Eligible Content This is what the State of Pennsylvania wants your students to know and be able to do by the end of the unit.

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1 Topic: Basic Biological Principles We value your feedback to continually improve the SchoolNet Curriculum Engine. Please notify us of any broken web links. Please submit your questions and/or comments to Duration: Traditional (50 minute periods): classes (adjust using professional discretion) Block (90 minute periods): 6-8 classes (adjust using professional discretion) Eligible Content This is what the State of Pennsylvania wants your students to know and be able to do by the end of the unit. BIO.A Describe the characteristics of life shared by all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. BIO.A Compare cellular structures and their functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. BIO.A Describe and interpret relationships between structure and function at various levels of biological organization (i.e., organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and multicellular organisms). Performance Objectives These are examples, created by SDP teachers, of how you may translate the eligible content into learning goals for your classroom. 1. SWBAT define and recognize examples of the characteristics of living things IOT discuss whether particular examples (e.g. bacterium, virus, computer) are living or non-living. 2. SWBAT compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells IOT describe their degrees of complexity. 3. SWBAT compare and contrast a typical plant cell with a typical animal cell IOT hypothesize reasons for structural differences. 4. SWBAT create an analogy for the function of each of the organelles found in a eukaryotic cell IOT reinforce organelle function. 5. SWBAT analyze examples in human physiology IOT describe relationships between structure and function at biological levels of organization. Key Terms and Definitions All key terms and definitions come from the document Keystone Exams: Biology Assessment Anchors and Eligible Content with Sample Questions and Glossary, PDE Biology: The scientific study of life. 2. Cell: The basic unit of structure and function for all living organisms. Cells have three common components: genetic material, cytoplasm, and a cell membrane. Eukaryotic cells contain specialized organelles - prokaryotes do not. 3. Eukaryote: A type of organism composed of one or more cells that contain a membrane-bound nucleus and specialized organelles. 4. Multicellular: Organisms that are made up of more than one cell. 5. Nucleus: A membrane-bound organelle in eukaryotic cells functioning to protect the genetic material. 6. Organ: An anatomical unit composed of tissues serving a common function. 7. Organ System: An anatomical system composed of a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function or task. 8. Organelle: A subunit within a cell that has a specialized function. 9. Organism: A form of life; an animal, plant, fungus, protist or bacterium. 10. Plasma Membrane: A thin, phospholipid and protein molecule bilayer that encapsulates a cell and controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell through active or passive transport 11. Prokaryote: A single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus and specialized organelles. 12. Ribosome: A cellular structure composed of RNA and proteins that is the site of protein synthesis in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. 13. Tissue: An anatomical unit composed of cells organized to perform a similar function. 14. Unicellular: Organisms that are made up of one cell.

2 Starting Points An overview of how the content and skills of this unit connect to students' prior knowledge. Characteristics of Life- BIO.A Students should already know that unicellular organisms (microorganisms), like multicellular organisms, need food, water, a way to dispose of waste, and an environment in which they can live. In this unit, students will learn how to apply terms like homeostasis and metabolism to these life processes and begin to compare the ways that different organisms fulfill the same needs. Cellular Structures and Functions- BIO.A Students should already know that all living things are composed of cells, the smallest unit that can be said to be alive. In this unit, they will learn how the cell theory explains a wide variety of observations about cells and living things. Students should already know that an organism may consist of one single cell (unicellular) or many different numbers and types of cells (multicellular). In this unit, they will learn about prokaryotes (which are always unicellular) and eukaryotes (which may be unicellular or multicellular.) Students should already know that special structures within cells are responsible for particular functions and that the cell membrane forms the boundary that controls what enters and leaves the cell. They will expand on this knowledge to learn that systems of specialized cells within organisms help them perform the essential functions of life, which involve chemical reactions. They will learn that cells have distinct and separate structures (organelles) which perform and monitor processes essential for survival of the cell (e.g., energy use, waste disposal, synthesis of new molecules, and storage of genetic material). They will begin to explore how the highly specific function of each organelle is directly related to its structure. Levels of Biological Organization - BIO.A Student should already know that in multicellular organisms, the body is a system of multiple interacting subsystems. In this unit, students will learn that multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization, in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level. Instructional Resources Learning activities and resources targeted to the eligible content of this unit. BIO.A Describe the characteristics of life shared by all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. 1. SWBAT define and recognize examples of the characteristics of living things IOT discuss whether particular examples (e.g. bacterium, virus, computer) are living or non-living. a. Studying Life (RST ) (Must be logged into your Google account or it will not open; contains Powerpoint with embedded check for understanding). b. Characteristics of Life on CK-12 (RST ) (2 readings, video, 2 activities, lab, homework assignments, discussion questions, graphic organizer, look under resources link to find all of this) c. Is Yeast Alive? Hands-on activity from Serendip (RST , RST , and WHST ) In this lab, students evaluate whether the little brown grains of yeast obtained from the grocery store are alive by testing for metabolism and growth. d. Characteristics of Life Activity--Adapted from Mr. Dougherty s Lab Exercise: Characteristics of Life (RST , WHST ) In this activity, students examine pictures of specimens and determine if they are living or non-living.

3 BIO.A Compare cellular structures and their functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 2. SWBAT compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells IOT describe their degrees of complexity. a. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells on CK-12 (RST ) (1 reading, 3 videos, 1 activity, 2 study aids, and 2 assessments). b. Inside a Cell: interactive animation from Utah Genetics (RST ) Click on each organelle to learn its function. c. Cells as Molecular Factories from Serendip. (RST , RST , and WHST ) The questions guide students to think about how the different parts of a eukaryotic cell cooperate to function as a proteinproducing factory and as a recycling plant. Additional questions require students to identify the locations and functions of different types of molecules in eukaryotic cells. 3. SWBAT compare and contrast a typical plant cell with a typical animal cell IOT hypothesize reasons for structural differences. Plant Cell Structures from CK-12. (RST ) (1 reading, 2 assessments). Multiple activities describe the distinguishing features of plant cells from other types of eukaryotic cells. Plant and Animal Cells from Critical Thinking. (RST , RST , and WHST ) In this activity, students use a graphic organizer, diagrams of a typical plant and animal cells, and relevant reading materials to learn about their structure and function, and differentiate between animal and plant cells. Eukaryotic Organelle Cell Model from Cells Alive (RST ) In an online interactive model of a plant and animal cell. 4. SWBAT create an analogy for the function of each of the organelles found in a eukaryotic cell IOT reinforce organelle function. Cell Analogy Project from Michael Trost (RST , RST , and WHST ) In this project, students create an analogy to describe the structure and function of each organelle in an animal or plant cell. Cell Analogy Activity (RST , RST , and WHST ) In this activity, students create an analogy to describe the structure and function of selected organelles in an animal or plant cell. BIO.A Describe and interpret relationships between structure and function at various levels of biological organization (i.e., organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and multicellular organisms). 5. SWBAT analyze examples in human physiology IOT describe relationships between structure and function at biological levels of organization. a. Organization of Living Things from CK-12 (RST ) (1 reading, 1 activity, 1 study aid, 2 assessments, and 1 concept map). b. Structure and Function of Cells, Organs, and Organ Systems from Serendip. (RST , RST , and WHST ) In this analysis and discussion activity, students learn how the structure of cells, organs and organ systems is related to their functions. Includes full PDF, student handout, and teacher notes. Quizlet - Keystone Biology Flashcards - Quizlet is a FREE online flashcard app that can be used on cell phones! Students can download the Quizlet app on their phone and practice their vocabulary. The app is also free and easily usable on Chromebooks, laptops, etc. 1. Eukaryotic versus prokaryotic Unit 1 Vocabulary Flash Cards 4. Units 1-8 Vocabulary Flash Cards

4 Textbook References You must be logged into Schoolnet in order to access the online teacher text. Johnson, G. & Raven, P. (2004). Holt Biology. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1. Chapter 1: Biology and You, pp Chapter 3: Cell Structure, pp Holt Worksheet Assignments: a. Chapter 1 Direct Reading Skills Worksheet b. Chapter 1 Concept Mapping Skills Worksheet c. Looking at Cells Chapter 3 Directed Reading Skills Worksheet d. Cell Features Chapter 3 Active Reading SKills Worksheet e. Cell Organelles Chapter 3 Active Reading Skills Worksheet Philadelphia Core Curriculum References (Green Spiral Bound Book) 1. Vitamin C Investigation Part I and II, pp Cell Theory and Parts of a Microscope, pp Basic Microscopic Techniques, pp Cell Size Investigation, pp Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, and Lysosomes, pp Microscopic Review of Cell Organelles, Science documentary and movie database: ******************************************************************************************************* Enrichment - Enroll your students into a Philadelphia tradition - Carver Science Fair ******************************************************************************************************* Sample questions from PDESAS Assessment Creator that align with Unit 1: Basic Biological Principles 1. Use the diagram below to answer the question:

5 Which characteristic of life is best shown by this diagram? A. DNA is the genetic code in an organism B. An organism is made of one or more cells C. An organism responds to changes in the environment D. Changes occur in an organism as it grows and develops Correct Answer: D 2. Which statement best describes a difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells? A. The presence of both DNA and ribosomes in prokaryotic cells indicates that they are more complex than eukaryotic cells. B. The larger size of prokaryotic cells indicates that they are more complex than eukaryotic cells. C. The presence of membrane-bound organelles in eukaryotic cells indicates that they are more complex than prokaryotic cells. D. The larger size of eukaryotic cells indicates that they are more complex than prokaryotic cells. Correct Answer: C 3. Which organelles are found in plant cells, but are not found in animal cells? A. Nucleus, lysosome, endoplasmic reticulum B. Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, cytoplasm C. Cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplast D. Vesicles, plasma membrane, ribosomes Correct Answer: C 4. Which organelle is known as the brain of the cell? A. Lysosomes B. Nucleus C. Chloroplast D. Mitochondria Correct Answer: B 5. Use the illustrations below to answer the questions:

6 Which statement best explains why these cells have structural differences? A. The cells have different functions B. The cells evolved in different organisms C. One of the cells develops into the other type of cell D. One of the cells is more primitive than the other cell Correct Answer: A Essential Questions 1. What do all living things have in common? 2. Why is it so difficult to define life and living things? 3. What enables eukaryotes to perform more specialized functions than prokaryotes? 4. How are cells organized in a complex multicellular organism? 5. What are the advantages and disadvantages to being small with few parts (like a prokaryote) or large with many parts (like a eukaryote)? 6. How are structure and function related in biology? PA Standards: These are the PA Standards that underlie the Eligible Content in this unit. 3.1.B.A1: 1. Describe the common characteristics of life. 2. Compare and contrast the cellular structures and degrees of complexity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. 3. Explain that some structures in eukaryotic cells developed from early prokaryotic cells (e.g., mitochondria, chloroplasts). 3.1.B.A5: 1. Relate the structure of cell organelles to their function (energy capture and release, transport, waste removal, protein synthesis, movement, etc). Common Core State Standards Connections in ELA/Literacy and Mathematics These are Common Core Standards that are related to the Eligible Content in this unit. RST Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text. RST Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a

7 specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics RST Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. WHST Write arguments focused on discipline specific content. WHST Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes. WHST Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. Next Generation Science Standards These are Next Generation Science Standards that are related to the Eligible Content in this unit. NGSS- HS- LS1-2 Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.

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