1 Human Biology Syllabus/Online Course Plan Certificated Teacher: Hank Mendoza Date: Stage One Desired Results Course Title/Grade Level: Credit: one semester (.5) x two semesters (1) Estimate of hours per week engaged in learning activities Students will typically commit a minimum of 5 hours of class work per week. Prerequisites and/or recommended preparation: Student in Spokane Public Schools should have had previous exposure to an Introductory Physical Science Class as well as an Introductory Life Science Class. Course Overview: (Include at least one essential question and/or enduring understanding to indicate focus of the course.) This course serves as a first course examining the Human Body. This will be an in-depth course investigating and studying the human animal at the chemical, cellular, organismal, and population level. Students will learn about the anatomy and physiology of their own body, and how these systems interrelate to maintain homeostasis, or good health. Students will gain a new perspective on how their body functions, and how we function, as a system and organism, in our environment. This course should be of high interest to students who may be interested in pursuing a health science career, or who simply want a deeper understanding of the biology of the human body. Enduring Understandings for Course: Need modification 1) Systems thinking used to analyze complex situations. To be useful, a system needs to be specified as clearly as possible. Determine how systems function with respect to other systems. SYSB 2) Scientific progress requires the use of various methods appropriate for answering different kinds of research questions. Investigate. Plan and conduct scientific investigations, collect and analyze data. INQB 3) Conclusions must be logical, based on evidence, and consistent with prior established knowledge. INQC 4) Methods and procedures that scientists use to obtain evidence must be clearly reported to enhance opportunities for further investigation. INQD 5) Science affects society and cultures by influencing the way many people think about themselves, others, and the environment. APPA
2 6) It is important for all citizens to apply science and technology to critical issues that influence society. APPF 7) Cells contain specialized parts for determining essential functions such as regulation of cellular activities, energy capture and release, formation of proteins, waste disposal, the transfer of information, and movement. LS1C 8) Cells use DNA that forms their genes to encode enzymes and other proteins that allow a cell to grow and divide to produce more cells, and to respond to the environment. LS1G 9) All of the functions of the cell are based on chemical reactions. Food molecules are broken down to provide energy and the chemical constituents needed to synthesize other molecules. Breakdown and synthesis are made possible by proteins called enzymes. LS1F 10) Population growth is limited by the availability of matter and energy found in resources, the size of the environment, and the presence of competing and/or predatory organisms. LS2C 11) Random changes in the genetic makeup of cells and organisms (mutations) can cause changes in their physical characteristics or behaviors. If the genetic mutations occur in eggs or sperm cells, the changes will be inherited by offspring. While many these changes will be harmful, a small minority may allow the offspring to better survive and reproduce. LS3B (NOTE: Not thinking of these standards in terms of humans but rather bacterial/viral mutation in diseases ) Additional Items to consider : 12) EALR 4 : Matter and Energy Changes : PS2F All forms of life are composed of large molecules containing carbon. LS1A Carbon-containing molecules are the building blocks of life. List external resources and include cost for each. Simple lab supplies will be required. Most equipment should be readily available at home, or obtainable from supermarkets. This will need to be more detailed when you know what activities students will be doing! Establish Goals: (Grade Level Expectations) EALR 1-Systems: Predictability and Feedback 9-12 SYSB: Determine if a systems approach will be helpful in answering a question or solving a problem. EALR 2-Inquiry : Conducting Analyses and Thinking Logically 9-12 INQB : Plan and conduct a scientific investigation, choosing a method appropriate to the question being asked. Collect, analyze, and display data using calculators, computers, or other technical devices when available.
3 9-12 INQC : Draw conclusions supported by evidence from the investigation and consistent with established scientific knowledge. Analyze alternative explanations and decide which best fits the data and evidence INQD: Write a detailed laboratory report that includes: the question that motivated the study, a justification for the kind of investigation chosen, hypotheses (if any), a description of what was done, a summary of data in tables and graphs, and a conclusion, based on the evidence, that responds to the question EALR 3-Application : Science, Technology, and Society 9-12 APPA : Describe ways that scientific ideas have influenced society or the development of differing cultures. List questions that scientists investigate that are stimulated by the needs of society (e.g., medical research, global climate change) APPF: Critically analyze scientific information in current events to make personal choices or to understand public-policy decisions.*d EALR 4-Life Science : Structure and Functions of Living Organisms(LS1); Ecosystems (LS2); Biological Evolution (LS3) 9-12 LS1C : Draw, label, and describe the functions of components of essential structures within cells (e.g., cellular membrane, nucleus, chromosome, chloroplast, mitochondrion, ribosome) 9-12 LS1G : Explain that regulation of cell functions can occur by changing the activity of proteins within cells and/or by changing whether and how often particular genes are expressed LS1F : Explain how cells break down food molecules and use the constituents to synthesize proteins, sugars, fats, DNA and many other molecules that cells require. Describe the role that enzymes play in the breakdown of food molecules and synthesis of the many different molecules needed for cell structure and function. Explain how cells extract and store energy from food molecules LS2C : Explain factors, including matter and energy, in the environment that limit the growth of plant and animal populations in natural ecosystems LS3B : Describe the molecular process by which organisms pass on physical and behavioral traits to offspring, as well as the environmental and genetic factors that cause minor differences (variations) in offspring or occasional mistakes in the copying of genetic material that can be inherited by future generations (mutations). Explain how a genetic mutation may or may not allow a species to survive and reproduce in a given environment. Understandings: What will students understand (about what big ideas) as a result of the unit? Students will understand... Unit 1: The Human Body as a System (these should be reflective of district learning targets though these are of my own design) o The human body consists of a number of integrated systems o Studying the human body requires asking questions, performing experiments, using models, explaining data, and communicating information for reliability and feedback. o The human body operates in a homeostatic environment, that relies on positive and negative feedback mechanisms. WA Science Power Standards : INQB, INQC, INQD, SYSA, SYSD Essential Questions: What arguable, recurring, and thought provoking questions will guide inquiry and point toward the big ideas of the unit? 1. How is the human body organized 2. How does the body maintain a constant internal environment? 3. How does the scientific method apply to everyday life and how is it applied to the human body?
4 Unit 2 : Nervous System o That the Nervous system consists of cells called neurons o The structure and function of the senses and sensory organs. o The Nervous system receives information both externally and internally and integrates this information to provide feedback to the body. o That Nerve cells are both similar in dissimilar to other cells in both structure and function. WA Science Power Standards : SYSA, SYSB, SYSD, LS1C, LS1E 1. Draw a neuron and label it according to its three general zones, its specific structures, and the specific function(s) of each structure. 2. How is information flow regulated and integrated in the human body? 3. Outline some of the ways by which information flow is regulated and integrated in the human body. 4. Summarize the organization of the human nervous system, including the brain, central nervous system, peripheral nervous system. 5. Identify and explain the function of sensory organs and how they integrate with the central nervous system, to allow humans to make sense of their internal and external environment. Unit 3 : Endocrine system and Reproductive system o The function of the endocrine glands of the body and how they use positive and negative feedback mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. o The reproductive system functions as a means for the human species to create a new individual. o Relate the processes at the cellular level, namely, mitosis and meiosis are important in the process of reproduction. o The combination of nervous system and endocrine system are essential in the reproductive cycle of humans. WA Science Power Standards : SYSA,SYSB, SYSD, LS1C, LS1E 1. How does the human body maintain a constant internal environment? 2. Where are and describe the nature of chemical signals, as produced by endocrine glands? 3. What are the similarities and differences between the nervous system and the endocrine system? 4. What are the hormones produced by the hypothalamus, anterior and posterior pituitary gland, and what are their effects? 5. What the role do mitosis and meiosis in the human life cycle? How do the actions of the various hormones in the male and female reproductive system, regulate the process of reproduction, development, and birth? Unit 4 : Matter and Energy Processing o The human body processes matter, as food, to generate energy, as well as to maintain homeostasis for the body. o That food is the source of carbon-containing molecules that maintain cell integrity, growth and diversity. o Components of the digestive system have specialized structures and functions. WA Science Power Standards: SYSB, PS2F, LS1A, LS1C, LS1E, LS1F 1. Why do we eat? 2. What is the nature of the carbonbased molecules we consume as food? 3. What and where are the structures involved in the process of digestion, within the human body? 4. How is matter rearranged as it is processed in the digestive process and reformed to renew, repair, and allow for the organism to grow?
5 Unit 5 : Cardiovascular System o The circulatory system consists of a fourchambered heart, arteries and veins. o Blood is a connective tissue, and serves as the transport medium for oxygen, carbon dioxide, food, wastes, water, and other components vital to the process of homeostasis. o How the heart functions in circulating blood through the body, including the nature of the heart beat, blood pressure, and how it can vary in a person. o What internal factors, and external factors can contribute to diseases of the cardiovascular system. WA Science Power Standards : SYSA, SYSB, INQB, INQC, LS1C 1. What relationships exist among the various components of the circulatory system? 2. What functions are served by blood? 3. What are some of the problems associated with the circulatory system, and how do these problems arise? Unit 6 : Global Ecology and Human Interferences o That humans as an organisms fit within the biosphere of the earth. o That matter and energy flow through organisms via the ecosystem. o Humans have changed as a result of genetic variations and environmental influences. o That Natural selection, a process outlined by Darwin, helps to explain how a species may change through time. WA Science Power Standards : APPA, APPF, LS1E, LS2C. LS3A, LS3B Unit 7 : Lymphatic and Immune System o That Lymphatic system returns tissue fluid to the blood, transports fats, and carries debris and foreign materials to lymph nodes. o Lymph nodes and other lymphoid organs function in the body s defense against infection and disease. o The human body has physical, chemical and cellular defenses against harmful microorganisms, cancer cells, and other agents that can destroy tissues and sometime even cause death. WA Science Power Standards : LS1C, LS3A, LS3B Unit 8 : Respiratory System o That respiration involves a mechanical component as well as a cellular component to the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gas. o The pathway of air begins in the nose and ends in the alveoli of the lungs. WA Science Power Standards : INQB, INQC, INQD 1. What is the relationship to humans and human population growth and the biosphere? 2. In what ways has man interfered with biogeochemical cycles in the natural world? 3. Explain how human genetic variation is expressed in humans? 4. How does Darwin s ideas of Natural Selection apply to humans and human evolutionary patterns? 1. Why do we need a lymphatic system? 2. Name the structures and functions of the lymphatic system? 3. What are the three lines of defense used by the human body to deal with pathogens? 1. How does the respiratory system function in coordination with other systems of the body? 2.How do hemoglobin, pressure gradient of O 2, temperature, and blood ph, contribute to oxygen transport in the blood? 3. What are some problems associated with the respiratory system, and how do these problems arise?
6 Unit 9 : Excretory System and the Internal environment o The excretory or urinary system is crucial to balancing the intake and output of water and solutes. o Kidneys are blood-filtering organ, containing many tube like filtering units called nephrons, which remove nitrogenous wastes. o The human body s internal environment depends on metabolic activity, as well as through adaptations in body structure, physiology and behavior. WA Science Power Standards : SYSB Unit 10: Skeletal System o Bones interact with muscles to bring about movement. o Bones protect and support soft organs and store minerals. o Blood cells are produced in tissues of some bones. WA Science Power Standards : SYSD, LS1F, APPF Unit 11: Muscular System o Muscles are specialized proteins that have the ability to shorten in length or contract. o The human body contains three types of muscle : skeletal, smooth and cardiac. o Muscles allow for movement of the body, as well as moving materials within the body. o Muscle contraction involves a contractile unit called a sarcomere, composed of actin and myosin filaments. WA Science Power Standards : SYSB, LS1C 1. What are the components of the human excretory system? 2. How do the kidneys regulate water balance along with the production of urine to maintain homeostasis? 3. How does the body maintain a favorable body temperature under changing environmental conditions? 1. Why do we need bones? 2. How does the human body maintain our skeleton? 3. What are the components of the human skeleton, and how do they articulate to allow for movement? 1. What does a muscle do, what is it made of, and how does it work? 2. What are the three kinds of muscle, within the human body, and where are they located? 3. What are the components and how does a muscle contract at the macroscopic and biochemical level? What is the key knowledge and skill needed to develop the desired understandings? What knowledge and skill relates to the content standards on which the unit is focused? Students will know: structure and function of the following Human Body Systems 1) The Human Body as a System 2) The Human Nervous System 3) The Endocrine and Reproductive System 4) Matter and Energy Processing occur in the Digestive system and cells 5) The Cardiovascular System 6) Global Ecology and Human Interferences 7) The Lymphatic and Immune System 8) The Respiratory System 9) The Excretory System and Internal Environment 10) The Skeletal System 11) Muscular System
7 In addition students will know the interaction of man as an organism within the environment and also will have an awareness of human evolution as it pertains to Human Ecology. Students will be able to: See Part One, above : Understandings Stage Two Evidence of Assessment What evidence will be collected to determine whether or not the understandings have been developed, the knowledge and skill attained, and the state standards met? [Anchor the work in performance tasks that involve application, supplemented as needed by prompted work, quizzes, observations, etc.] Performance Tasks: Reading : Students will read printed or ebook text on the content and will reflect upon the reading through discussions, questions, organizational charting, or online discussions. Writing: Students will write to show their thinking and leaning in a number of ways : Reflection to a question prompt Response to a question on a blog or discussion board Respond to other student response on a blog or discussion board Prepare a short summary on a particular disorder of the Human Body, based upon a scenario or question prompt. Lab Reports : Students will demonstrate their understanding of concepts based on hands-on kitchen labs by creating a lab report that is reflective and illustrative of their learning. Simulations : Students will conduct online simulations of labs, dissections, and case studies. Students will demonstrate their learning by providing evidence through short quiz ( Multiple choice, completion, matching), production of a poster, a 6-8 slide powerpoint presentation, Prezi presentation, or interact with a blog or discussion board based on the premise of the simulation. Formative Assessments : Students will demonstrate their level of understanding by the completion of short assessments, self-checks, OYO ( on your own) questions. Based on the scores students will reassess and reflect on their learning. The instructor and student will agree on a SLIP ( Student Learning Improvement Plan) to assist the student to be more successful Blogs : Students will show their understanding of a topic through sharing their thoughts, opinions, and knowledge on a BLOG Summative Assessments : Students will show mastery of a content topic through a summative assessment. These summative assessments can be in the following format : Multiple Choice / Matching Exam Written Response to an Essay prompt Written Response to a Human Body Scenario Creation of a Powerpoint Presentation / Prezi focused upon a particular aspect of a body system and/or disorder of that system Creation of a game, puzzle, brochure based upon a Human Body system
8 Other Evidence (self-assessments, observations, work samples, quizzes, tests and so on): ( See the above for suggestions) Stage Three Learning Plan Learning Activities: What sequence of learning activities and teaching will enable students to perform well at the understandings in Stage 2 and thus display evidence of the desired results in stage one? Possibly use the WHERE acronym to design activities (see below). WHERE Wiggins and McTighe W Where are we going? Why? What is expected? H How will we hook and hold student interest? E How will we equip students for expected performances? R How will we help students rethink and revise? E How will students self-evaluate and reflect on their learning? T How will we tailor learning to varied needs, interests, styles? O How will we organize and sequence the learning? Indicate from the table below all applicable learning strategies that may be used in the course. Direct Instruction x_structured Overview _x Mini presentation Drill & Practice x Demonstrations x_other (List) Phone Instant messaging Text Indirect Instruction x Problembased _x Case Studies x Inquiry x Reflective Practice x Project x Paper Concept Mapping x_other (List) blog Experiential Learning x Virt. Field Trip x Experiments x Simulations x Games Field Observ. Role-playing x Model Bldg. Surveys x Other (List) kitchen lab Independent Study x Essays _x Self-paced computer Journals Learning Logs x Reports Directed Study x Research Projects x Other (List) webquests Interactive Instruction x Discussion Debates Role Playing Panels Peer Partner Learning Project team x Laboratory Groups x Think, Pair, Share Cooperative Learning x Tutorial Groups x Interviewing x Conferencing
9 x Other (List) virtual class meetings Scope and Sequence: See the attached sheets with the proposed Scope and Sequence for both Semester One and Semester Two. Adapted from Understanding by Design Template available online and the Understanding by Design: Professional Development Workbook. References: Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (n.d.). Understanding by Design Exchange. Retrieved November 2, 2004 from Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2004). Understanding by design: Professional development workbook. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.)