End of Course Biology Reporting Category 1 Cell Structure and Function

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1 End of Course Biology Reporting Category 1 Cell Structure and Function 1. An iodine solution is placed on the cut side of a potato. Within seconds, a blue-black color appears. What is most likely occurring? 4. This diagram represents a cell. A. A positive test for proteins B. A positive test for starches C. A negative test for proteins D. A negative test for starches 2. A person with swollen gums rinses his mouth with warm salt water, and the swelling decreases. Which has occurred? A. The swollen gums have absorbed the saltwater solution. B. The saltwater solution lowers the temperature of the water in the gums. C. The salt in the solution has moved against the concentration gradient. D. The water in the gums have moved to a high to low concentration of water. Which organelle is the site where amino acids are synthesized into proteins? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D Which organism is most likely to use anaerobic respiration? A. Bird B. Moss C. Tree D. Yeast 5. Plant cells that are specialized for cell division are most likely found in what part of a plant? A. Root tips B. Leaf epidermis C. Stem epidermis D. Vascular tissue Page 1

2 6. Which disease most likely occurs after excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation? 10. his diagram shows an enzyme-substrate complex. A. Malaria B. Asthma C. Skin cancer D. Polio 7. RNA and DNA are which type of organic compound? A. Carbohydrate B. Lipid C. Nucleic acid D. Protein Which is represented by Structure X? A. Substrate B. Product C. Enzyme D. Complex 8. A scientist treats a cell with a chemical that destroys the ribosomes. As a result, which cell process will be stopped? A. Osmosis B. Photosynthesis C. Protein synthesis D. Respiration 9. Which is an example of osmosis? 11. Two different species of bacteria are examined. Scientists find that Species X always produces carbon dioxide and water during cellular respiration. Species Y always produces ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. Which conclusion can be made from these observations? A. Only Species Y is aerobic. B. Only Species Y is anaerobic. C. Both Species X and Y are aerobic. D. Both Species X and Y are anaerobic. A. Potassium ions moving in and out of an animal cell B. Carbon dioxide moving into the leaf cells of a plant C. Oxygen moving into the bloodstream from the lungs D. Water moving into the root cells of a plant Page 2

3 12. Which is the most likely function of a group of cells that contain a high number of chloroplasts? 15. The diagram below shows the cell cycle. A. Respiration B. Transpiration C. Fermentation D. Photosynthesis 13. What will most likely happen if an appropriate enzyme is added to a chemical reaction? A. The reaction rate will increase. B. The equilibrium of the reaction will be maintained. C. The reaction rate will decrease. D. The reaction will stop. 14. Which process is an example of asexual reproduction? A. An amoeba divides in half to form two amoebas. B. A bee transfers pollen from one flower to another. C. A female fish deposits eggs on a rock, then a male fish releases sperm on them. D. Earthworms exchange sperm. Which of the following activities occur in the G1 phase? A. Growth of the cell B. Replication of the DNA C. Formation of the mitotic spindle D. Breakdown of the nuclear membrane 16. A researcher is studying a particular diseasecausing agent. The agent has a protein coat, but it lacks a nucleus, contains no other organelles, and can reproduce only when it is inside an animal cell. The researcher should classify the agent as which of the following? A. A bacterium B. A fungus C. A protist D. A virus Page 3

4 17. A lab technician needs to determine whether cells in a test tube are prokaryotic or eukaryotic. The technician has several dyes she could use to stain the cells. Four of the dyes are described in the table below. 20. The graph below shows the rate of activity for the enzyme catalase at different temperatures. Catalase helps convert hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water. The rate of catalase activity is directly related to the percent increase in oxygen. Which dye could the technician use to determine whether the cells are prokaryotic or eukaryotic? A. Acridine orange B. Osmium tetroxide C. Eosin D. Nile blue 18. Energy for most chemical reactions in cells is supplied by which of the following molecules? A. ATP B. DNA C. Adrenaline D. Hemoglobin 19. Which of the following elements is most common in the tissues of plants? A. Hydrogen B. Iron C. Potassium D. Sodium Based on the graph, which of the following conclusions can be made about the functioning of catalase? A. Catalase works best at 34 degrees Celsius. B. Catalase is destroyed at 34 degrees Celsius. C. Catalase cannot function at 51 degrees Celsius. D. Catalase functions most efficiently at 51 degrees Celsius. Page 4

5 21. If a cell s lysosomes were damaged, which of the following would most likely occur? A. The cell would produce more proteins than it needs. B. The cell would have chloroplasts that appear yellow rather than green. C. The cell would be less able to break down molecules in its cytoplasm. D. The cell would be less able to regulate the amount of fluid in its cytoplasm. 22. After a culture of cells is allowed to multiply and is viewed through a microscope, the cells are x-rayed with high-energy radiation for less than 1/100 th of a second. After the radiation, many newly reproduced cells appear different. What has probably occurred? A. Contamination B. Mutation C. Bacterial infection D. Speciation 23. Which pair of structures best shows that plant cells have functions different from animal cells? A. Cytoplasm and mitochondria B. Chloroplasts and cell walls C. Nuclei and centrioles D. Ribosomes and cell membranes 24. Meiosis is the process by which gametes are produced. In which of the following human organs does meiosis occur? A. Testis B. Liver C. Skin D. Pancreas 25. When an animal eats, food stays in the stomach for a period of time. When a unicellular organism, such as Paramecium, takes in food, the food is contained in which organelle? A. Chloroplast B. Mitochondrion C. Nucleus D. Vacuole 26. What is the function of enzymes in biological systems? A. Enzymes act as substrates when the necessary proteins are unavailable. B. Enzymes act as products to create new chemical reactions. C. Enzymes act as catalysts to drive chemical reactions forward. D. Enzymes bond with substrates to create the new reaction products. Page 5

6 Which of these could not be a virus? A. B. A. Reject the theory of spontaneous generation. B. Isolate the virus responsible for smallpox. C. Produce a vaccine against rabies. D. Convince people to cover food. C. 28. Which of the following choices is not a method of preventing bacterial illnesses from spreading in a meat-processing plant? A. Treatment of work areas with chemical disinfectants. B. Use of gloves when handling raw meat products. C. Using antibiotics to treat persons with food poisoning. D. Washing hands and using utensils with hot soapy water. D. Page 6

7 30. The main difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is that 34. A. Prokaryotic cells are always much larger B. Prokaryotic cells do not have a plasma membrane C. Eukaryotic cells have a smaller nucleus D. Eukaryotic cells have a more advanced cellular organization 31. Which of the following macromolecules are a prominent part of animal tissues that function in insulation, helping animals conserve heat? A. Carbohydrates B. Lipids C. Proteins D. Nucleic acids 32. Cells from which of the following organisms would be expected to contain cell walls? A. Sponge B. Cricket C. Water lily D. Paramecium 33. A student researching a new discovery about the activity of mitochondria could find the most current and reliable information in a A. Cell biology textbook B. Newspaper C. Scientific journal D. Popular news magazine A. Phosphate groups B. Usable energy C. ADP D. Water 35. A scientist designed an experiment to test the effect of temperature on bacterial growth. He grew three different cultures of the bacterium E. Coli under three heat lamps at different temperatures. What was the independent variable in this experiment? A. Length of the experiment B. Number of bacteria C. Reproduction rate D. Temperature Page 7

8 Some peeled pieces of apple were placed in distilled water and some in very salty water. The cells in the apple pieces will A. Lose water in both solutions B. Gain water in both solutions C. Lose water in the distilled water and gain water in the salty water D. Gain water in the distilled water and lose water in the salty water A. B. C. D. Page 8

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