: 1. A group of cells is assayed for DNA content immediately following mitosis and is found to have an average of 8 picograms of DNA per nucleus. How many picograms

More information

Control of plant growth and development through manipulation of cell-cycle genes Bart GW den Boer* and James AH Murray

Control of plant growth and development through manipulation of cell-cycle genes Bart GW den Boer* and James AH Murray 138 Control of plant growth and development through manipulation of cell-cycle genes Bart GW den Boer* and James AH Murray The plant embryo is a relatively simple structure consisting of a primordial shoot

More information

Plant Development. Chapter 31 Part 1

Plant Development. Chapter 31 Part 1 Plant Development Chapter 31 Part 1 Impacts, Issues Foolish Seedlings, Gorgeous Grapes Gibberellin and other plant hormones control the growth and development of plants environmental cues influence hormone

More information

Lecture 18 June 2 nd, Gene Expression Regulation Mutations

Lecture 18 June 2 nd, Gene Expression Regulation Mutations Lecture 18 June 2 nd, 2016 Gene Expression Regulation Mutations From Gene to Protein Central Dogma Replication DNA RNA PROTEIN Transcription Translation RNA Viruses: genome is RNA Reverse Transcriptase

More information

A developmental geneticist s guide to roots Find out about the hidden half of plants

A developmental geneticist s guide to roots Find out about the hidden half of plants the Centre for Plant Integrative Biology A developmental geneticist s guide to roots Find out about the hidden half of plants What do roots look like from the inside? How do roots form? Can we improve

More information

7.013 Problem Set

7.013 Problem Set 7.013 Problem Set 5-2013 Question 1 During a summer hike you suddenly spot a huge grizzly bear. This emergency situation triggers a fight or flight response through a signaling pathway as shown below.

More information

Investigation 7 Part 1: CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS

Investigation 7 Part 1: CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS Investigation 7 Part 1: CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS How do eukaryotic cells divide to produce genetically identical cells? BACKGROUND One of the characteristics of living things is the ability to replicate

More information

Study Guide A. Answer Key. Cell Growth and Division. SECTION 1. THE CELL CYCLE 1. a; d; b; c 2. gaps 3. c and d 4. c 5. b and d 6.

Study Guide A. Answer Key. Cell Growth and Division. SECTION 1. THE CELL CYCLE 1. a; d; b; c 2. gaps 3. c and d 4. c 5. b and d 6. Cell Growth and Division Answer Key SECTION 1. THE CELL CYCLE 1. a; d; b; c 2. gaps 3. c and d 4. c 5. b and d 6. G 1 7. G 0 8. c 9. faster; too large 10. volume 11. a and b 12. repeating pattern or repetition

More information

Plant hormones. Characteristics

Plant hormones. Characteristics Plant hormones Plant hormones (also known as phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate plant growth, which, in the UK, are termed 'plant growth substances'. Plant hormones are signal molecules produced

More information

POTASSIUM IN PLANT GROWTH AND YIELD. by Ismail Cakmak Sabanci University Istanbul, Turkey

POTASSIUM IN PLANT GROWTH AND YIELD. by Ismail Cakmak Sabanci University Istanbul, Turkey POTASSIUM IN PLANT GROWTH AND YIELD by Ismail Cakmak Sabanci University Istanbul, Turkey Low K High K High K Low K Low K High K Low K High K Control K Deficiency Cakmak et al., 1994, J. Experimental Bot.

More information

Review (V1): Phases of Cell Cycle

Review (V1): Phases of Cell Cycle Review (V1): Phases of Cell Cycle The cell cycle consists of 4 distinct phases: - G 1 phase, - S phase (synthesis), - G 2 phase - and M phase (mitosis). Interphase: combines G 1, S, and G 2 Activation

More information

UNIT 6 PART 3 *REGULATION USING OPERONS* Hillis Textbook, CH 11

UNIT 6 PART 3 *REGULATION USING OPERONS* Hillis Textbook, CH 11 UNIT 6 PART 3 *REGULATION USING OPERONS* Hillis Textbook, CH 11 REVIEW: Signals that Start and Stop Transcription and Translation BUT, HOW DO CELLS CONTROL WHICH GENES ARE EXPRESSED AND WHEN? First of

More information

Name Chapter 10: Chromosomes, Mitosis, and Meiosis Mrs. Laux Take home test #7 DUE: MONDAY, NOVEMBER 16, 2009 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Name Chapter 10: Chromosomes, Mitosis, and Meiosis Mrs. Laux Take home test #7 DUE: MONDAY, NOVEMBER 16, 2009 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. A bacterial chromosome consists of: A. a linear DNA molecule many times larger than the cell. B. a circular DNA molecule many times larger than the cell. C. a circular DNA

More information

Reproduction, Seeds and Propagation

Reproduction, Seeds and Propagation Reproduction, Seeds and Propagation Diploid (2n) somatic cell Two diploid (2n) somatic cells Telophase Anaphase Metaphase Prophase I One pair of homologous chromosomes (homologues) II Homologues condense

More information

can affect division, elongation, & differentiation of cells to another region of plant where they have an effect

can affect division, elongation, & differentiation of cells to another region of plant where they have an effect Note that the following is a rudimentary outline of the class lecture; it does not contain everything discussed in class. Plant Hormones Plant Hormones compounds regulators growth or can affect division,

More information

Transcriptional Responses to the Auxin Hormone

Transcriptional Responses to the Auxin Hormone I PP67CH21-Wagner ARI 8 February 2016 14:18 R E V I E W S Review in Advance first posted online on February 22, 2016. (Changes may still occur before final publication online and in print.) E N C A D V

More information

HOW DO CELLS KNOW WHAT THEY WANT TO

HOW DO CELLS KNOW WHAT THEY WANT TO Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 2003. 54:403 30 doi: 10.1146/annurev.arplant.54.031902.134823 Copyright c 2003 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved HOW DO CELLS KNOW WHAT THEY WANT TO BE WHEN THEY GROW UP? Lessons

More information

Department of Plant Systems Biology, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, B-9052 Gent, Belgium b

Department of Plant Systems Biology, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, B-9052 Gent, Belgium b The Plant Cell, Vol. 17, 1723 1736, June 2005, www.plantcell.org ª 2005 American Society of Plant Biologists The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor KRP2 Controls the Onset of the Endoreduplication Cycle

More information

Elisabeth J Chapman and Mark Estelle

Elisabeth J Chapman and Mark Estelle Minireview Cytokinin and auxin intersection in root meristems Elisabeth J Chapman and Mark Estelle Address: Division of Biology, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0116, USA. Correspondence: Mark Estelle.

More information

56:198:582 Biological Networks Lecture 10

56:198:582 Biological Networks Lecture 10 56:198:582 Biological Networks Lecture 10 Temporal Programs and the Global Structure The single-input module (SIM) network motif The network motifs we have studied so far all had a defined number of nodes.

More information

Keywords: Arabidopsis, D-type cyclins, seed size, cell cycle, endosperm, central cell.

Keywords: Arabidopsis, D-type cyclins, seed size, cell cycle, endosperm, central cell. The Plant Journal (215) 84, 41 55 doi: 1.1111/tpj.12957 Activation of CYCD7;1 in the central cell and early endosperm overcomes cell-cycle arrest in the Arabidopsis female gametophyte, and promotes early

More information

REVIEW 7: PLANT ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY UNIT. A. Top 10 If you learned anything from this unit, you should have learned:

REVIEW 7: PLANT ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY UNIT. A. Top 10 If you learned anything from this unit, you should have learned: Period Date REVIEW 7: PLANT ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY UNIT A. Top 10 If you learned anything from this unit, you should have learned: 1. Gas exchange a. structure: stomates b. function: diffusion, supports

More information

Actions of auxin. Hormones: communicating with chemicals History: Discovery of a growth substance (hormone- auxin)

Actions of auxin. Hormones: communicating with chemicals History: Discovery of a growth substance (hormone- auxin) Hormones: communicating with chemicals History- discovery of plant hormone. Auxin Concepts of hormones Auxin levels are regulated by synthesis/degradation, transport, compartmentation, conjugation. Polar

More information

Lecture 8: Temporal programs and the global structure of transcription networks. Chap 5 of Alon. 5.1 Introduction

Lecture 8: Temporal programs and the global structure of transcription networks. Chap 5 of Alon. 5.1 Introduction Lecture 8: Temporal programs and the global structure of transcription networks Chap 5 of Alon 5. Introduction We will see in this chapter that sensory transcription networks are largely made of just four

More information

STUDY UNIT 1 MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS. Klug, Cummings & Spencer Chapter 2. Morphology of eukaryotic metaphase chromosomes. Chromatids

STUDY UNIT 1 MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS. Klug, Cummings & Spencer Chapter 2. Morphology of eukaryotic metaphase chromosomes. Chromatids STUDY UNIT 1 MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS Klug, Cummings & Spencer Chapter 2 Life depends on cell division and reproduction of organisms. Process involves transfer of genetic material. New somatic (body) cells

More information

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION PRC2 represses dedifferentiation of mature somatic cells in Arabidopsis Momoko Ikeuchi 1 *, Akira Iwase 1 *, Bart Rymen 1, Hirofumi Harashima 1, Michitaro Shibata 1, Mariko Ohnuma 1, Christian Breuer 1,

More information

I. Molecules & Cells. A. Unit One: The Nature of Science. B. Unit Two: The Chemistry of Life. C. Unit Three: The Biology of the Cell.

I. Molecules & Cells. A. Unit One: The Nature of Science. B. Unit Two: The Chemistry of Life. C. Unit Three: The Biology of the Cell. I. Molecules & Cells A. Unit One: The Nature of Science a. How is the scientific method used to solve problems? b. What is the importance of controls? c. How does Darwin s theory of evolution illustrate

More information

Useful Propagation Terms. Propagation The application of specific biological principles and concepts in the multiplication of plants.

Useful Propagation Terms. Propagation The application of specific biological principles and concepts in the multiplication of plants. Useful Propagation Terms Propagation The application of specific biological principles and concepts in the multiplication of plants. Adventitious Typically describes new organs such as roots that develop

More information

Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic genes

Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic genes BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) Lecture 18: Eukaryotic genes http://compbio.uchsc.edu/hunter/bio5099 Larry.Hunter@uchsc.edu Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic genes Like in prokaryotes,

More information

Chapter 33 Control Systems in Plants

Chapter 33 Control Systems in Plants Chapter 33 Control Systems in Plants PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture by

More information

The cell cycle entails an ordered series of macromolecular

The cell cycle entails an ordered series of macromolecular 21 REGULATING THE EUKARYOTIC CELL CYCLE This cultured rat kidney cell in metaphase shows condensed chromosomes (blue), microtubules of the spindle apparatus (red), and the inner nuclear envelope protein

More information

Biology 213 Exam 3 Practice Key

Biology 213 Exam 3 Practice Key Biology 213 Practice Key 1. (4) Explain the difference between a macronutrient and a micronutrient and cite two examples of each category? Macronutrients are the minerals needed by the plant in greater

More information

Chapter 17. From Gene to Protein. Biology Kevin Dees

Chapter 17. From Gene to Protein. Biology Kevin Dees Chapter 17 From Gene to Protein DNA The information molecule Sequences of bases is a code DNA organized in to chromosomes Chromosomes are organized into genes What do the genes actually say??? Reflecting

More information

Principles of Experimental Embryology

Principles of Experimental Embryology Biology 4361 Developmental Biology Principles of Experimental Embryology June 16, 2008 Overview What forces affect embryonic development? The embryonic environment: external and internal How do forces

More information

Plant growth and development are controlled

Plant growth and development are controlled Cellular Responses to Auxin: Division versus Expansion Catherine Perrot-Rechenmann Institut des Sciences du Végétal, UPR2355 CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, Cedex, France Correspondence:

More information

Marcelo J. Yanovsky and Steve A. Kay

Marcelo J. Yanovsky and Steve A. Kay LIVING BY THE CALENDAR: HOW PLANTS KNOW WHEN TO FLOWER Marcelo J. Yanovsky and Steve A. Kay Reproductive processes in plants and animals are usually synchronized with favourable seasons of the year. It

More information

Ginkgo leaf. Ginkgo is dioecious, separate sexes: male and female plants are separate. Monoecious plants have both male and female parts.

Ginkgo leaf. Ginkgo is dioecious, separate sexes: male and female plants are separate. Monoecious plants have both male and female parts. Ginkgo leaf Figure 22-30 Ginkgo tree. Ginkgo is dioecious, separate sexes: male and female plants are separate. Monoecious plants have both male and female parts. The vein pattern is dichotomous: Divided

More information

Cytokinin Signaling in Arabidopsis

Cytokinin Signaling in Arabidopsis The Plant Cell, S47 S59, Supplement 2002, www.plantcell.org 2002 American Society of Plant Biologists Cytokinin Signaling in Arabidopsis Claire E. Hutchison and Joseph J. Kieber 1 Biology Department, University

More information

Field 045: Science Life Science Assessment Blueprint

Field 045: Science Life Science Assessment Blueprint Field 045: Science Life Science Assessment Blueprint Domain I Foundations of Science 0001 The Nature and Processes of Science (Standard 1) 0002 Central Concepts and Connections in Science (Standard 2)

More information

The Cell Cycle/Le Cycle cellulaire SMC6052/BIM6028 IRCM

The Cell Cycle/Le Cycle cellulaire SMC6052/BIM6028 IRCM The Cell Cycle/Le Cycle cellulaire SMC6052/BIM6028 IRCM 1 février 2018 Benjamin H. Kwok, Ph.D. Chercheur principal, Institut de recherche en immunologie et en cancérologie Professeur sous octroi agrégé,

More information

Plant Rac-Like GTPases Are Activated by Auxin and Mediate Auxin-Responsive Gene Expression

Plant Rac-Like GTPases Are Activated by Auxin and Mediate Auxin-Responsive Gene Expression The Plant Cell, Vol. 14, 1 16, November 2002, www.plantcell.org 2002 American Society of Plant Biologists Plant Rac-Like GTPases Are Activated by Auxin and Mediate Auxin-Responsive Gene Expression Li-zhen

More information

Plant Propagation PLS 3221/5222

Plant Propagation PLS 3221/5222 Plant Propagation PLS 3221/5222 Dr. Sandra Wilson Dr. Mack Thetford Chapter 2 Introduction to the Biology of Plant Propagation -A review- 1 5. Plant Hormones and Plant development Phytohormones Nt Naturally

More information

Control of Prokaryotic (Bacterial) Gene Expression. AP Biology

Control of Prokaryotic (Bacterial) Gene Expression. AP Biology Control of Prokaryotic (Bacterial) Gene Expression Figure 18.1 How can this fish s eyes see equally well in both air and water? Aka. Quatro ojas Regulation of Gene Expression: Prokaryotes and eukaryotes

More information

Chem Lecture 10 Signal Transduction

Chem Lecture 10 Signal Transduction Chem 452 - Lecture 10 Signal Transduction 111202 Here we look at the movement of a signal from the outside of a cell to its inside, where it elicits changes within the cell. These changes are usually mediated

More information

Measuring TF-DNA interactions

Measuring TF-DNA interactions Measuring TF-DNA interactions How is Biological Complexity Achieved? Mediated by Transcription Factors (TFs) 2 Regulation of Gene Expression by Transcription Factors TF trans-acting factors TF TF TF TF

More information

Why Flies? stages of embryogenesis. The Fly in History

Why Flies? stages of embryogenesis. The Fly in History The Fly in History 1859 Darwin 1866 Mendel c. 1890 Driesch, Roux (experimental embryology) 1900 rediscovery of Mendel (birth of genetics) 1910 first mutant (white) (Morgan) 1913 first genetic map (Sturtevant

More information

Increase in fruit size of a spontaneous mutant of Gala apple (Malus3domestica Borkh.) is facilitated by altered cell production and enhanced cell size

Increase in fruit size of a spontaneous mutant of Gala apple (Malus3domestica Borkh.) is facilitated by altered cell production and enhanced cell size Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 61, No. 11, pp. 3003 3013, 2010 doi:10.1093/jxb/erq134 Advance Access publication 19 May, 2010 This paper is available online free of all access charges (see http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/open_access.html

More information

Gene regulation II Biochemistry 302. Bob Kelm February 28, 2005

Gene regulation II Biochemistry 302. Bob Kelm February 28, 2005 Gene regulation II Biochemistry 302 Bob Kelm February 28, 2005 Catabolic operons: Regulation by multiple signals targeting different TFs Catabolite repression: Activity of lac operon is restricted when

More information

Arabidopsis thaliana. Lucia Strader. Assistant Professor, Biology

Arabidopsis thaliana. Lucia Strader. Assistant Professor, Biology Arabidopsis thaliana Lucia Strader Assistant Professor, Biology Arabidopsis as a genetic model Easy to grow Small genome Short life cycle Self fertile Produces many progeny Easily transformed HIV E. coli

More information

Irreversible Transitions, Bistability and Checkpoint Controls in the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle: A Systems-level Understanding

Irreversible Transitions, Bistability and Checkpoint Controls in the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle: A Systems-level Understanding Irreversible Transitions, Bistability and Checkpoint Controls in the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle: A Systems-level Understanding John J. Tyson 1* and Béla Novák 2 1 Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia

More information

Chapter 10, 11, 14: Gene Expression, Regulation, and Development Exam

Chapter 10, 11, 14: Gene Expression, Regulation, and Development Exam Chapter 10, 11, 14: Gene Expression, Regulation, and Development Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Why did the original one-gene, one-enzyme

More information

From quiescence to proliferation: Cdk oscillations drive the mammalian cell cycle

From quiescence to proliferation: Cdk oscillations drive the mammalian cell cycle ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE published: 02 November 2012 doi: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00413 From quiescence to proliferation: Cdk oscillations drive the mammalian cell cycle Claude Gérard and Albert Goldbeter*

More information

Biomolecular Feedback Systems

Biomolecular Feedback Systems Biomolecular Feedback Systems Domitilla Del Vecchio MIT Richard M. Murray Caltech Version 1.0b, September 14, 2014 c 2014 by Princeton University Press All rights reserved. This is the electronic edition

More information

3.a.2- Cell Cycle and Meiosis

3.a.2- Cell Cycle and Meiosis Big Idea 3: Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes. 3.a.2- Cell Cycle and Meiosis EU 3.A: Heritable information provides for continuity of life.

More information

A Quantitative and Dynamic Model for Plant Stem Cell Regulation

A Quantitative and Dynamic Model for Plant Stem Cell Regulation A Quantitative and Dynamic Model for Plant Stem Cell Regulation Florian Geier 1,2,7, Jan U. Lohmann 3,4 *, Moritz Gerstung 1,5, Annette T. Maier 3, Jens Timmer 1,6, Christian Fleck 1,7 1 Department of

More information

Symmetry, asymmetry, and the cell cycle in plants: known knowns and some known unknowns

Symmetry, asymmetry, and the cell cycle in plants: known knowns and some known unknowns Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 65, No. 10, pp. 2645 2655, 2014 doi:10.1093/jxb/ert476 Advance Access publication 28 January, 2014 Review paper Symmetry, asymmetry, and the cell cycle in plants: known

More information

Activation of a receptor. Assembly of the complex

Activation of a receptor. Assembly of the complex Activation of a receptor ligand inactive, monomeric active, dimeric When activated by growth factor binding, the growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylates the neighboring receptor. Assembly

More information

Preharvest Growth Regulators in Apple

Preharvest Growth Regulators in Apple Preharvest Growth Regulators in Apple November 2015 Dana Faubion, AgroFresh Plant hormones What is a hormone chemical messenger The main five plant hormones > Abscisic Acid growth inhibitor (dormancy),

More information

The Science of Plants in Agriculture Pl.Sci 102. Getting to Know Plants

The Science of Plants in Agriculture Pl.Sci 102. Getting to Know Plants The Science of Plants in Agriculture Pl.Sci 102 Getting to Know Plants Growth and Development of Plants Growth and Development of Plants Why it s important to have knowledge about plant development. What

More information

Lipid transfer proteins confer resistance to trichothecenes

Lipid transfer proteins confer resistance to trichothecenes Lipid transfer proteins confer resistance to trichothecenes John McLaughlin and Anwar Bin-Umer Tumer Laboratory National Fusarium Head Blight Forum December 6th, 2012 FY09-11: Identify trichothecene resistance

More information

Tansley Influence of environmental factors on stomatal development

Tansley Influence of environmental factors on stomatal development Review Blackwell Oxford, NPH New 0028-646X December 0??? Original Tansley Phytologist review UK Articles Publishing 2007 Ltd The Authors (2008). Journal compilation New Phytologist (2008) Tansley Influence

More information

Prokaryotic Gene Expression (Learning Objectives)

Prokaryotic Gene Expression (Learning Objectives) Prokaryotic Gene Expression (Learning Objectives) 1. Learn how bacteria respond to changes of metabolites in their environment: short-term and longer-term. 2. Compare and contrast transcriptional control

More information

Chapter 9 Active Reading Guide The Cell Cycle

Chapter 9 Active Reading Guide The Cell Cycle Name: AP Biology Mr. Croft Chapter 9 Active Reading Guide The Cell Cycle 1. Give an example of the three key roles of cell division. Key Role Reproduction Example Growth and Development Tissue Renewal

More information

The EGF Signaling Pathway! Introduction! Introduction! Chem Lecture 10 Signal Transduction & Sensory Systems Part 3. EGF promotes cell growth

The EGF Signaling Pathway! Introduction! Introduction! Chem Lecture 10 Signal Transduction & Sensory Systems Part 3. EGF promotes cell growth Chem 452 - Lecture 10 Signal Transduction & Sensory Systems Part 3 Question of the Day: Who is the son of Sevenless? Introduction! Signal transduction involves the changing of a cell s metabolism or gene

More information

Cell cycle controls and the development of plant form Marcel Meijer* and James AH Murray

Cell cycle controls and the development of plant form Marcel Meijer* and James AH Murray 44 Cell cycle controls and the development of plant form Marcel Meijer* and James AH Murray The relationship between cell division and plant form has long been a battleground for the debate between those

More information

Prokaryotic Gene Expression (Learning Objectives)

Prokaryotic Gene Expression (Learning Objectives) Prokaryotic Gene Expression (Learning Objectives) 1. Learn how bacteria respond to changes of metabolites in their environment: short-term and longer-term. 2. Compare and contrast transcriptional control

More information

Supplemental Data. Yang et al. (2012). Plant Cell /tpc

Supplemental Data. Yang et al. (2012). Plant Cell /tpc Supplemental Figure 1. Mature flowers of P. heterotricha. (A) An inflorescence of P. heterotricha showing the front view of a zygomorphic flower characterized by two small dorsal petals and only two fertile

More information

Multiple Choice Review- Eukaryotic Gene Expression

Multiple Choice Review- Eukaryotic Gene Expression Multiple Choice Review- Eukaryotic Gene Expression 1. Which of the following is the Central Dogma of cell biology? a. DNA Nucleic Acid Protein Amino Acid b. Prokaryote Bacteria - Eukaryote c. Atom Molecule

More information