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3 The Influence of the Theosophical Movement on the Revival of Astrology in Great Britain and North America in the 20th Century Jutta K. Lehmann A Thesis in The Department of Religion Resented in Partial Fulfiîlrnent of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Concordia University. Montr&d. Quebec. Canada March Jutta K. Lehmann. 1998

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5 Abstract The Influence of the Theosophical Movrmrnt on the Rrvival of Asuology in Great Britain and North Arnrrica in the 20th century This dissertation traces the part played by the Theosophical Movement in the enrichment md popular revival of Western astrology in this century in Great Britalli and North Arnenca. through an exploration of the philosophicai and practical influences at work. h particular. we explore rhe èxtmt to which the Theosophical kachings have iiîteçted thr: selfunderstanding and practice of modern astrology in the two countries. Theosophical teachings claim to reprexnt the common spiriniai heritage of mankind that is found in al1 the major religious traditions of the world including Hinduism. Buddhism. Ncoplatonisrn. Hemeticism and carly Christian and kwish mysticism. This thesis proposes chat modem astrology has. to a considerable degree. enriched and renewed itsrlf by drawing upon these traditions through Theosophy. leading to çnhancrd inorest and prestige for astrology in society at large. Four major themes in contrrnporary astrology were idcntikd as havùig ken inspired by Theosophy: the notions of the macrocosrn and rhe microcosm. of karma and reincarnation. of planetary cycles. and of the psychology of the soul. in addition this dissertation identifies the Theosophical channels through which these ideas were transmitted. and uaces how they came to be incorporated by the mainsueam astrological cornmunities in these two countries. The most important source of Theosophical inspiration and insight for modern astrology is to be found in the writings of Helena Petrovna Blavarsky, one of the founders of the Theosophical Society. After reviewing her ideas and attitudes towards astrology as given in particular in The Secret Doctrine as weil as in her other worlcs. this thesis traces their subsequent vicissitudes in the attitudes to astrology of major figures in the Theosophical Movement. astrologers and nonastrologers alike. A review of the Theosophicai Movement and other iitera~ue about iwology. its &tory. and its merits as part of Theosophy. enables us to identify the contribution of the many local Lodges of the T.S. towards astrological education in the two counuies. and hernie th& role in training succeeding generations of asaologers. nie Astrological Lodge of die heosophicul Society in London. for example. is found to have played a particularly important role in preserving the Theosophical link to astrology. In addition. an archival search of Theosophical membership üsts served to highlight the numerical importance of Theosophists among the founding members of nie Americun

6 Federation of Asmlogers. the oldest. largest. and for decades the most intluential asuologicical oganization in the United States. Finally. we trace the dissemination of Theosophical idras in astrology through the lives and thought OC four eminent authotities. recognized for their contributions to convmporary asuology in the two counuies. all of whom were strongly Muenced by thek Theosophical background or affiliation. In a brief biography of their Life and work. as weil as a selecied presentation of tkir type of asuology. we illusuate how each of thes men have. in thrir own way. r ~ched astrology. They achieved this through the Theosophical content in th& writings and their activities (e.g. lectures. classes). thereby promoting a renewed enthusiasm for its practicai utility in the helping professions and a greater standing among the widrr public.

7 Acknowledgments îhanks for this thesis have to go to many individuals and institutions who participated in this project through their advice and assistance. But 1 tlrst want to ~im to my own Department of Religion at Concordia University. He= 1 wish to thank rny supervisor John Rossner for offering his suppon to write a Ph.D. thesis on this topic. His insighü"u1 euidance frorn the very outset. as weil as his unfàiling tmst in my capabilities. have ken C invaluable to the completion of this undertaking. 1 further want to thank Sheiia McDonough for her continuing support once this project got underway. She always responded promptly in commenting on my progress. Her criticism and advice was always helpful and never without encouragement up to the very end. Despite al1 his other administrative duties. Fred Bird took tirne to read and comment on my progres as well. As an outsider to this topic. his questions helped to deepen rny study in certain mas and made it more comprehensible. and I am most grateful for his support. On the Theosophical side 1 would like to extend my special thanks to loy Mils. former president of the Amencan section of the Theosophical Society (T.S.). We met at the International Theosophical Headquarters in Adyar (Madras) where shr was kcturing at the tirne. Her sympathy for my project bd to many interesting conversations in Adyar. and finally. to rny stay with my husband at the Krowna INn'tute of nieosophv in California. currently under the presidency of Hein van Beusekom. Here Ms. Miils introduced me to a number of people who were to be helpfui to rny project before going on yet another lecture tour. I am also grawhl for the expert advice of Shirley Nicholson at Krotona. As a Theosophist. author. and former editor of wst M m, she agreed to comment on a dnft of chapters 3 and 4.1 also feel indrbted to Lakshrni Narayan. the iibrarian ai the Krotona Library and Research Center. who helped me and my husband make the most of her extensive facilities. My thanks also go to various other midents and dedicated helpers at Krotona Aiso in California 1 wish to thank James Santucci, Professor of Religion at Califomia Sue University and editor of Theoso~mrv, for also comrnenting on my draft of chapters 3 and 4. Further. 1 would like to thank Dr. Caren M. Elin for her enthusiastic suppon in so many ways. as weu as to the people at the n>eosophicol Libray Center, Aitaâena for their kuidness and willingness to dig into their archives. My thanlrs aiso go to Margwrita dar Bug& Membership Chairperson of ISAR. who pmvided me wiih much valuable information. as weil as to Michael Meyer for his willingness to share information.

8 Nathan W. Greer. National Sz~xtary of the Amencan T.S. Ui Whraton. IUinois was also most helpful. as was Elizabeth Tmpler. Chief Librarian at the Olcott Library. and hrr assistant Diana Cabiting. The archive conducted a special xarch of membership records for which I am very grawfd. My thanks also go to the presidcnt and staff of the St Louis Lodgr in Missouri. In England my th& and appreciation go to a numkr of people â~sociated with the different Theosophical and asaologicai bodies. 1 would lüce to mention. in particular. Nick Campion. asnologer and author. for helping me with impo~t source data: Charles Harvey. Trustee of nie Uronia Trust. and Leslie Pnce. founder of the iheosophicul History Crnrer and Journal. for their help and encouragemenr David Broad. a soiiçi~or and voluntrwr at the Urania Trust for his help and kindness; Pahick Curry. historian and aurhor. who shared valuable information with me: Anabelle Kitson. historian and writer. ;is weil as Zach Manhews who provided valuable data on Charles Carter. For my research on M.E. Jones. 1 especiaily wish to than. Diana E. Roche and Delle Fow ler Frech Erom the Subian Assemblv for their kindness and assistance. as weij as othcr members of this oganization whom we met at their Annuai Convention in the summer of aiso wish to thank the staff of the Concordia Library. particularly the helpful personnel at horlibrary Loans: furthemore the staff at the Theosophical Headqumrs in London and the Adyar Librq. as weii as those at the British Museum Library. Finaiiy. 1 want to thank my husband for the many helpful discussions we had. and for his unfaüing support at aii stages of this thesis.

9 The idea for the topic of this thesis developed rarly in &ter Professor John Rossner rncouragrd the present Mter to go back to studying. However. what had started at the age of thiny as a hobby. had meanwhile becorne a major interest Professor Rossner agrerd to a topic on astrology of a histoncal nature. The present writer was inspired by some articles in a British astrological journal from a Theosophical Loàge. to fid out more about the whok matter. Thus. the seeds for this thesis were planad. For our use of the terni 'West' in this thesis we will adopt Antoine Faivre's definition. For him the term 'West' encornpasses "the vast Greco-Roman whole within which Judaism and Christianity have dways cohabited with one another. joined by Islam for several crnniries."' He also of'n calls it 'the Lalin West'. The terni 'East' will rekr specifcaiiy to the Indian subcontinrnt and more particularly to its philosophical hrritage. The word 'Theosophy' as wrii as 'Theosophical' with a capital T used in the text always refers to the Theosophical teachings of HPB (and her iollowers). unless otherwise staed. However. bah may occasional y be found with small caps in quotations. if square brackeü [ ] occur within a quotation it will indicare something added by the present writer. The use of imiics is reserved for special narnes. and to rmphasize the meaning of a tem. Re krences to sources and mate rials from the archives of Theosophical Society iibmries in various locations in india the U.K. and the U.S.A. have been indicated wherever possible. as cucurnstances allowed. The identity of individuals who provided other mat rials t'or our research have also been given in either the main text or in footnotes. A list with abbreviations will foliow since a number of terms or names used in this thesis tend to be fairly long. We will unially introduce the abbreviation afier the first usage. The item rnay occasiondiy be speiied out to emphasize its rneaning. 'A, Faivre, "Ancient and Medieval Sources of Modem Esotenc Movements", in Antoine Faivre & Jacob Needleman, editors. - E (New York, Crossroad, 1995) p.xiii.

10 A. A. = The Asirological Association A bbreviations: A.T. AFA AIL = The hmerican Theosophist. journal = Arnerican Fr de ration of Asuoiogers = As~ological Lodgr: of London A.L.T.S. = Asuological Lodge of the Theosophical Society C.W. ERE HPB = H.P.Blavatsky. CoUectrd Wriiùi~s = Encvclo~adia of Reli~ion and Ethics = Helena Petrovna Blavatsky KT. = The Krv to Theosm L.W.A.L. = Life and Work of Aian Leo. (book rdited by Bessie Leo. 1919). 0.D.L S.D. = Qld Diarv haves. by Colonel Henry Steel Olcott - cret Doctring, by H.P.Blavatsky S.P.R. = Society for Psychical Research (London) - T.H. - tory, A Quarterly Journal of Research T.M. Lr LT = nie Messenper,joumal = United Lodge of Theosophists

11 TABLE OF CONTENTS... ABSTRACT... III ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... v.. PREFACE... vu 1. INTRODUCTION Methodologid Approeeh and Information gothering Llterature Review BRIEF SKETCH OF ASTROLOGICAL HISTORY Geds of Belief Major Research Sources Oridns of Western Astrology Branches of Astmlogy The basic Rindples of Astrology Recent Astroiogid History In Englanà Astrdogy In North America BRIEF HISTORY OF THE THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY General Overvlew...., Helena Petrovna Bhvatsky ASTROLOGY IN THE WRITINGS OF HPB The Origim of Astrology acordlag to W B 'Esoteric' and 'Exoteric' As(r0loM Astmîogy PP Sdem The QuaMations of the Astrdoger

12 5. MAJOR THEOSOPHICAL IDEAS IN CONTEMPORARY ASTROLOGY The Theory of Macrocosm and Microcam and Universal Sympathy Karma and Reincarnation Planetary Cyck WB'S Psychdogical Emphads THEOSOPHICAL VIEWS AND ATTITUDES TOWARD ASTROLOGY Astrdogy In Theosophical Joumsls Astrology in the View of Pmminent Theosophlsb ASTROLOGY AND THE THEOSOPHICAL MOVEMENT AsWogy In Amrifan The~~~phical Lodges Theosophy and the Amcrican Federadon of Astrdogers The Astml Jd Lodge of the T.S. in London. England a) Lodge History b.) Analysis BIOGRAPHlCAL HISTORY AND ANALYSIS OF FOUR LEADING ASTROLOCERS Aiun the London Lodge in 1915) C. E.0 Carter (hsident of the London Mge in 1922) M m Ednurnd Jones Cfoundtd the Sabùan Assembly) Dane Rudijar (founded Hunirinisric Astmlogy) 8.1. AIan Lm a.) BlOgesphy b.) AppdsslP by Othem C) Alan Lm's Tbcasopblcsl Astrology

13 8.2. Charles E.0 Carter a) Biography b.) Appraisals by Others C) Carter's Ideas on Astrology Marc Edmund Jones a.) Biography b.) Appraisals by Others LI) The Sabian Assem bly de) Jones' Sablan Astrology Dane Rudhyar a) Biography b.) Appraids C) Rudhyar's Astrology Summary and Brief Anaiysis of our Four Astrologers CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY...., APPENDICES. 273

14 1. INTRODUCTION Sincr the turn of this crntury Western astrology has slowly grown in popularity and resprctability. However. the acadern ic corn rn unity has bern slow to açknowlrdge astrology as a subject worthy of investigation. and the philosophical and social roots of this revival have not yet been studied. This dissertation seeks to fil1 this gap in part. by looking at the formative influences bequeathed lrom around the turn of the century by Theosophy. an important spiritual movement founded by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (hereafter HPB). and a number of others interestrd in the investigation of unrxplaind natural and psychic phenornena. More specifically. our purpose is to show the rxtent of the role played by the Theosophical Movement (hereafter T.S. Movemrnt) in the philosophical enrichment and popular revival of astrology in North America and England. Whiie we do not daim that the T.S. Movement was alone responsible for this revival. the available evidance shows that the influence of Theosophy has been profound. and that contem porary astrology would be very different today w ithout this Theosophical influence. The T.S. Movement has thus influenced 20th century astrology in two ways: the revival of the popularity and public acceptance of astrology. and the enrichment of its content. The two are of course closely interrelated. To validate this hypothesis has not been easy. Attitudes towards astrology and the occult in the West have been mixed for nearly 2000 years. The very term 'occult' refers to things concealed from view. not revealed. or 'secret' -hence the difficulty of obtaining information about them. It remains a taboo subject in many quarters as suggested in the titles of competent academic works such as "The Occult Underground" (James Webb) or "The

15 Other W orld" (Janet Oppenheim). Hence. most historians have shird away from exploring this subject. We introducc our topic by first defining and describing its major elements. To start with Our title: we have chosen thé term T.S. Movement to rncompass al1 the various branches which grew out of the original Theosophical Sociery founded in New York in Following the death of HP% in the Society was soon plagued with severe interna1 conflicts (w hich still linger today).' These had alrrady started during HPB's Me-timr as we will cxplain in somcwhat more detail in chapter 3. The conflicts worsened further after the death of each of the two other main t'ounders. Colonel Henry Steel Olcott (hereafter Olcott). and William Quan Judge (hereafter Judge). both American lawyers. This resulted in the founding of several splinter groups which we will list below. Al1 contributed to the spread of Theosophical idras in general but also spilled over into the domain of astrology. though to varying degrees as we will show later in this thesis. This rrsulted in a kind of 'Theosophical astrology' which branchrd out under several different names. Our use of the term 'T.S. Movement' thus covers seven main groups. though it is not necessarily restricted to them. First is the original Theosophical Society (hereafter T. S.) with its International Headquarters in Adyar (India). This organization is still the largest group today (with headquarters in London for Britain and in Wheaton Illinois for North America). possessing most of the originally-acquired assets. '.The history of the T.S. is cornplex, and views on if Vary depending on the account one happens to rad. Relevant licerature on this subject will be identified for further study. especially in chapter 3.

16 Second is The Theosophical Societv (Pasadena). formrrly known as the Point Lomo Comrnunity. which was created after Judge's death by Katherine Tingley. Under her guidance the group created schools. and placcd tmphasis on music. drama and architecture. Third is the United Lodge of Theosophy (ULT) which was formed in 1909 hy Robert Crosbir and other disenchanted mem bers who wishcd to focus more on the works of founders such as HPB and Judgc. Fourth is Alice Bailey's Arcane School which she founded with her husband in 1920 after being thoroughly disenchanted with T.S. politics. Fifth is the Rosicrucian Fellowship. founded by Max Heindrl. a former Theosophist. and his wife a few years rarlier in California. They had close ties with two groups who were more indirectly related to the T.S. Movement. Manly Palmer Hall's Church of the People in Los Angeles. and E Ibert Benjamin's Brothrrhood of Light. both of whom were inspired by Theosophical teachings. Sixth is the Sabian Assembfv founded by Marc Edmund Jones and his students in California in And the seventh is the Anthroposophical Societv. founded by Rudolf Steiner. a prominent Gerrnan Theosophist who was expelled from the T.S. in His society has since formed branches in many parts of the world. particularly in Europe. though to a lesser extent in North America. Besides its theoretical teachings w hich lean more toward Esoteric C hristianity. Anthroposophy also seeks to apply its spiritual principles to education. health and ecological farming.

17 These seven groups are part of what wr in this study cal1 the T.S. ovem ment.' Mem bers of these groups have spread a 'Thcosophical type of astrology' in various degrces in Europe and North Amrrica. Othrr groups indirectly related. or affiliatrd to this T.S.Movrment through interconnectrd memberships will also be mentioned in the course of this study. whrrr appropriate. However. only the above seven are specifically regarded hcrr as part of the T.S. Movement. We should also bear in mind in this context that rhose involved in astrology and other oçcult matters. now as also in the past. are often part of an extrndrd network of similar organizations. This is particularly [rue for the prriod under investigation. For txample. a pcrson might belong at one and the same time to one of the Thaosophical groups. Freemasonary. The Rosicrucian Fellowship. andlor several others. Our second major subject. namely astrology. is often described as a method of divination: and it was most likely also used in this way by the Babylonians. Egyptians. Greeks and other ancient cultures. As such it is a cumulative tradition with a long history. dating back more than five thousand years. Astrology has been practiced in different cultures and bears the specifics of their traditions. Thus. for example. the astrology practiced in China differs Crom those practiced in Europe. or Egypt. Furthermore. the astrology practiced in the China of 3000 B.C. probably differs from the one practiced in that country today. just as the astrology practiced in ancient Greece or Rome differs from that now practiced in modern Europe. '.A ombet of other groups are also loosely affiliated. For example John Algeo, cirnent Restdeat of tbe Amencan Section of the T.S. in Wheaton. Ill.. includes such groups as those formed around ICrishnacuurti. tbe "1 Am" movement of Elizabeth Clare Rophet, gfoups following the ideas of Gurdjieff fonnaiised by PD. Ouspensky. "aad much of the intellecnial content of the New Age-such as it is." See John Algeo, "The Tree of Theosophy." The Ametiw TheosmtUy Vol. 78, No. 6, November/December 1990, p. 2.

18 Howrver. much of Western astrology still rrsts on two major works written by Claudius Ptolemy during the 2nd crntury A.D as wr will spell out in more detail in the nrxt chapcrr. Chaptrr 2 will also cxplain ideas about the origins and history of astrology. focussing more on the Renaissance period since HPB's teachings draw upon Nroplatonism and Hermeticism which wzre rrvived durine this period. A Cew technical details on astrology will also br included. though only sufficient to rnablr the reader to follow our argument (our purposr bring to show the influence of the T.S. Movement on the revival of astrology. not to write a manual on the subject). And for better understanding of our particular quest. wa will also provide a brief description of the historical background to astrology in England and North Arnerica. The themes we present in chapters 4 and 5 are derived from the views of HPB on astrology as outlined in her major works. Isis Unveilrd (1877) and The Secret Doctrine (1888) as well as in various articles. later republished in hrr Collected (1968). These still represent a large part of the theoretical Coundation for the Theosophical teachings. Our reason for procerding in this manner stems from the fact that among leading Throsophists it is above al1 HPB who emphasires the role of astrology. expressing both knowledge and respect for this ancient 'occult science' in hcr writings. In chapter 6 we will illustrate the existence of a certain am bivalence toward astrology among most leading Theosophists as well as among ordinary members. as we discovered in the course of our research. With the exception of Olcott and Judge. our focus will be on the post-hpb-era.

19 On the other hand. we demonstrate in chapter 7 that efforts to spraad astrology through classes and lectures at the grass roots level of the T.S. Movement wrre manifold. substantial and highly influential. This applirs to the many local chapters of the Society throughout North America. England and beyond. Two specific Lodges. the St.Louis Lodgr in Missouri. and the Astrological Lodge of the T.S. in London played a particularly important rolr in this regard. Thanks to the gençrous cooperation and assis tance of the m ajor archives involved. we can also identify the substantial contribution of Throsophists to the foundation and later activities of the largest astrological socirty in North America. The American Federation of Astrologers (AFA). To further support our hypothrsis of the influence of the T.S. Movernrnt on the revival and enrichment of astrology in the 20th century in England and North America. we carefully selected and analyzed the contributions of four prominent astrologers. In chapter 8 we illustrate their importance for the enrichment and revival of a new kind of astrology through a) a presentation of thrir biographies. b) appraisals docurnenting the scope of rheir influence. and c) the Throsophical content in their astrology. followrd by a brief analysis Methodological Approach and Information gathering This section will outline the approach used in conducting this study. and the information gathering process.

20 Methodoloeical Amroach This study is a first attempt to shed light on the history of 20th century astrology. It is a selective approach. given the vastness of the subject. Wr may therelore consider this study as part of a history of 20th century astrology. as well as an examination of the influence of the T.S. Movemrnt on this history. which hithrrto has also not been considered. Our approach to the topic is thus historical. which is to Say that it relies on original data available to the rcsearcher and the manner in which this data is interpreted. Both primary and secondary source data have been usrd in Our study. As James Santucci puts it: "Historical research is basrd on the acquisition of raw data- primary source materials-bascd on the observations and cxperirnccs of the participants in the historical dram a. It is not based on belirf systrms. or should not be..."' However. Frances Yates-through her profound research on Renaissance esotrric currrnts. and Tamsyn Barton have pointed to the trndency among historians to construct history according to their own views, which are naturally mostly set by the political and social agenda of the society of which they are part. Thus the abovc historians have found that there are considerable differences between an 'officiai history.' and the picture which rmerges if careful attention is given to detail. Robert Ellwood Iurther points out that: Historical insight or 'truth' is always partial and selective. The finite human mind can never know al1 the virtually infinite number of factors that go into any contemporary event. m uch less comprehend '.lames Santucci. îheoso-rv (T H.1 Vol V. No 5. lm p. 145ff. He tba makes valuable observations on method in historical researcb. See also bis editorial commeats in ibid, Vol. No. 4. October 19%-

21 al1 those that make up a happening back in the past. Furthermore. the srlection by historians of the data that seems significant out of al1 the rrst oftrn tells us more about the historians thrmselves. and the age in w hich they write. than it totally unlocks the past... ' If we considèr that astrology has a history going back nt least 5000 yzars. it is surprising how littie attention has been paid to it. It is al1 the more surprisinp when we rccall the tremendous impact of astrology on key areas of the socicties and cultures of the past. such as history. politics. religion. philosophy. science and art (as E-Garin has reminded us).' A frw gaps werr rncountered during our rrsearch with respect to the availablr source data on the history of astrology ovrr the past hundrrd yrars. This is primarily due to the fact that people in prominent positions in particular had (and perhaps still have) reason to concral thcir interest or involvement with the occult because of the mixed reputation it suffered throughout most of its history. Therefore much of the evidence rests in private hands. and attention to detail is essential though also time coosuming. particularly for a topic like a~trology.~ We were nevertheless fortunate in this study to secure the cooperation of most of the organizations and private parties involved. Gaps still remain with respect to biographical and certain other matters. but do not in any great measure affect our conclusions. However. they leave room for Curther research. The main channels through which the influence of the T.S. Movement made itself apparent. as identified in our research. are as follows: 'Eugenio Gann. Astmlonv in be R e ~ c e ; ~ 2- of Life (London: Penguin Books Ltd ) p. 24. Some of this influence still lingers today, as we point out in chapters 2 and 8. '!For example ploughing Wougb LOO volumes of unindexed jomals just to spot the occasional littie announcement of an astrology class held by a T.S. Lodge or an advertisement for astrological counselling.

22 1. The major works of HPB: 2. Astrological activities of the various local Theosophical Lodges such as the frrr astrology classes at Krotona. and regular classes at various levels at the S t. Louis Lodge: 3. The sprrad of Theosophical literature: 4. The willingness to publish and distribute astrological literature through the T.S. Publishing House: 5. The Theosophical contributions of the four astrologers sclrcted in support of our thrsis hypothcsis. Material. verbal and written. was carefully assembled in each case and subsrquently evaluated Cor its relevance to our theme of Theosophical influence in contem porary astrology. The Inform ation Gatherina Process This research is based on three main sources of information. the available literature bo th published and unpu blished (lecture or conference transcripts and tapes. intcrnet repositories). persona1 testimony. and miscrllaneous survey data. Al1 three sources were used for the present study. This involved the writer in extensive travel to institutions and individuals in England. the United States and as Car afield as India. Two separate visits were made to E ngiand. one each to Calilornia (Krotona) and Philadelp hia (Sabian Assern bly Conference). and one extrnded trip to the In ternational Hradquarters of the Theosophical Society in Adyar (Madras). India. A brief summary follows. 1. Firs t E ngland Visit The objective of both England visits was to get biographical information on Alan Leo and Charles E.O. Carter. as well as about the history of the Astrological Lodge of London (ALL). This was carried out through library

23 research at the Headquartrrs of the Theosophical Society in London. through contact with rnrmbrrs of the main astrological organizations in England. and through introductions to noted authorities in the fields of Throsophy and astrology. The Theosophical Society's library is an important repository of original documrnrs dating back to the early years of the organizarion. It is also a major source of mem bership data. During our first visit in meetings were held with leading mrmbrrs of the Asrrological Lodge of the Theosophical Society. and we wrre fortunate in being able to attend one of their weekly meetings. Wr interviewcd Mr. Geoffrey Cornelius. presidrnt of the Companv of Astrologers. We also intrrviewed Mr. Charles Harvey. a leading figure (at the time) in The Astrological Association and trustee of the Uranio Trust. an astrological study centre and library created by the Association. This latter body was a vrritable gold mine of old journals and rare books. An interview was also arranged with Mr. Nick Campion. a well-known Theosophist. astrologrr and author in Bristol. and with Ms. Frances Fisher. a long-time acquaintance of the astrologer Charles Carter. one of the four astrologers selected Cor a more detailed examination in chapter 8. at her home in Somerset. Valuable information and assistance was also obtained from Mr. Lesiie Price. head of the Theosophical Historv Centre and then manager of the Quest Bookshop in London. Price initiated the publication of the journal Theosophical History. currently edited by James Santucci. (Associate Professor in the Department of Religion at California State University. Fullerton). Useful information was also gathered at the Warburg fnstitute in London. a valuable repository of rare books in the history of astrology and the occult.

24 2. Second England Visit This second visit to England in the la11 of 1995 was undertaken on the outward leg of an rxtended journey to India (see below). The objective was to renew the contacts made pteviously and to collcct lurther information that had corne to Our attention in the intrrim. Many hours wrre spcnt once again in the library of the Theosophical Society. and also at the British Museum library which yielded a wealth of prrcious source data for Our study. Wc were also fortunate during this visit to have a discussion with the historian Mt. Patrick Curry. who provided us with some valuable materials hc had uathercd during his own researches. Wz also discussed our themr with Mr. t Leslir Pricr. and interviewrd Mr. Paul Stanjer. an Anthroposophist and former manager of Watkins. a well-known occult bookstore in London. 3. Throsop hical Society Headquarters. Adyar (Madras) The visit to the International Headquarters of the Theosophical Society in Adyar (Madras). India. which was made possible to the present writrr. posed an unparalleled opportunity for resrarch on this project. The Society has extensive grounds that also house the Adyar Library. one of the best- known libraries in lndia for Hindu and othet philosophies and For Theosophical material of al1 kinds. The Society is also the main repository for membership information going back (with certain gaps) to the very beginning of the Society's existence at Adyar in A very productive total of six wreks was spent in rescarch and contact with leading Theosophis ts. The wealth of w ritten m aterial gathered almos t overw helm ed the capacity of the tiny local post office when it was finally presented with a total of seventeen 5 kg. packages for shipment to Canada. This visit was particuiarly fruitful in terms of insights obtained from discussions with

25 long-standing residents. For rxample Our fortuitous meeting in Adyar with Ms. Joy Mills (a former national presidrnt of the T.S. in the United States) was instrumental in bringing us. the following year. to the onrtime U.S. national headquartrrs of the Throsophical Society at Ojai. California. as described in what follows. 4. Krotona Theosophical Centre and School. Ojai. California Four wreks was spent at the important Theosophical Centre 'Krotona' on the outskirts of Ojai. north of Los Angeles. during FzbruaryIMarch This centre houses a valuable library. bookstore and Theosophical school. and is a substantial repository of Theosophical and astrological literature related to the United States. It is also within striking distance of the two othrr main Theosophical groups. the The Thcosophical Society (Pasadena) and the United Lodgr of Theosophists. boih hradquartered in Los Angeles. Visits were arranged to both thesc organizations and research was also undertaken at the library of the Thcosophical Library Center (The Theosophical Society Pasadena). Additional sources of Thcosophical and astrological information wrre obtained from the Krishnamurti Foundation Library in Ojai. and the library at the University of Culifornia Santa Barbara in Santa Barbara. Numrrous individual contacts were established during this visit. including interviews and discussions w ith leading figures in the Philosophical Research Society (PRS). the organization established by Manlry Palmer Hall and headquartered in Los Angeles. the International Society for Astrological Resrarch (ISAR). located in Santa Paula. the Arcane School of Alice Bailey. as well as persons related to the Theosophical and astrological communities.

26 5. Sabian Assembly Annual Conference. Media. Pennsylvania Wr were fortunate in bring invited to the Annual Conference of the Sabian Assem bly near Philadrlphia in July This was important to seçurc! additional information about the life and activities of Marc Edmund Jones, one of the four minent astrologrrs chosen in support of our hypothesis (chapter 8). Much of the neccssary material on Jones (apart from his published books) is unpublished and managed by this organization. The visit was most productive in terms of the personal contacts made. the reminiscences obtainrd about the foundrr. and the unpublished lecture and biographical notes of Mr. Jones. which would not otherwise have bern available to us. The gathering and evaluation of the data on Jones and the other four astrologrrs was perhaps the most complex and time consuming owing to the importance of thesc men as major pillars of our argument. As we ssek to show. they have each stimulatrd the revival of astrology in this century through the ideas they have introduced into it. ideas and a mode of thinking which. wr argue. Thcosophy was in large part responsible for Literature Review This section will review noteworthy andlor useful acadernic research studies that fa11 within the general domain of Theosophy or astrology. Let us note immediately, however. that no historical work on 20th century astrology is in existence or in progress at this time. and there also exists no historical. sociological or other type of study about the influence of Theosophy on astrology. Thus our prirnary written sources Cor this study are first of al1 the two m ajor works of HPB. Isis Unveila and the Secret Doctr* as well as the Collected W ri-, the rem aining m aterial consis ting rn ainly of articles

27 from Theosophical and astrological journals and interna1 unpublished material. Only there did wr Cind mention of any link betwecn Theosophy and astrology as will be made evident in the course of this thesis. Most studirs about the T.S. Movemrnt have approached it from the perspective of the sociology of religion under the category of religious movements.' The cultural influence of Theosophy in fields as diverse as poçtry. painting. and music has begun to be recognized. though so far mainly as a dissertation topic. An exception is the influence of the T.S. Movement on painting which has received the aitention of a number of books.' Very little has been done on the impact of the T.S. Movemrnt on othrr areas of socicty. Several doctoral theses since the 1980's have lookcd into different aspects of the influence of the T.S.Movement. An example of Theosophy's literary influence is an examination of the Movement's contribution to 'American Thought' through such well-known writrrs as W.B. Yeats. D.H. Lawrence. Jack London and Henry Miller.g Another examplc is Joy Dixon's. Gendcr. Poiitics. and Cu hure in ' the New ~eg." A further dissertation is currently in progress in the Netherlands concerning the impact of Theosophy on Dutch artists such as Piet Mondrian. '.See especiaily works by Rodney Stark. Robert Ellwood and Gordon Melton '.sec John Aigeo's article, "Theosophy and the Zeitgeist". in -0~heosobbiy Vol. 75, No. 10, November He gives a number of references in this regard on p Paul Johnson in Masters Revem writes (p. 2). "Her[HPB] cultural iafluence has been felt in fields as diverse as poetry, painting, politics. and asmlogy."?william R-Linvillem Petrom Blav-. Thmsooûv. Tho- PbD.. University of Hawai, I0.Joy Dixon. Gender. Polrtiçs,and Cwe in the Ne w AG. Doctoral Dissertation, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Bmnswick, N J., 1993.

28 Three dissertations carne to our attention as somrwhat more closrly related to Our topic. two of which deal with Dane Rudhyar. one of our four prominent Theosophically-influenced astrological writers. However. their focus is on his adaptation of psychology in his formulation of a Humanistic and Transpcrsonal ~strology." For rxample. Richard N. Fragomi analyses Dane Rudhyar's Humanistic and Transpersonal approach to astrology in relation to St. Augustine and Thomas Aquinas's views on astrology as wrll as their understanding of the role of cosmic symbolism in the Church. He further undrrtakes to criticize Rudhyar's approach from Bernard Lonergan's philosophical perspective. However. hc fails to mention Rudhyar's Thcosophical connections. This work is ncvertheless interesthg for the connections it identifies between astrology and its symbolism in the Church. particularly as cxem plified in Rud hyar's type O f as troiogy. Paff-Santoro explores "why correspondences m ight rxist between the life cycle and astrological theories and how such correspondences. if understood. might cnrich both theories and add to our understanding of adult devclopment."" This thrsis explores and describes the bencîïts that both astrology and psychology can gain by mutual cooperation. an experience that a num ber of astrologers and psychologists already share as we will also point out. The third dissertation by Car1 Hurwiiz explores how "occultism as expressed through Theosophy rnight provide an alternative unifying pattern ".Richard N. Fragomeni, A Critical Analvsis of the T~pgsfomative C-ter of Cosmolori~ Psvcholonv of Dane R-. Doctoral Dissertation. The Cathoiic University of America, Washington D.C., Janice Paff-Santoro. -on of Qg Mass stroloni~ The=. Doctoral Dissertation. Boston University, S chl of Educatim. Boston.

29 or paradigm for transpcrsonal psycho~ogy."~~ He adopts and adapts the Hindu concept of the seven chakras. a subject that Charles Leadbeater (a leading Throsophist undcr A.Brsant's presidency) has successfully writtrn on. as a tool in personality developmsnt. following Robarto Assagioli's concept of Psychosynthesis.'" The thesis thus links the Theosophical teachings directly to specific concepts of psychotherapy. somcihing with which HPB would undoubtedly be in full agreement. On the othrr hand, no attempt has yet been made to explore the link between Throsophy and astrology-hence effort. the rationale for the presant research The more prominent attempts at examining the history of the T.S.Movement are somewhat self-serving accounts written mostly by Theosophists. or presenting the historical perspective of events through the eycs of one of its branches.'' This may partly bc due to the fact. as the current president of the T.S. John Algeo has observed. that: "Mainline historians have ignored Thcosophy or dismissed it because it does not fit their preconcaptions or brcause they do noi understand it..? However. recenily iwo books by Paul Johnson questioning the identity and role of the 'Mahatmas' in the T.S. Movement. (a mysterious and sensitive topic) have stirred up a lot of ".Car1 HUME. Toward Tbe Dcvelopment of a Tbeos~c~v based Psvcbothermy, Doctoral Dissertation. The Faculty of the California Institute of htegral Studies, San Francisco, 1987, p.8.?as iater mentioned, Assagioli was mucb influenced in his work by Alice Bailey, a long-lime Theosophist, who also founckd her owa group. "Josephine Ransom. A S m of -&&y, (Adyar. Madras: Theosophical Publishing House. 1938); Aaooymous, Movm : a Wtofv a S m (New York. E.P. Dutton & Company, c. 1925). However a somewhat more bdanced analysis is given by Alvin Boyd Kuha, Tùe~Sobb~~ (New Yo&: Henry Holt & Company, 1930). Nso the quarterfy journal Theoso~hical Histwy, founded by Leslie Price and currenuy edited by James A. Santucci of California State University, Fullertm. This journai explores the history of the Society in an innovative and objective manner..

30 controversy. making it obvious that more research in this area is nerded.17 Nrvertheless. astrology is usually mentioned only in passing. if at all. James Webb was one of the first historians who sought to unravèl the net of the 'occult undrrworld.' Howcver valuable he is as an important genrral source. he is also somewhat cynical towards the subject as revealrd by the title of the introduction-'the Flight from Rrason'. to his book The Occult undrrworld. Again astrology is only treated in passing. Four additional books on the subject of the occult have recently surfacrd. They èach explore their subject mater in an engaging and open-handed manner. Although attention is paid to the role played by Theosophy not much is said of astrology. Janet Oppenheiin's book The Other World traces the history of spiritualism at the turn of the century. rnaking the intcresting observation that the lines betwecn science and religion had not yet bern clrarly drawn at that time. Hrr book illustrates the influence of spiritualism and Theosophy as mediatrd through prominent personalities to whom an 'otherworldly' approach appralrd more than that of the emerging rational and cmpiricist outlook. Unfortunately. astrology finds no place in hcr accouni of Theosophy. Joscelyn Godwin's Theosoohical Enligbtenrn ml. is another informative account of this period. albeit with a somew bat mislrading titlc. Godwin himself admits as much, explaining that it "points to my thesis that Blavatsky's Theosophy owed as much to the skeptical Enlightenment of the righteenth century as it did to the concept of spiritual enlightenment with " K-Paul Johnson, The Masrers Reveaîed(New York: Swe University of New York Press, 1994); and also Initiaces of Theoso~hicai Masters (New York, S tate University Press, 1995).

31 which it is more readily associatrd."" It is a book well worth reading for the intrresting facts hr has uncovered on a numbrr of prominent psrsons linkrd to 'the occult underground' and science. He dors not focus specifically on the T.S. but covers the sntire 19th century spiritualist and occult network of directly and indirrctly related persons and groups. Even though he does briefly discuss aspects of 19th century British astrology. (which wi: dcscribe in section 2.6) he dors not pursue any link betwern Theosophy and astrology. Other studies that deserve mention here include a recent collection of articles entitled Modern Esoteric Spiritualitv, edited by Antoine Faivre and Jacob Nredlrman. However. the article by Faivre is a more or less condensed version of an rarlirr book by him rntitled Access to Western Esotericisrn. Besides Faivre's article. which is of interest only as background information for us. there is one article about the T.S. Movemrnt by Emily B. Srllon and Renet weberiq which basically offers a brief history of the Society. pointing also to its substantial influence on the religious outlook. as wrll as on science. the arts. and on a renrwed ethical cmphasis on personal rrsponsibility. Faivre holds a chair in Religious Studies at the Sorbonne in Parisoriginally established in which is the only one of its kind to include rsoteric studies in the officia1 curriculum rather than rnerely tolerating them ai the pcriphery. Faivre assumed this chair in 1979 after which the title was amended to "History of Esoteric and Mystical Currents in Modern and LsJoscelp Godwin, The Theosophicai Enli~htement(New York, Sfate of New York University Press, 1994), p.xi ''.A. Faivre, *Amient and Medieval Sources of Modem Esoteric Movements," in Antoine Faivre & Jacob Needleman, eds. Modem mric Sv- (New York, Crossroad, 1995), p. 1, Also E.B. SeUon and R. Weber, Theosophy and The Tbeosophical Society," ibid, p. 28%.

32 Contrmporary Europe." Faivre seeks to develop a hierarchy of categories in an attempt to organize the vast amount of material. He admits rhis is a formidable challenge (likened to bringing order into a wild forest). cautioning however that his attempt is still preliminary. He discusses the pros and cons of various approaches. and proposes that: "if we approach rsotcricism phenomrnologically as a form of thought. an ensemble of tendencies to be described. wt can avoid doing violence to historical data."" He offers an impressive Iiterature survey and traces the network of many different rsoteric currents which had formtd into groups. for example Hrrmeticisrn. Rosicrucianism and alchemy. However. astrology is mentioned only as part of many of these currents: it is not pursued as a separate subject. And no attempt is made to link the current revival of astrology-w hich is acknow ledged. to the T.S. Movament. Gordon Meiton has made a systematic effort to track down information on various 'New Age' currents and prominent figures in the field. He starts his chronology in the first edition of his New Aee Encvcio~edi&" with the foundation of the Theosophical Society in New York. cmphasizing its important role in the history of what is now very broadly callrd 'The New Age.' This and subsequent editions draw attention to the occult in the New Age movement in general. including Theosophy and astrology. The difference between the first and the fifth editions is quite markrd in tarms of the ariiount of information added to various items. We were fortunate in being able to consult the latest edition while in California. ".Antoine Faivre, &c cess to Western Esoteric Curr- (New York, State University of New York Press, 1994). p. 9. This book also has a valuable extensive bibliography, some of it with short commentary.?gordon J. Melton, lemme Clark and Aiden A. Kelly, yew Ane (Detroit/New York: Gale Researcb hc., 1990). This importani compendium was progressively expanded through subsequent ediaoas. We relied mainly on the latest (fa) edition publisbed under the title of Encvctobedia of American Reli~ion~ 1996 (same publisher).

33 In addition, we should mention that James Santucci. current editor of the scholarly journal Theosoohical Historv. has rccently initiated a five yaar seminar with the American Acadrmy of Religion on the history of Theosophy and the main philosophical and occult currents therein. Thus more light is likrly to be shed on the T.S. Movrmrnt through serious research in the future. The link with astrology has so far not been a topic of investigation. although this thrsis will hopefully encourage additional contributions in this direction.

34 2. HISTORICAL SKETCH OF WESTERN ASTROLOGY This chaptrr offers a brirf insight into the history and principles of astrology to providr the necessary background to the presrnt rnquiry. Aftrr introduçing the reader to what is currently known about these origins and principles in rive short sub-sections. the chapter concludes with a more drtailcd ovrrview of the rclatively rrcent history of the subject in Great Britain and North Am erica. rrspcctively. 2.1 Genesis of Astrological Belief The origins of astrology will probably remain for rver lost in the mists of prr-historic tirnrs. There is a general consensus among his torians (we mention a frw in this context) who have written on the subject of astrology that astrology dates back to the first traces of human civilization. This is no doubt becausr the sky above with its rver moving planets has always bren fascinating to the hurnan cye. and has been endowed with mystrrious qualitirs at al1 times. F. von Oefele has noted that even "in the interior of some of the larger South Sea Islands. as e.g.. Borneo. a primitive astronomy and astrology are found amongst the aborigines. while the inhabitants OC the sea board. as also of the smaller islands. exhibit a higher developmrnt in the science of the stars..."l This eventually led to planetary worship. particularly of the Sun and Moon. That the heavens are given religious significance in ancient traditions everywhere is evident from the fact that. "there is an almost universal belief in a celestial divine being. who created the universe and guarantees the fecundity of the earth... the sky direcily L~ncvc~omdia of R-ion ad pdw(hereinafter the m, Vol. XIL 4 S ~ M. m and Sm (Introduction)," by F. von ûefele.

35 reveais a powrr and holine~s"~ The sky as a powerful syrnbol "has held its position in evrry religious framrwork. simply brcause its mode of being is outside time..." Mark Edm und Jones. a prom inent American astrologer whom we introduce more fully in chaptrr 8. rxplains the carly history of astrology as Collows: "Out of al1 possible forms of natural religion in this srnse. the worship of the sky-that is. man's ultimate anchorage of his consciousncss in the completcly dependable vault of heaven-is the most significant in religious history. It is the historical beginning of horo~copy."~ Star religion and star worship certainly played a role in the developmrnt of the planetary sym bolism of astrology. Howevcr. this topic constitutes a vast subject by itself and w il1 not be pursued further here. Systematic observations of the course of the planets wcre first made for purposes of agriculture. navigation and religious rituals. and gradually led to the development of a calcndar. Egypt. Babylonia. China and India arc bclirved to have been the aarliest centers for the systrmatic study of asrronomy and astrology (the two subjects were then not separated). For exarnple. the occurrence of a specific planet in a certain position in the sky became connected for the ancient Egyptian astronomers with the commencement of the annual flood of the Nile Delta. The timing of this rvrnt was vital to the country's survival. Hugo Winckler and Alfred Jeremias. two German scholars. have contributed through their research. at the turn of the century. much to Our understanding of the important role of?.~i.rcea Eüade. mrns in Colpp(Yê(ive Remn (New Y&: The New American Libiary, Inc ). p. 38. See also chapters 3 and 4 with regard to planeîaq worship. 3.1bid. p ~arc Edmund Jones, Astrp10~v:How and Wbv it WoflrS. (Baltimore. MA: kngoia Books Ioc A p. 14.

36 astrology in Baby1onia.j S om of the oldest Babylonian predictions are those of 'Sargon the Old.'. dating back to around B.C. But the oldrst physical cvidrnce of astrology that has corne down to us so far was unrarthrd in China. These records contain prrcise calculations dating back to around 3000 B.C. or evrn ~arlier.~ S pccific planetary cons tellations are also prescribrd in the Indian Vedas with respect to the timing of various sacrifices Major Research Sources According to a rrcent historical study by Tamsyn Barton. our record of astrological history could have been more complete and more accurate. had the rrsearchcrs of the past 200 years or so been more carcful with their lindings. and bern more interested in deciphering and analyzing the ancient texts. many of which still remain CO be catalogued.' Franz Curnont. ont! of the rare historians to serious ly research as trology. had poin ted to this problem as far back as 1898? Around the same timc. Winckler and Jeremias also pointed to a massive amount of material that remains to be deciphered. And Viktor Stegemann. who undertook research into the asrrological writings of the Greek astrologer Dorotheos of Sidon in the early 1940's. also points to the huge volume of Arabic materials that lie waiting to be investigateda9 Thus. our present knowledge of the history of the origins of!~ugo Wikler. ïhe Historv of BabvloqYLpOd Assva (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1907). and Alfred Jeremias, The OB Tes-nt in the Linht (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 19 LI). 6QtJ, Vol. XII. "Sun. Mm. and Stars (Chinese).'%y TT. Fu. 7.~ams~ Banoo. Ment Asmlony, (LwQo & New York: Routledge,L994). ranz Cumoot - O - c 12 Vols. (Brussefs: ); qumd in Eugenio Garin. Astmlonv in the Renj&sance: the 7- of Lif~ (London: Penguin Books Lid, 1976) fnuoduction. 9.~ltor Stegemaan. Dorolbeos von Sidon dss-tonm des Sabl Ibo Bisr. t Prague: huckerei des Rotehorates Bdhmen und men in hg. 1942) Fornard.

37 astrolopy is based only on whatevrr artifacts have been discovered and dçciphered. Our perspective will almost certainly widen as new findings and decipherments are made. Gordon Melton. a contemporary authority in the arça of religious movements. puts his finper on a further difficulty when he corn plains that: "The neglect of occult history resulted from the longstanding scholarly disdain for the occult. Libraries did not Save occult materials. and while a vast occult literature exists. it is almost in~isible."~~ The German conternporary author and Religionswissenschaftler Christoph Bochinger also hints at this dilemma in a thorough and voluminous recent study.i1 Barron also observes that: "The image of astroiogy today discourages scholarly investigation..." l2 This discouragement of historians in conducting research into astrology goes back to the turn of the century. as revealed in criticism by Wiockler of certain German cstablis hrnent scholars w horn. he charges. lack the necrssary cornpetence and knowledge to support their attacks (though he recognizes exceptions). Of a certain 'G' he writes for example: Ich habe gesagt. dab die babylonische Weltanschauung 'astrologisch' sei und das die Astrologie bis an die Schwelle der Neuzeit rin Kind jener Weltanschauung sei... Wenn G. nur in meine Schriften hineingeblickt hltte. so muete er das wissen. Er fai3t Astrologie im handwerksmabigen Sinne... [And he continues by complaininp of the treatment that Zim mern. a contemporary colieague had received]. der O.Gordon J. Meltoo *The Revival of Asuology in <be United States." cbapter 10 in Relinw>us Movemenk, ed- Rodney Stark, ( 1989, p "Chnstopb Bochinger. 'New fine*' und moderne buoo: ReIipi90s wissewhe Analvw (Gütersloh: Chr. Kaiser Gütersloher Veriagshaus, 1994) p barton. Ancient Aslmlory p.4.

38 nrbenbci dassrlbe in dieser Hinsicht sagt. wie ich. und deshalb rbenfalls schief angrsrhen wird. l3 My own translation into English from the German follows: 1 havr said that the Babylonian 'Weltanschauung' is astrological. and that astrology up to the threshold of modernity is a 'child' of this world view... If G. would have only looked at my articles he would havr undrrstood. He looks at astrology in the manner of a tradesman...[ And he continues by complaining about the treatment that Zim mern. a conternporary colleague. had received]. w ho. by the way. says the sarnc thing in this regard as 1 did. and who is therefore also looked upon askance [Le. by other colleagursj. Most instructive for a detailed account of the history and usage of astrology throughout the ancient world-egyptian. Chinese. Buddhist and Hebrew. among others. is the section of the ERE (James Hastings edition) entitled "Sun. Moon and Stars," written by various authors. A similar review is notably absent from the more recently published Encvclooedia of Religion. çditrd by Mircea Eliade-a curious oversight. Other histories of as trology. dealing mainly with Western astrology. include Lynn Thorndike's. The Place of Maeic in the Intellectual Historv of Eurom, and Jim Tester's A Historv of Western Astrolo~e. However they tend to be more general in scope. But progress on the broader historical front is. at long last. being made. More and better insights are coming to light with the growing interest of a number of researchers in the occult past as a whole.14 Patrick Curry's work. 13.~ugo Winckler. Die in ûrienb ed. Winckier and Jecemias (Leipzig: J-C. Hinrichs'sche Buchbandlung, 1907) p This defence of asuologicai scholarship is rnost eolightening. For a cri tical analysis of the academic de bate ai this tirne see also Christopb Bocbinger, 'New &&* p Bochinger himself appears to give credit, albeit sumewhat reluctantly, to the position of Jeremias and Winckler-one also shared at the turn of the century by several French historians. 14.1& Zatelli. "Asmlogy and the Worship of the Stars in the Bible," Zeitschrift für Aluestamentliche Wissenschaft, Vol. 103, 1991, pp

39 thouph more limited in scope. does offer detailed insights into the social and cultural dimensions of astrology at a certain tirne period in England.15 And according to Barton. rven the Cor~us Hermeticum. the authenticity of w hich had long been in doubt. now appears to have been sornrwhat rehabilitated Origins of Western Astrology Know ledge of anciznt as trology was traditionally kept and practiced by the priest class. or by magicians and/or other rducated members of society. and was generally linkrd with alcherny and magic. They were viewed as a means of divination like the oracles (cg. Delphi). However. astrology was more systematic than the oracles. in that it required difficult calculations etc.. and was less ambiguous to interpret. The practitioners of these forms of divination-hpb calls them 'initiates.' were usually attached to the courts of kings or emperors. and were consulted on specific issues (private or public). l7 The professed ability to predict the future has always attracted the interest of the ruling classes. rven down to modern times: hence as trological counselling has regularly been provided to popes. and kings and queens al1 over Europe. To mention just a few among the numerous examples that may be given: Elizabeth 1 of England supported Dr. John Dee. a well-known astrologer and scientist of his tirne. la The famous doctor. astrologer and 15.~atrick Cuny, 1989). Cf. aiso his A C-oa of bbts. v. 1 Brown Limited 1992). 16.Bartoo. -nt - (Cambridge: Polity Press, aadwardian Astrol~ (London: Coiiias & Asuoloq p.25ff. The Rotestant critic Casaubon ( ), a known schoiar of Greek, believed the Cornus H- to be mostly forged in early Christian times ~or funkt reference see Frmz Cumont %pologv and R e m (New YofL: Dover Publications, 1912). 18.~raoces Yates. The Occult Philoso~hv 1979). See also Peter J. French, John Dee (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1972). in the Elizaktium Ane(Loadoo: Routiedge & Kegan Paul.

40 clairvoyant Nostradamus offrred counsel to the court of the Mçdici. Famous sçien tist/philosophers such as Albertus Magnus. Kepler and Paraeelsus also practicrd astrology. and used it in thrir work. The great Arabic historian and astrologrr Ibn Khaldun wrote in the 14th ccntury that: Rulers and armies who want to know the duration of their own dynasties show the greatest concern for these things and the greatest curiosity in this respect... Every nation has had its soothsayrrs. its astrologers and its saints. who have spoken about things of this kind. [They have spoken] about a particular royal authority they were rxpecting. or a dynasty they felt was coming. [They have also spoken] of wars and battles... about how long the ruling dynasty would last... Things like this are called forecasting. 19 And Our rulers and armies of today scem no less c ap for astrological prognosrs. The valuable study by Ellic Howe reveals the important role played by astrology during World War II.l0 More recently. media reports have disclosrd that Ronald Reagan (supposedly prompted by his wife Nancy) found value in the ancient craft, while President of the United S tates.ll However. according to prom inen t Amrrican astrologer Marc Edmund Jones. Reagan had repeatedly consulted him on astrology as far back as his days as a movie star. and later as Govenor.?' Furthermore. a recently published book has revealed that the respected former French President Francois Mitterand was guided over the last [ive years of his presidency by a well known French astrologer.3 Roosevelt. Churchill...?O.~llic Howe. Urania s Chiidrca: the ssaaple World of tbe (Loodoo: Wiiiiam Kimber. 1967). =l.~oan Quigley. "What does Joan sav?" Mv seven vears as White House asuoloner to Naocv and Ronald Reaaan (New York: Windsor PubWg Corp., NW). 2%fonnaii0~ supplied by suidents of Jows at tbe annual ccmference of the Sabian Assenrbfy tfounded by Jones), in Media. Pennsylvania, July E~beth Tessier, Sous le sinne de Mittmd:seot ans d'entrevues (Paris: Edition No. 1, 1997).

41 Hitler. Staiin. and Yaltsin. among othrrs. are also said to have had their astrological advisrrs. Astrological counsel continues to be sought and rrsprcted to this day by the governments of Asian countries such as Burma. India and Thailand. to enhiincc the prospects of major political and social decisions.24 Use ol astrology as a policy-making tool has thus been centrai to the üstrological profession from the very beginning due to the value attributcd to astrological statements. not only as guidance to the persona1 Iives of those in power. but to the destiny of whole nations. In the ancient Oriental view of the world. astrology. reiigion. and therapeutics went hand in hand. In the conviction that al1 things in the universe proceeded in parallel lines. men spoke of a macrocosm (primarily the stellar world as the province of Deity) and a microçosrn (primarily the human body). and sought Cor far-reaching analogies between them.z This assum ption of an exact correspondence between the macrocosm and the microcosm was expressed in the oft-rrpeated statement. 'as above so below.' attributed to Hermrs Trismegistus. the alleged author of the GO~DUS Hermeticum. This suggested that human destiny was timed by the movemants of the planets through the zodiac which. when rightly interpreted. could offer practical guidance for the future. Astrology has thus always served as a link or mediator between the macrocosm and the (individual) microcosm. interpreting time as it relates to a particular entity. %4s reported occasiou~y in the news media- '-CER& Vol. XII. "Sun. Mom, and Stars (Introâuction)." p. 58 by F. von Oefele. This subject wiii be more fuily discussed in chapter 6.

42 For various reasons. this view of the human being as the microcosm of the macrocosrn has always appeared to exotrric Christian believers as rather prrsumptuous. and perhaps evrn blasphemous. This is in marked çontrast to the pantheistic virws of Hindu Vrdanta. for exam pie. which uses Sanskrit terms (Samashti and Vyashti) to express the same idea. i'hr traditional Christian. however. is far from being viewed as symbolizing the microcosm. since he or she is doctrinally defined as a mere 'creature.' albeit one çreated "in the image" of the Creator. The Christian Church has also had reasons for being rquivocal in its tolerancr for astrology. In the first place. the 'fatalism ' of the more vulgar or 'popular' type of astrology. which claimed a direct link of cause and rffect through the stars. conflicted with the cardinal Christian doctrine of Cree will. originally promoted by A~gustine.?~ In addition. human psychological and social conditions on the earth must be attributed to God's Providence rather than to the stars or planets. "Ominously. astrology and magie threatencd to take the power of prophecy and miracle m aking away from God and to place them into the human hands."" Thus Bishop Hooper in 17th century England is recorded as having stated in a sermon that: "..A is neither Sun. neither Moon. Jupiter nor Mars. that is the occasion of wealih or woe. plenty or scarcity. of war or peace' : it was God himself."z8 2h.~ugustine was rather ambiguws towards asuology. See S t.augustine. Tbe of GoQ (Garden City. N.Y.: hgc Book Division of Doubleday & Company, Inc ). p la his Confession& he condcms the 'fatalistic' type of astrology and a discussion over twins reveals that be did oot contempiate reincamation but herpreted the twin story in a rather simplistic manner (Oxford University Ptess. Oxford, p.54, 1 12f).?william Eamon. Science and the Secrets of Natur~ New Jersey. Princeton University Press p ~eith ïhomas. Religion and the Decline of Maeic: studies in bo~ular beliefs in sixteenth and seventeenth-centurv Ennland(London: Penguin Books, 1971) p. 425.

43 Beyond al1 these doctrinal diffrrences. nstrology in most of its forms also represented a potential threat to the Church's traditional desire for control. In practical terms this usually meant clericai control over systcms of human knowledge and p~wer.?~ Theodor Griesinger. a 19th crntury historian and author of mnny books. points out that the Church had a virtual monopoly on education through its rnonastic orders. through its control of the earliest European universities, and especially later through the Jasuits who sought to becomr the educators of the royal houses in Europe during the Countrr reformation. giving them considerable influence.30 However. the degree of Church resistance to astrology was subject to change with almost rvery newly elccted Pope. and gains and losses were made by rither suppressing or allowing Hrrrnetic ideas (which include astrology). whatever was more opportune. Attacks on astrology were often superficial. since the Church would have been hard pressed to mount a concrrted intellcctual attack when. as D.P. Walker argues in detail. astrology and magic always had their place in the life of the Church. Popes were rither themselves steeped in astrology like Pope Sylvester 11 (999- loq3). or sought its counsel quite regularly. e.g. Rodrigo Borgia. who became Alexander VI ( ). and Leo X ( ). to name just a few.".. 29.~.~. Waker. S~intual and Dernopic Mapic from Flan0 to C m (Lotidon: University of Notre Dame Press, 19751, See also Nick Campion. "St. Augustine on Astrology," m n v QiaRerlv. Vol. 64. No. 3, Sumer and Averil Cameron in -e F m ed. Leo Howe and AIan Wain (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993). 30.Tbeodor Grïesiager, The Jesuits: A Cornolete History of theu Oan and Serret Proceedinns from the Foundation of the Order to the Resenr Tie, Trans. AJ. Scoa, MD. Third Editicm (London: W.H. Allen & Co., 1892) p. 152ff. 31.~lfons Rosenberg, Z v e l. Das W M der A s m m (Zilrich: Verlag Max S. Men Ag ) pp (Bdl, cbapter cm: Pie die AstroIo&). Rosenberg outlines very clearly the deep involvement of the Church with astrology. Pope Leo X even estabfished a Cbair of astrology at the papal University in Rome; See ais0 the Rev. Lautence L.Cassidi, The Believing Christian as a Dedicated Astrologer," Vol. 643, Sumner 1994, p. 3; Charles Carter "Astrology and the Catholic Church." &&gy, Vol. 19, No.. 4, December 1945, p Carter here cites excerpts

44 Refrrences to astrology in the Old Testament are numerous and well- doc~rnented.~2 An rxample is Job chaptrr 38. verses where the voice of God admonishes Job out of a Storm: Cansr thou bind the sweet influences of Ple-ia-des. or ioose the bands of O-ri-on'? Canst thou bring forth Maz'za-roth in his srason? or canst thou guide Arc-tu-rus with his sons'? Knowest thou the ordinances of heaven? canst thou set the dominion thereof in the zarth? The New Testament account of the threr: "wise men" (or astrologers?) who were guided by a star to Bethlehem might also be mentioned in this connection. None of thesr issues appear to have unduly disturbed the prr-nicran Church Fathrrs. However. beginning with Augustine. the Latin Church became more critical. Later. the Inquisition went to great lengths to intimidate astrologers (mainly for "judicial" or persona1 astrology). condemning for examplr one astrologer by the name of Crcco d'ascoli to death in Italy in 1327 for his views on astr~logy.~~ The fatrs of Galileo and Giordano Bruno. and the papal bu11 against astrology issued in may also be cited as prominent examples of this trend. Astrologers such as Marsilio Ficino. Cornelius Agrippa and John Dee jj were able to practice and publish the occult science from an article by the Rev. Francis J. Conne U, professor of Motal Theology at the Carholic University of Arnerica in which the latter is surprisingly favorable to astrology, also acknowledging its value ro the long history of the Church.?Sec Rabbi J-C. Dobio, The Asa~Seaets of rbe Hebrew Sages to nile both Dav and Nidl t Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions International Ltd, 1977); Kat1 Anderson, Jùe Asmlo~v of the 91Q Tes- (Boston: K. Anderson, 1892); Zatelii 1991; Alfred leremias explores in great detail the usage of asuology in the Old Testameni. Interesthg in this respect is also the extensive bibiiograpby of Charles West, Tbe Zodw Man in Medieval Me- (Boulder CO: University of Colorado, 1979); The Jownal of Near Eastern Studies is also useful as a source of references on this topic. 33.~imon Kemp, Medieval Psvcboiogy(New York: Greenwood Press. 1990) p. 8, Rosenberg (op. cit) reveals thai Cecco was tbe doctor and astrologet of Pope John XXII who iived in exile in Avignon, and was ais0 professor of mathematics and asvology at the University of Bologna But he fell victim to the potiticai tensions between the differeat factions in tôe Church. 3J.Tbese pominent figures were philosophers and magicians as well as astrologers. B m himself was a

45 only because they had powerful patrons and exercisrd a certain selfcensorship. especially in the case of Ficino. This spared thcm the fate of Bruno. who refusrd to compromise with the ecclesiastical authoritirs of the Inquisition. drspite powerful backers working to Save hirn.j5 Kepler too was indirectly intimidated. as the Inquisition tried to convict his rnothd6 Academic opinion on the attitude and role of the Church with respect to astrology has been mixed. Simon Kemp (a senior lecturer in New Zealand) tends to do wnplay the intolerancr of the Church w hile acknow lrdging that: "The Church was the most important and powerful institution of the Middle Ages. and its influence covered almost every aspect of medieval He concedes that it is difficult for us todav to fully comprehend the Church's influence. but he nevertheless feels that. "the Church's attitude to the revival of lrarning and the developrnent of new ideas is widely mi~interpretcd."~~ On the other hand he saems to ignore the obvious need for self-censorship within the rmks of astrologers. He admits though that othrrs might interprrt the Church's intrrrst with regard to learning and education quite differently. Theodor Griesinger. on the other hand. sees a more selfish reason in the Church's interest in education. and attacks the Jesuits in particular. His vicw is also shared by the Church historian Paul F. Grendlrr. who States charismatic leader, and Dee was also a scientist. as Peter J. French argues in John ka op. cit. 3?''...~icia, was in serious despair. He had kcome so captivate& so exhilarated, by this oew Platonic way of imaginiag that he found himself, like Pletho eariier, wanting to revive pagan religion. But how far could he go with such ideas before the Church authorities sbut him up?" Marsiiio Ficino: The Bwk of Lifg, p-viii, ~eland L. Estes. "Good Witches. Wise men. Asuologea. and Sciencists. William Perkins and the Limits of tbe European Witch-Huats." in Hermeticism and tbe Renaissance, ed. Ingrid Merhiel and Allen G. Debus (Washington: Foiger Shakespeare Library, 1988). 37.~emp, Medieval Psvcholcgy, p adp. 6.

46 that: "the Counter Reformation-the joint effort of church and stateprofoundly oppressed cinquecento Italian intellectual life."39 The evidrnce presented on both sides of this issue rrveals that the position of the Church with respect to astrology has not been uniform. In addition to the changing attitudes of the Popes there were always liberal Catholic prirsts who practiccd astrology (and magic). and this is still the case today. as we have already man tionrd. We should also kcep in mind that the Renaissance was a highly unstable social and political period. Europe w as starting to dividr over rrligious matters. and the Turks and the Moors threatened to conqurr Western Europe through Hungary and Spain. The Catholic Church too was having grcat difficulties. They had lost the opportunity Cor rrconciiiation with the Eastern Church at the FiCth Latcran Council hrld in Florence in favoring uniform ity over unity. The Eastern Churches accordingly turned slowly away from the Roman Catholic Church with its exaggerated view of papal suprcrnacy. though not without leaving the complete works of Plato behind. never before seen by most of the Roman clergy and not always welcomr either. The teformation was also knocking at the door. Furthermore. the influx of Greek and Hermetic philosophy and occutt wisdom (including astrology) gave rise to a more critical view of the Church. its doctrines and politics. Although Church politics with regard to these ideas was subject to frequent changes. Popes were generally more concerned about the arts and the good life than with their ecclesiastical duties. Thus one may argue that the generally more vulnerable position of the Church during the Renaissance * ~aul F-Grendlet. The Roman Rincetoo University Press p.287. the V e w Press (Rinceton, NJ.:

47 allowed for a freedom of expression in philosophy and the occult as wcll as in the arts and architecture. that might not otherwise have occurred. And that a similar situation led to the revival of astrology again at the turn of this century. Western astrology had always foilowed rules that had corne down through the writings of Claudius Ptolemy ( A.D.). who Cirst rtifined thrm in his Tctrabiblos in the 2nd ccntury A.D. In his defenctl of astrology Ptolemy usrd the arguments of Stoics such as Posidonius ( B.C.) and Seneca (3-65 A.D.). In particular ha made a distinction between a ganeral ability to predict in astrology. r.g. the weather. natural catastrophes. wars etc. on the one hand. and casting horoscopes for individuals. called judicial. persona1 or natal astrology on the other. It was in judicial astrology howevrr. that transcendental considerations enter into the discu~sion.~ Ptolcm y's astrological system is founded on a grocentric virw (ive. with the rarth at the centcr) and the tropical zodiac (i.e. with the spring equinox starting at O degrees Aries)? It still endures today despitr the Copernican M.~ere is where rhe consideration of astrology as an art cornes in. as emphasized by OUT four prominent rrpresentatives in chapter 8. Oppoaents of asaology dwing most of the last 2000 years have often accused asuology of 'fatalism'. For example, such mscendental considerations were not acceptable to opponents of the Stoics such as Cameades ( B.C.). But the Stoics were not really fataiistic. "According to Posidonius-whose argument is preserved in the third chapter of Rolorny's Tetrabiblosprophecy is naturally welcome when the tâing foreseen is pleasurable; when. on the other han& the thing foreseen is painful, its prediction prepares tbe sou1 to bar misfortune with equanimity." (Theodor 0-Wedel. The Mediaeval Attitude Toward Astrology, New York. Arcon Book, 1968, p.7). This view of prediction is very much in line with how most contempomy astrologers handle predictions. The really fadistic approach to astrology is fomd in what bas been described by Curry and Wedei as the more vulgar or popular type of astrology, which existed throughout the centuries side by side with tùe more learned philosophicai type of astrology. The former type would daim a direct influence of the phnets, where for example a certain planetary transit is made respoasible for an accident. In such a case people would be told aot to leave the house on a certain day because 'sometbiag terrible wouid bappen" etc. However an astrology based oa the ancient philosophical tmâitions does not sbare such a ' fatalistic' view. Here the saying goes that "the stars incline but do not compel". And as the Stoic qproach sbowed. it is finail y our attitude which either makes something 'fatal* or turns it into yi opporninity for growth, with which HPB wouid certainly agree. Today's mixture of ancient philosophy and modern psychology bas turned astrology into a counseiimg method which is apparently in growmg demand by those in aeed today. or further technical details on the differences between tbe tropical zodiac and the sidereal (which is

48 revolution and its latrr support through Kepler and Galileo that the sun was actually the center and al1 othrr planrts. including the earth. were rotating around it. Further influence came in the early Renaissance through an influx of Arahic literature via Spain and brought the ancirnt ideas back into the picture. Ptolrmy's Trtrabiblos was first translated into Latin from an Arahic text rather than from the original Grerk. This happrncd becausr "the Arabs gave science a prominent place in thrir rducational systcm... In the Muslim World the suprrmc goal of philosophy and science. like that of Hermetic wisdom. was to achicve religious understanding. or gnosis."" Indeed Nailino asserts that the "astrology of the Latin Middle Ages from the brginning of the 12th to the end of the 15th crntury is really Arabic astrology."" He cites Greece. India and Iran as the sources Cor this Arabic astrology. In addition. Eugenio Garin zmphasizes the importance of the Fifth Lateran Council. already mrntioned as responsible for bringing a wealth of naw matrrial to the West. One had above al1 a rediscovrry of the Hellenistic age. when al1 types of Eastern influences had corne togethrr in Greek culture. Indeed. we see in this situation the singular encounter between the magical and astrological doctrines of the Latin Middle ages. whose ancient heritage had filtered down via the Islamic world. and the Hellenistic positions. which had been rediscovered in the Grerk source^.^ 23.5 degrees eariier) see Ronnie Gale Dreyer, Indian Astrolonv : a Western Apbtoacb ro the Hindu Ar? (Weliingbotough, Norihamptonshire: The Aquarian Press, 1990). and David Frawiey, Astrolonv of Seers. A s de. to Ve&c (Hindu). (Deihi: Motilal Banarsidass. 1992). x.~illiam Eamon. Scieoce Secrets of Nam 43.~arlo Alfow NaW, Vol. 12. p.93; Set aiso. Antoine Faim & Jacob Needleman: Moderq Esoteric %-(New York: Tbe Crossroad Pubiisbing Company, 1995), and Garin. AsQolonv in t& Reo- cbapters 1 and 2. ".Ibid, p. 57.

49 Ficino translated and absorbad this material and was supported in this by his patron. Cosimo di Medici. He latrr brcame head of what was called the Plutonic Acadcmy in Carreggi near Florence. whrre he workcd to revive the prisco theologia. the ancient wisdom going back to Pythagoras. There hc also translated the Corpus Hermrticum and Plotinus. Ficino is seen as the lirst astrologer who dcvrloped an astrology of the soul (psyche). and as the precursor of the psychologicnl astrology of today. He was the type of philosopher astrologer who beliaved that 'the stars do incline but not compel'. Howcver. Ficino and his younger friend Pico della Mirandola èxperiencrd the intirnidating power of the Church on several occasions. and were thereby painfully "reminded of what an evangrlical police state the Renaissance could be? The invention of the printing press may also have hightened the resistance of the Church against astrology. since it opened up new ways for a more popular form of astrology to flourish in both Church and secular circlas. Now tables of the daily motion of the planets could be more rasily copied and distributed. increasing in precision as time wrnt on. A drtailed knowledge of astronorny was no longer a prerequisite for the practice of astrology. thereby making it more easily available to less knowledgeable people. including opportunists and charlatans. The philosophicalcosmological. 'non-fatalistic' type of astrology which believrd in the Creedorn of the hurnan soul. thus dimiaished and gave way to a more vulgar 'fatalistic' type of as trology. 45.~harles Boer ( trans.). w o Ficino: Tbe Book of La timing 'IX: Spriog Publicaîions. Inc ) Introduction, p. x.

50 The attitude of the Church during the 19th crntury toward so called lree thinkers with respect to religion. including othcr world religions and the occult. had not rraily changed. This is rcvcalrd in HPB's cornplaints throughout hrr works about the Church's hostile attitude to ail esoteric and occult ideas or sysrems of knowledge. both Theosophical and astrologicai.* She later fell victim to a plot led by Christian missionaries in India who did not approve of her pro-hindu attitude. Astrology in this century has rnjoyed greatcr and bettrr public acceptance. and has become a popular tool for self-understanding. This is due in no small mcasure to the efforts of HPB and the later Theosophical Movsmsnt as wrll as to the influence of the psychological theories and disçoveries of the Swiss psychoanalyst Carl G. Jung. These two sources may br regardrd as the roots of the revival of astrology in the 20th century. While we will say little about the latter. we will progressively rxpand upon the former in the pages that follow. But first we offer a brief outline of the basic principles and methods followsd by a majority of astrologers in the West today. plus a short description of the different branches of astrology The basic Principles of Astrology A horoscope is a chart showing the planetary constellations in the zodiac at the date. place and exact time of the event in question. This calculated chart is the source document for al1 astrological statements, and links the planetary constellations to the course of a particular life. situation or event on carth. The link is made on the basis of the specific qualities and characteristics represented by the signs of the zodiac and the planets. Planets *.Se for example Blavaisky, Collective Wrilints XIV p.335ffand nunefous pkes in The Secret - Doce.

51 in Western astrology carry not only the narnes of the old Greck and Roman gods and goddessrs. but also thrir symbolisrn. Thus Venus sym bolizrs. arnong othcr things. our idra of love. beauty. the arts. harmony, plcasure and indulgence: Mars symbolizes our basic drive to act. which may corne out as aggression. cornpetition. strife. war or constructive initiative. The roots of the meaning of the signs of the zodiac and their names (constellations of stars) go back to pre-historic Signs and planets are complemented by a system of twalve so-callrd astrological 'houses' represcnting areas of life such as family. çareer. health. marriage and so on. Planets and house cusps (the dividing linrs bctween houses) are linked through various so-called 'aspects.' based on specific degree-divisions of the circle (from an 'opposition' if two planrts are located opposite each other at an angle of 180". to various other possibilities moving progressively down to an angle of 30"). An rlaborate system of inter-connectedncss between these and other elements constitutes the bais for an interpretation. There are different levels of intrrpretation. 'exoteric.' considering only the particuiars of the material conditions of life: psychological. pointing out the various emotional problems or capabilities and their expression: spiritual or 'esoteric.' which tries to explain the meaning and purpose of events in the course of life. Predictions on any of these levels give the timing or tirne span of present and future events. Al1 in al1 it is a fairly complex system that requires long and intensive study, and has very little in cornmon with the daily or weekly 'Sun-sign columns' prescnted in magazines and daily newspapers. A more detailed discussion of 47.~e wiii explain more about the origins of the zodiac in the fwst section of chapter 5.

52 the terms 'exoteric* and 'esotrric' will be conductcd at the brginning of chapter 5. Astrologers in the West tend to specialize in certain areas of astrology. and not rvery professional astrologer will agree to makr predictions. Bur astrology has always. among other things. been considered a valuable tool in euiding difficult decisions. by those with experience or brlicf in iis c. rffica~y.~~ The birth chart may be seen as a symbolic formula defining an individual's fundamental nature. a cosmic puzzle which can br solved through the rulrs of astrology. In antiquity. and roughly up to the period of the Renaissance. the horoscope was mostly displayed as a square. a form which is still used in India today. In Western astrology however. the circle or wheel slowly made its way as the favoured manner of display of the horoscope and has by now almost complrtely supersrded the format of the square (see appendix B). With regard to the planetary quatities. Saturn was accorded special attention at a very early date. This has been documented in a profound historical study. written. in part. by Klibansky et al. in the book. Saturn and Melancholv. This work reveals how the planets were originally associated with the ancient concept of the "Four Humours" which corresponded "it was held. to the cosmic elements and to the divisions of time; ihey controlled the whole existence of mankind. and. according to the manner in which they were combined, deterrnined the character of the indi~idual."~g 48. For valuable in<roductims CO the baucs of astrology see Margaret E. Hone, Text Bq& gf A m (I-ondoa; L.N. Fowier & Co. Ltd., 1951); Ronald C. Davidsoa, B n v : The C m to Your Ho- (Sebastopol CA; CRCS PubLications, 1963); and A h Oken. Cowlete Astrolopy (Toronto, New York. Londoa, Sydney: Bantam Bo&, Inc., 1973). %aymood Klitmsky, Erwin Panofsky and Fria Saxl. p.3. C.G. Jung's four

53 The Italian historian Eugrnio Garin for examplr. reminds us in a graphic account of the status astrology had rnjoyed during the early Renaissance period in Italy (though only briefly). He wrotr that in the Italian Renaissance astrology was applird in al1 fields. e.g. to religion. politics and official propaganda. mrdicine. and the other sciences. He said that astrology provided a philosophy of history and a conception of reality. including at times a fatalistic naturalism and an astral cult. He observcd that astrology "... was al1 this and more."" This sort of standing in society was no more than a distant dream by the middlr of the 19th crntury. But astrology. as any other cumulative tradition. has passed through numcrous changes during alternating periods of ascent and decline. and has show n rernarkable recupcrative powers throughout its long history. The reasons for this persistence no doubt have much to do with our eternal qucst for who we are. and for an understanding of our place in the Universe. Modern astronomy with its inquiring missions to the Moon and the planets. and efforts to explore the Universe. serves as testimony of this rternal ques t. 2.5 Branches of Astrology Ir is generaliy belirved that natural astrology preceded the development of other branches of astrology. But we now know that both major branches of astrology go back at least five thousand years. namely natural astrology. including farming. weather prediction. medicine. and judicial astrology. focussing on people and events. As time went on. however. this original division was expanded to what today includes the follow ing major branches: psychological types may well be based on this ancient concept. 50.Eugenio Garia. Astroloev in the Renaissance p.24.

54 1. Natural as trology-analyses planetary cycles with respect to their influence on weather conditions. agriculture. vegetation and navigation. 1. Medical astrolog y-reveals the ancien t tradition of the correspondrncr of planets and signs CO various parts and organs of the body. 3. Judicial or persona1 astrology-intrrprets the 'influence' of the planets on human character and the course of life. 4. Horary as trology-deals w ith answers to specific questions by calcu lating a horoscope for the exact timc of the question. 5. Elrctional astrology-selects an auspicious time for the beginning of any important venture. 6. Mundane as trolog y-intrrprets the des tiny of nations. 7. Business or financial astrology-links planetary cycles to economic indicators such as the stock market. the fortunes of cornpanies etc. Al1 except modern business astrology go back at least 2000 yrars. Aftcr the discovrry of the printing press natural astrology began circulatinp in Europe and North America in the more popular form of 'almanacs.' whcre guidance was given on the agricultural value of the phases of the moon etc. McGill Professor Emeritus Raymond Klibansky has shown how medicine and astrology were corn bined as far back as the ancient Greeks? Paracrlsus later refined and expanded on this ancient knowledge. "Like no one before him. he harmonized astrology and medicine in a philosophy of nature that is both typically Grrmanic and highly original. a philosophy that was to gain widespread acceptance... Paracelsus transforrned the medicine of his day... He was the great fl.~aymoad Kiibeosky, Erwin Panofsky and Fritz Saxl. w d Melpnebolv (Stuâies in the History of Natural Pbilosophy, Religion and Art. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd., 1964). Medical asuology also plays an important role in tbe works of Tbeophrastus Paracebus and other medicai practitioners such as Nichoias Cuipepper.

55 occultist of modern times. in the most elevated and noble sense of the ~ord."~' Judicial. Horary and Electional astrology have also bren used in al1 major cultures throughout the world. As mentionrd earlirr. these branches of astrology began by providing guidance iilmost exclusively to the rukrs of a country and the nobility. But during the last five hundred yrars they hava becomr a tool for guidance to incraasing numbers of ordinary folk-often dispenscd by not-so-well educated astrologers with a more questionable reptation for 'fortune- telling.' In India. for cxampie. judicial astrology has bren traditionally uscd to choosr a suitable marriage partner by cornparine the two horoscopes. Elrctional astrology may then be employed to choose the brst date and time for the cerrm ony. In the same way auspicious times are often chosrn by astrologers-both in the West and the East. for political and other purposrs such as inaugurations. business ventures etc. The next two sections will brirfly cover the vicissitudes of astrology during the srventeenth to the nineteenth centuries in England and North America. the twin foci of Our presrnt study Recent Astrological History in Great Britain This section is heavily indebted to the work of Patrick Curry and Keith Thomas. Curry's thorough study ( 1989) focuses exclusively on the trials and tribulations of astrology in England during the period 1642 to 1800.j3 It S2~ncvclo~ia of R e l u Vol. 11. "Occultism.'~ by Antoine Faim. p ~aoick Curry, -Y and hwer: Astrolo~v in earlv moderpengland (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989). His Ph.D. thesis served as the platfcnm for tbis book- See also Keitb Tbomas, w o n.. a& Declin9 of Mwc: studies III b e w d seve- E a (London: Penguin Books ).

56 was a period in which astrology had still to contend with strong opposition [rom Protestant and Anglican Churches. both of which tricd to block its growth and influence. Thus James 1. for example. gave the Church the power of censorship ovrr the contents of astrological almanacs. Curry himself relutes the wide-spread assumption about astrology's deçline. demise or death during this timr. His thesis is that although there was som rw hat less public as trological activity. particularly during the 18th crntury. astrology was Car from dead as is traditionally claimed. Keith Thomas' findings also support this conclusion. It would be more rccuratr to Say that astrology suffered a decline in public acknowledgment and rr pu tatio n. The 17th century still hosted some very prominent astrologers. such as William Lilly (who predicted the London fire in 1666). John Gadbury. Nicholas Culprpper (an expert in medical astrology) and Elias Ashmole. who were al1 respectable members of society. They had the backing of the rristocratic elitr and members of the gentry. and could thus safrly ignore rcclasiastical disfavour. For many years they were even able to gather around forty of their astrologerl astronomer friends for an annual ' Astrologers Feast'." Their books are still published today and provide teaching material. Supporters of astrology among the upper classes such as Elias Ashmole. felt that a profound 'science' such as astrology should not be made accessible to everyone? Gadbury too "regretted having rxposed astrology to such public view. thus rncouraginp its use and abuse for 5 5 ~ ~ Ashmole for example. was a vey close frieod of Liiiy. Members of the new piïament also sougb t out astroiogical advice. Witb regard to attacks by the Church. see Curxy, ibid. p. l05ff.

57 various ends. It was a mistakr. he frit. to have divuiged 'so many of Urania's secrets to comrnon eye~'.":~ The fear of misuse may also have bern behind the rejection of astrology by mrm bers of the later Royal Society. such as Ashmole. The fears expresscd hrre by the above threr prominent astrologers suggest that astrology was in tact practiced at two Irvels. a so called vulgar or popular levrl which was the presrrve of charlatans and tricksters. and a more learnrd p hilosop hical lavel. Furthermorr it was bccoming more difficult to drfend the traditional systern of astrology in the face of al1 the new discoverirs. The invention of the telescripr. for example. revealrd craters on the Moon: the Sun showed spots: Jupiter was seen to be orbited by four moons. and so on. The ncw cosmology which had the rarth revolve around the Sun. was progressively accepted by scicniists and the éducated laym en of the enlightrnment. w ho thereaftrr rejected the old geocentric Ptolem aic system. However. this w as not the case with most astrologers. who regarded astrology as working according to the sym bolic law of correspondences rather than the physical law of causality. M m bers of the Royal Society apparently also had to be cautious in their support of astrology. in order not to corne into conflict with the Church and be openly ridiculed. Thus open support dwindled by the end of the 17th century and interest in astrology began to be kept more private. Astrology then "brgan a long and disastrous fa11 from favour". while continuing to survive in the background2' A Co~sion of Proers: V i c t w FdwarQiaQBSpplpLy (London: Collins & Brown 57.~iriy. Limiied, 1992) p. 10.

58 In the 18th crntury. howevrr. astrology began increasingly to sufkr from the effects of the Enlightenrnrnt period with its focus on the emrrging rational and matrrialist sciences. The period thereforr did not produce any major figures in astrology: rather. it now found itself attacked on two fronts. from the Church as wrll as from the rmcrging sciences. Furthermore. astrology also lacked the establishment protection it had previously rnjoyrd. Neverthrless astrology was still alive throughout this period. Astrological almanacs. such as the popular almanac published by the London physician Francis Moore. were widely distributed. and (with the Bible) were the staplr of almost every housrhold in England. on the Continent. and in North Amrrica. Bernard Capp has done valuable research on the history of these alrnanac~.~~ Besides Moore's popular almanac we find others with more technical information. including ephemerides. (which give the daily planetary motion). as well as naw textbooks on astrology. Curry points out that thesr publications wrre obviously profitable since they were printed and sold soleiy on a commercial basis. Curry also draws attention to what he calls the 'messy pluralism' of English astrology in the mid 17th century and later. Issues that divided astrologrrs at this time (and still do to this day) included the Ptolemaic geocentric astrology (the earth at the center) versus Kepler's heiiocentric system (the sun at the center). Different house systems also gave rise to controversy. as did differences with regard to predictive rneth0ds.5~ There is evidence that?~ernard Capp. Ennlisb ALniimPcs : astroloizv and the mouh ores* (Itbaca N.Y.: Comell University Ress, 1979). 59.~ee Mark Ciraubani, Astrolo~ Al-: *. tw~ f& scie= (New York: Philosophical Library, Asuology may appear to an outsider as a simple coâerent system, but this is oot so. Tbe complexity of asuology. tben and t&y, provides ample scope for conaoversy. See also article by Lee Le- PLD.. "Tiptoeing through the Meibod: An Historicai Review of Empiricism in Astrology ". in The Astrolo~icai Journa Spmal Hisiay of Astiology Issue. Vol. 36. Np. 1. p.6068.

59 many practitioners wrrr poorly trained. or made frequent mistakes "which is only to be expected in so difficult or 'many-sided an art'. This is a human frailty. not the fault of the science." cxplains Graubard.* This factor too may have made astrology more vulnerable to outside attack. I.D. North providrs a detailed study of the history of the technicalities of the horoscope in his book HO~OSCOD~S and Historv. Curry also charges the new scientific elite with having appropriated astrological concepts for various purposes. thcreby avoiding the stigma of astrology. and he is not the only ont: to suggest this. William Eamon a historian. presents a lot of svidence to make his case. However. hr writrs: "1 do not mean to suggest that the Scientific Revolution was a "revolution from below." But 1 do bclieve that any discussion of the "foundations" of the Scientific Revolution must consider a much broadér base for it than historians of science have so far attern~trd."~~ From an overall perspective it apprars that the upprr classes started to bank on the development of 'natural philosophy'. i.e. the new science. to answer their questions-not yet abandoning astrology. but keeping their interests private. In addition. a kind of popular or vulgar astrology had taken a firm hold among the working classes and rural population. fcd by the cornmon almanac. The 'fatalistic' type of astrology which always had its practitionrrs throughout the centuries. flourished even more in the 18th century. John Worsdale is an example of an astrologer who, according to Curry. Cavored ration al Aris totelian principles and corn plex m aihem atical procedures by which he thought to predict every detail. He took great pride in forecasting

60 accurately his client's death (date and circumstances). To him this was prool of the accuracy of his method. Key to the spread and developrnent of a somrwhat more intellectual and sophisticatrd astrology appears to have been the dcmands of the slowly rmerging rniddle classes of merchants. clerks and other professional people. rspecially in the cities. They provided a market for publications which became a mélange of horoscopic interpretation. occult philosophy. physiognom y. mesmcrism and Nostradamus... a package that is immrdiately Camiliar to the modern reader from certain widely selling magazines today... a sign of the successful strugglr. beginning in the 1790s. for greater intellectual indepsndence by members of the middle çla~ses.~t Though rradrrship was not huge it was large enough to makc the continuation and expansion of this kind of publication profitable. In the later part of the crntury the astrologer Ebenezer Sibly again started to freely mix Newton with Paracelsus. Hermes Ttismegistus and othrrs. In this manner he sought to bring philosophy back into astrology. Curry's work sheds also light on the history of astrology in 19th century England. a subject hitherto neglected by historians of the period? propar education. integrity and professionalism among most of the A lack of astrological community of the 19th century was pattly responsible for the fact that astrology was then at a particularly low ebb. However. the important development during the 19th century of the rise of the Spiritualist 62.~urry. RoDkcv. gd Powe~ p ~atrick Curry. v. EWc Howe in his book m ' s input for Curry's wwk, which remains our main source. CM- provided some of the

61 Movement hrlped indirectly to change the situation. This movement came about due to the rise of an ever more int'luential middlr class. many of whom were becoming disrnchanted with the message of the official Christian drnom inations. and began turning to Spiritualism. Eastern philosophy and astrology for answars. Four names stand out as rxrmplars of the astrology of this prriod: Robert Cross Smith. Richard James Morrison. Walter Gorn Old. and Alan Leo. Al1 four have Ieft their mark on the history of 20th century astrology. both by serking a livelihood as astrological counsellors and by defending and enhancing its statu. The first mentioned of these. Robert Cross Smith. subsrquently took the namc 'Raphael' and is basically known by this name. A long and ongoing tradition of publications has since unfoldrd undcr this pseudonym. After a few failrd attrmpts ro publish a monthly journal. hc succeeded in 1826 with the publication of an annual periodical called The Proohetic Messrnu. Its content was mainly astrological and contained "the innovation of astrological forecasts for every day of the corning year". articles and sometimes daring predictions togrther with the 'melange' that had already proven successful.& It thus differed from Moore's almanac and drew a different audience. giving him instant success. Curry suggests that readership was drawn from the increasingly prosperous middle classes. sincr it satisfied their 'semi-erudite' curiosity. But Raphael's sensationalist mixture of magic and astrology was not appreciated by his astrological colleagues since: "...they already had their hands full in contending with the usual religious and scientific criti~isrn.."~~ Raphael's career however was to be short: he died in 1832 at the age of only 36. The almanac continued under a.~bib p. Ji. 6?lbid, p. 55. See also commeots in W.H. Cbaney. e h ' ' Uq& (SL Louis MO: Magic Cucle Publisbing Co ).

62 his name but the more recrnt issues were "a rather diminished publication compared to its innovative an~estor."~~ Raoharl's Eohemerides is still used and appreciated by as trologers to this day. The second remarkable figure on the astrological stage was Richard James Morrison. who later took the pseudonym 'Zadkiel' to protect his idrntity..ln rarly retirer from the Royal Navy. Zadkiel was soon to make a name for himsrlf as an astrologer. In he launched an almanac modelcd on that of Raphael. çallttd The Herald of Astrolopy which soon also becarnr a success. The publication of textbooks followed. He tried in vain throughout his life to get parliament to amend the Vagrancy Act undar which astrologers could. and werr in fact. convictrd for fortune-telling." He himself had never sufferrd on this account directly. since his was an up scalr clientele and he had influential friends. But he became involved in a lawsuit on a related matter where he felt he had to defend his honor. Whilr he did win by a hair it was a bitter-sweet victory. He retreated after this incident but continurd to publish. His almanac continued under his name until following his drath in 1874 at the age of 79. Meanwhile. the T.S. had taken root in England and became a major force for the sprrad and development of astrology. Its teachings acquainted people with astrology in a new way and "there were to be sufficient to form the nucleus of a new and identifiable astrological movement... Astrology now achieved a spurious respectability by attaching itself to TheosophyTs apron strings. at lrast as far as the Theosophical astrologers were concerneci."" p This law disappeared quietly as laie as November (Curry. ibid p.14). abllic Hove. Urania's Childreq p. 56.

63 One of these new Theosophical astrologers was Walter Gorn Old. born into a wdl to do Camily. He drvoted hirnself to occult studirs and astrology at an early age. and started corresponding with HPB in 1887 when hr was just 23 ycars old. Shortly after having met hrr he was allowed to move into her London home (which was to be hrr las0 and became part of htir innrr circle. After HPB's death in 1891 he was involved with the T.S. for a number of years. He also visitcd Adyar for an cxtended stay during this timr. but becamr increasingly disenchantrd with the direction the T.S. took undrr Besant. and subsrquently withdrew. Old began writing under the pseudonym 'Sepharial' and was vcry prolific. producing countless articles and ovrr forty books. mainly on astrology. He ais0 tried bis hand unsuccrssfully at the publication of a magazine. Astrology was his bread and butter and he applied his astrological skills to such down to carth matters as horse-racing and the stock-market. Many of his books are still in print and remain a regular feature on most astrologers' bookshelves. He was wrll acquainted with Eastern philosophy as wrll as with different occult disciplines. It was in fact Sepharial who introduced one of the most important Theosophical astrologers. namely Alan Lro. to the circlr of Theosophists in London. Leo is. in fact. important cnough as a Theosophical influence on astrology to warrant a section of his own (chapter 8). We will therefore not go into any detail about him here. The influence of Sepharial is still significant to contemporary astrology. and not least also for Our thesis becausc of his close links with the T.S. However. his astrology tends to be of a more technical nature. and he did not show the Theosophical bent nor made a significant attempt to combine astrology with Theosophy. in

64 the way Lro has donc? Furthcrmorr. biopraphical information on him is relatively sparse. prnding the publication of a major study of his life and work now undcrway in Englar~d.~O He died in It is noteworthy that in his own short history of sstrology Jim Tester lrnds support to Howe's observation on the influence of the T.S. to the extrnt that hc attributes the revival of astrology to the spread of Eastern philosophy. (for which the T.S. was certainly the vehiclr). Tester's analysis also supports the findings of Curry's study with regard to the rok of the rducated rniddle class in the revival of a~trology.~~ Until the T.S. became rstablished in the second half of the 19th ccntury the world of astrologers appears dominated on the one hand by a few strong individuals whose astrology was respected. and on the other by charlatans who preyrd on the despair of gullibie people. However. the T.S. providrd a structure. a philosophy. a network of contacts and a place to meet. and soon a publishing house. It therefore became a focal point. an opportunity to gather like-minded astrologers. not just once a yaar as was the case with the exclusive gathering in Lilly's time. but rather more frequently. 69.~e is qwted by Howe (ibid, p. 65) as having written tbat 'the sooner we bnng the science down h m the clouds where the would-be esotericists have incontinently hanied it, the soooer will it gain a proper recognition in fbe practical world'. However. he aiso wrote a book on Kabalistic Astrology. 70.An astrologer in London (England). Kim FameIl. is curreorly prepariag a biographical snidy on Sepharial, due for release sometime in This biography may briog new infocmation, ttius a full assessrnent of his role aad importance with respect to ouf topic may therefofe have to await this publication. 71~im Tester. A Hisw of Wesfem Asmlppy (New Yorlr: Bailanthe Books, 1987). Tester agrecs that asuology was deprived of its educated un&rpinnings, particularly in the 18rb cennvy anci therefore deciined. (p. 241). However, ais educaied support was regained through the membetship atnacted to the T.S.

65 2.7. Astrology in North America Astrology was brought over by the early colonists but little systrmatic rrsearch has been done about astrological usage in thosr early day~.~? Gordon Mrlton. James R. Lewis and Capp are among modern scholars who çan bt! credited with shrdding light on the subject of astrology in North American culture during the last two centuries." assume that the settlrrs took their liking for the almanac-with Nrvertheless. it is fair to its guidelines for planting by the Moon and various other useful information. with thrm to the nrw continent. According to Capp. the almanac was the Cirst book to be printed in North America in 1639 (see illustration in appendix C).74 Melton mentions the creation of an astronomical observatory under the Leadership of the Rosicrucian Johannrs Kelpius in late 1600 in what is now Germantown, Penn~ylvania.~5 The almanac soon improved and a more popular style developed. albeit with less daring predictions than its British ptogenitor. "It lacked the astrological depth of the English works. and nrver achievrd their political. polem ical or scientific ~ignificance."~~ This m ay have been partly due to lack of expertise on the New Continent as well as to a somewhat different clientele. However. Herbert Leventhal reports that the basics of natural astrology continued to be taught at Harvard university until the late- ".~e do wt consider hm any notions of aborigiuai astrology. 73.Gordoa Meltoa "Tbe Revival of Astrology in rbe United States." In w o u s Movem:Gene& ihdus ed. Rodaey Stark. (New York: Paragon House Publisbers, 1985); Gardon Melton. New A ~vclobedp (Detroit and New York: Gale Researcb lac., First Edi tion 1990); Gordon.. Melton, Encvclowia of R- (Detroit anci New York: Gaie Research Inc., Fifth Edition *. 1996); James R. Lewis. ed. Be- of m v. in n-e-. (New York and London: Garlaad Pubtishing. 1990). This laner publication is a compilation of works by early astrotogers. For the usage of the almanac in New England, see George L. Kittredge. The : Old - F k m obxrva,&y~s on Me and in New m d a b-ed - v (Cambridge. Mas.: Hmard University Press. Third Impessioo, 1920). Kittredge cab asuo1ogy. a -filse science." but conveys some interesting insights into this eprly period.

66 righteenth century, and that the "commonest work on medicine was the ancirnt Culoeooer's London Disoensatorv. which lasted throughout the whok ~entury.~~ The loss of prestige and recognition sulfered by astrology in England during the late 18th century was also felt in North America. However. during the latter half of the 19th crntury we set a rise in astrological and spiritualist activities. first evident along the East Coast. and rraching the rapidly developing West Coast by the turn of the century. particularly in California. The first noteworthy astrologer. by al1 accounts. seems to have bcen Luke Broughton. He came Crom a family which had practiced astrology for generations (cg. his father. a medical doctor. used astrology in his practiçe). Besidrs publishing a rnonthly magazine he also published a num ber of books on astrology. Broughton cstimated that "in 1860 there were probably not more than 20 people in the U.S. who could cast a chart. At the turn of the çcntury. howrver. there werr thousands of amateur and professional astrologers". who by 1880 were being attacked by 'rationalist debunkers.' and Broughton came to the defence of many of thern.'8 The reputation and popularity of astrology in North America was by then no doubt snhanced by the founding of the Theosophical Society in 1875, astrology baing part of its occult synthesis. At any event. there was clearly a rapid increase in astrological activity. in North America as well as in Europe. as the century drew to a close, ". Herbert Leventhai. ~BSW of the : -t wc-d -e ance ip Aq&,a (New York: New York University Press, 1976). p ); See article "Nicholas Culpepper" by Neville S trachan in Vol. 6ûNo.. 4, p ~eltcm, New Ane p. 39.

67 According to Melton. three 'astrolopical religions.' as hr çalls them. werc also founded around the turn of the century. Emma Harding Britten. one of the founding mernbers of the T.S.. is generally acknowladged to have inspired the founding of The Church of Light through her book. Art Maeic. which discusses the ancient Egyptian roots OC the Brotherhood. The Church of Light (whiçh still exists today) has published many books on astrology writtrn by its long standing presidenr. Elbrrt Benjamin undrr the pscudonym C.C. Zain.79 Benjamin also taught classes on astrology in the wider Los Angeles area and his books are still being publishrd. He dird in The two other groups mentioned by Melton were only short lived and need not detain us here. Howcver. another important astrological group rmerged ar this timr. foundrd by Car1 Louis von Grasshof. a student of Rudolf Steiner. Grasshof. who became widrly known under the pseudonym. Max Heindel. "servrd as head of the Los Angeles Throsophiçal Lodge in 1904 and 1905."80 Heindel finally broke away from the T.S. to found his own group. the Rosicrucian Fcllowship. in His Fellowship became "a major force in the spread of astrology in the twentieth cent~ry."~l His wife was also an astrologer and supported his efforts. Heindel wrote several astrological books. most of thrm still in print. He also wrote a short summary of HPB's The Secret Doctrine w hich would add credrnce to the belief that he became more disenchanted with the post-hpb era of the T.S. He died in The Fcllowship also publishes books of D m and the -merides. 79.~enjami~ was amoog the foundiag wmbm of 7ne AmefieBn Federation of Astrologers. The Church of Lighr embraces the Hermetic pbilosophy, Noras, Plato, and Neoplatonism. They distribute books on asrrology and other occult issues for correspondence courses, but their books are also available in book stms. elto ton, P<ew Ane Endvclo~ p. 40.

68 (tables of the daily motion of the planets and an essential tool for the astrologrr) widrly usrd in the astrological community in North Amrrica and Europe. Evangrlinr Adams ( ) was another important figure in the history of astrology in North America. She had studied asrrology and Eastern Philosophy undrr Dr. J. Heber Smith. a mrdical prolctssor at Boston University. who also introducrd hrr to Eastern philosophy (he may also have had contact with the T.S.). Though never a Theosophist. Adams drepened ber knowledge of Vedanta by studying further with Swami Vivekananda. a Hindu monk. after his impressive appearance at the W orld Parliament of Religion in Chicago in During her successful carrer as an astrologer in New York. prominent figures such as the singer Enrico Caruso. King Edward VI1 of Great Britain. and prominent stockbrokers were among hrr dientele. In sht: had to fight a wzll publicized lawsuit against her on a charge of fortune-telling. Through her own defrnçe she won the case. "thus rrmoving astrology from the legal category of fortune- telling."" Adams was also a prominent lecturer and published a nurn ber of books and certainly helped to promote the cause of astrology. That she also had contact with other theosophically minded astrologers is indicated by the introduction to The Evanee line Adams Guide fo r 1933 writtrn by Manly P. Hall. Another important pioneer of astrology in North America was Llewellyn George ( ). He was introduced to astrology through W. Henry Chaney. an accomplished astr~loger.~~ In at a time when major a2.melton. New Ane Eocvclowdig p ~ p. 4.

69 publishing companies did not publish as trology. hr éstablished the Llrwrllyn Publishing Company in Portland Oregon. as well as an astrological school. His publishing company is still operating successfully. specializing in Eastern philosophy and esoteric subjects. It was only in the 1920's that the more rstablishrd publishers also startrd opening thcir doors 10 astrology.84 Llewellyn and his friend Dr. Alton 2. Stevenson also made several attempts at creating an astrological society. Thesr attempts. togethrr with those of various other regional groups. led evrntually to the successful formation of The American Federation of Astrologers (A.F.A.) in This organization has since becorne a major focus for astrological activities in North America. Its history and links to Theosophy will be drscribed in more drtail in chaptrr 7.2 of this thesis. Temple Hungad. an astrologer and author. has praised both Llrwellyn and Max Heindrl in her 1931 book entitled A Brief Historv of Astrolou as the two major authoritics who "contributed to the real literature of astrology" in North Arneri~a.~~ Heindel and Llrwellyn are particularly important as examples of the link between the Theosophical Movement and the revival of astrology in the 20th century in North Amrrica. Both were Theosophists at one time or another and thus influenced in their work by Theosophical teachings among others. a6 Heindel's Fellowship is still operating and his books circulating among asirologers: and Llewellyn's influence on the spread of astrology through his books. lectures. and through the activities of his publishing company. has been most significant sj.m -. 8S.h James R. Lewis (ed.). The Ben-s of Asq&~v in p. 9. LLeweUyn bimself wote and published at lest 6 books, including the popular A to Z H oroscmr & De- and Skv is smkbqu 86.~lrwellyn's membership bas k a confied through a searcb at Ibe archives of the T.S. in Wheaton, Illiaois.

70 Other prominrnt astrologers of this period were Grant Lrwi ( ). author of two very successful books which remain in print (Hraven Knows What and Astrolo~v for the Millions). and Manly Palmer Hall. Lewi contributcd articles to one of the major astrological journals at the timr. Hall was Coundrr OC the Philosophical Research Society (PRS) in Los Angeles. and authorrd numerous books on astrology and other esotrric and philosophical subjects. Volumes V and VI of the Collrctrd Writin~s of Blavatskv were sponsored by the PRS undrr the auspices of Manly Palmer Hall. as well as a world-widr H.P. Blavatsky Writings Fund." maintainrd close links with Thcosophy throughout his Me. We defrr the two othrr important astrologers. namely Marc Edmund Jones. founder of the Sabian Assembly. and Dane Rudhyar. founder of so callrd Humanistic Astrologv to chapter sight of this thesis. Various succrssful astrological magazines wrre also launchsd in the 1920's. which hrlprd to promote astrology. Amsrican Astrolo~y, launched in 1923 by Paul G. Clancy. had its ups and downs until the early 30's w hen it became widely succrssful. partly as a result of articles from the pen of Rudhyar. Clancy was detcrmined to popularize astrology. Soon afterwards. Del1 Horoscooe was launched and edited by Grant Lewi. 00th magazines had a significant impact on the spread of astrology in North America and still enjoy a wide readership today. The regular contributions of Jones as well as Rudhyar to both journals were important factors in increasing peoples' interest in astrological subjects. Since the founding of the T.S.. Eastern philosophy has takrn root rhroughout North America. The arriva1 of Vivekananda and Dharrn apala at He - ".~ee T& Vol. 3 No. 6. Apil p.169,

71 the first World Parliament of Religion. and thrir subsequent touring of North Arnerica. hrlprd to sprrad this interest even more (particularly since thry set up thrir own groups). Prominent astrologers bepan studying thcsr trachings. as shown above. and this study srrved to lrad them away from a more fatalistic way of interpreting a horoscope. away from exact prediction toward explaining future rvrnts as likrly possibilitirs. This. coupled with the drvelopments in psychology. promptcd an increasr as wcll as a shift in the use of judicial astrology as a tool toward self understanding. In çhapter eight wr will givr more detailrd considerations to four important astrologers and their respective links w ith Throsop hy by presrnting their biographies togrthsr with their views on astrology. and an assessmrnt of their impact on the revival of astrology in the 20th cantury in Great Britain and North Arnerica.

72 3. BRIEF HISTORY OF THE THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY This chaptrr offers a briçf general overview of the history of the Throsophical Society. followrd by a short description of the life and peculiar character of its founder and main driving force. Helena Petrovna Blavatsky General Overview The second hall of the nineteenth century was a time whrn many among the educated dites wrrr becorning increasingly disenchanted with the doctrinal teachings of the Christian Churches. Catholic and Protestant alike. The rapid developmrnt of the natural sciences. manifesting largely in an Indus trial Revolution. also brought substantial hardship to large parts of the population. therelore people started to look for answers elsew here. Darwin's wolutionary throries had also been a severe blow to minds still wrdded to the Biblical vision of Man. but by the end of the century the public imagination had bern captivated by the new scientific 'evolutionism' that promised unlimited 'material progress' for one and all. And the scirntists thrmselves were full of confidence in their ability to solve whatever theoretical problems still remained. Thus al1 these factors challenged the established Christian belief system and posed a threat to the position it had held for centuries. Transcendentalism with Ralph Waldo Emerson as one of its prominent spokes-persons. and the Spiritualist movement with its spirit communication. rapidly drew peoples' attention. * However. the Spiritualists l.the rappings and hoclrings in Hydesvilie in the s m of New York around 1848 mark the beginnhg of this movement, Marc Edmund Joues daims tbat Ralph Waldo Emerson too understood that "the beavem and history, alike, hold up a mirror to buman aature." (Jones, A-w a Wbv

73 did not form a large coherent body. but rather gathered in small groups around a particular medium. As Michael Gomes suggests. the climate was now ripe for esoteric ideas to flourish. and the Theosophical Society. ihrough its extensive network. could thus reach a far wider audience. He w rites: Spiritualism with its testirnony to an after-life filled with unlirn ited progress was a timrly response and captured the public imagination. But it lacked a spiritual philosophy that could rxplain the glaring inrqualities of the time. This helped to make the Theosophical Society such a success with its imported message of reincarnation and karma. or as Blavatsky defined it. hope and responsibility.2 The subsequent history of the Theosophical Society is a colorful one. with dramatic ups and downs. important crises. intrigues. accusations. and controversial hsad-figures. There is: "such a multitude of personalities. such a tangle of impinging psychologies. cach needing to be known and understood brfore we can even dimly discern why the Mahatmas permitted or hindered this or that de~elopment."~ These 'Mahatmas' or Spiritual Masters. introduced by HPB. and acting very much behind the scenes. play a major role in the history of the T.S.. as will become rvident in what follows. although no empirical evidence of their actual existence can be presented? - Works. p. 120)... 2.~ichael Gomes. Theomhv in the Ninepntb Ce-. An w d B i b l i m New York: Gariand Publishing, hc., 1994, p ~eatrice Hastings. Defem of Madw BlavarSky(WoRbing, Sussex: The Hastings Ress. 1937). PB*. WB.'s Masten were, according to ber. Living bumm beings who possessed higher knowledge than sbe did, and belonged to a secret universal Brotherhood. Her special teacher or guru was, accordhg to ber, a Master Morya. The subject of the Masters has remained coauoversial and confusing. Lately, two detailed studies on these Masters have been published by K. Paul Johnson, whicb seek to shed some Light on this matter, but tbcy have oniy succeeded m fueliing an intense debate. See K. Paul lobpson: Tbe Revealed: 1 Mvth of the mite (Albany: -. SUNY Ress, 1994). and The of Thw- (Aîbany: SUNY Press, 1995).

74 However. therr was a longing arnongst those who joined the Society to açcept its idras and concepts. which may have been more difficult to ascertain back thrn than roday. when we are confronted with a vast and even mort: colorful wave of religious or spiritual groups. The two main founders of the T.S. were two very different personalitics. a flamboyant Russian aristocra~ by the name of Helena Petrovna Blavatsky and an ex-army man turned lawyer. Colonel Henry Steel Olcott (see photos in appendix D)? EstabLished in the Fall of this Society became not only a magnrt for the disenchantrd educated middle and upper m iddle class. but constituted the birth of a movemcnt which was to have a lasting influence on Europe. North Amcrica. India and clsewhere. It also marked a turning point in HPB's turbulent Me. as well as in Olcott's. The foundcrs. and HPB in particular. saw Theosophy as a link in a more or lrss unbroken chain of mystical and esoteric teachings. also named 'puennial philosophy.' or primordial or arcane tradition. going back to the carly existence of mankind. HPB seeks to highlight the kinship of al1 sciences. and particularly those emerging at her time. with alchemy. astrology. Neoplatonism. Gnosticisrn and Hermeticisrn. The term 'Theosophy'. chosen as the name for the society. is derived from the Greek 'theosophia'. 'Theos' is the Greek for God: 'sophia' means knowledge. doctrine. or Wisdom. The word 'sophos' means a sage. Thus. theosophia litcrally implies knowledge about divine matrers (or 'the wisdom of God'). By extension. Theosophy also came to mean knowledge of the hidden mysteries of divinity or of creation. The term has clearly undergone a?~hea w m otben iavo1ved. including William Qum Judge. whose mie in the later T.S. in America was to become crucial.

75 number of changes in usage down the centuries. Since the latter part of the 19th century however. it has becorne more and more associated with the rclrctiç philosophy of the Theosophical Mo~emrnt.~ Olcott was fascinatrd by HPB's psychic abilities and personality when he first met her in 1874 at a spiritualist scance at Chittenden in the state of Vermont. Shr made a lasting impression on him. and the iwo soon shared an apartment in New York. It was never a love relationship but one antered into for the purpose of accornplishing a mission. The original intent of the founders was 'scientific' in the sense of investigating the mysteries of nature. This at least is the reason stated by Olcott in a latrr article on. "The Occult Sciences" in The Thcosoahis~. He writes: "And as regards Science. therr is a thousand tirnrs more that is Occult than familiar and easy to understand. The realization of this fact. both as a result of personal rnquiry and of conversation with the learned, was one chief cause of the organization of the Theosophical S~ciety."~ Later this idea was extended and further elaborated to form the three main objectives of the Society. They are: 1) To form a nucleus of the Universal Brotherhood of humanity without distinction of race, creed, sex, caste or colour. 2) To encourage the study of comparative religion, philosophy and science. 3) To invesiigate unexplained laws of nature and the powers latent in man. 6~ncvcl~a of ReliOipD "Theosophy." by Antoine Faivre. p James Santucci writes with regard to the term 'Tbeosopby' that: "Sucb studies have led me to the conclusion that the term 'Theosophy' connotes a bmad semantic field tbat pervades a wide area of topics that includes cabala gnosticism, esotericism, occultism, Hemeticism, and Hemetism- Of al1 tbese terms theosopby (tbeosopbia) is the earliest term to appear in print." See -0- (T.H.),Vol V, No.2. Aprrl 1994, pp ~.~. Olcotb The Occult Sciences." 'The Theosou Vol. 1. August 1880 p.265.

76 Thcsc ideas transcrnded cultural and social borders in a way no other Society had previously attempted. Unlikc the cstablished religions. no firm set of belirfs were requirçd to becorne a Theosophist. othrr than a commitment to the above principlrs. Thus one could remain a Catholic. a Buddhist. a Hindu. a Parsi. or an atheist for that matter. and still be a Theosophist. During the rarly years of HPB's and Olcott's collaboration in New York. after the founding of the T.S.. the locus of their attention was not yat as strongly on Hinduism or Buddhism as in har later work. but rather on Egyptian mysticism. Neoplatonism and the Hrrmetic tradition. HPB soon published her first rsoteric work. Isis Unveiled in latr with the help of Olcott and her so-called Masters. The Egyptian influence is rrflrctrd in the title. The book prompted a lot of controversy at the time. Critics alleged that it was nothing but a conglomerate of various philosophical. spiritual and occuli ideas. prevalent at the time. which had already been publishrd in some h m or other. But despite the charges of plagiarism. the book soon became a popular success. Its synthesis of the various occult and m ystical ideas was obviously just right for the rime? Shortly thereafter. HPB and Olcott decided to leave for India. arriving in Born bay towards the end of Here they met the founder and mem bers of the Arya Samaj. a religious Hindu reforrn movement founded in 1875 by Swami Dyananda Saraswati. one of the most radical and successful 8-Dr. Alexander Wilder dso conuibuted material. 9.~e notion of reincarnation was not fully iiitroduced in Isis UnveileQ HPB lare explains why lbis is so, saying: "At the time that work was wriaen, te-iacarnation was not believed in by any Spirituaiists, either English or Americaa, and wbat is said there of re-incarnation was directed against the French Spritists. whose theory is as unphiiosophical anci absurd as the Eastern teaching is logical and selfevident in its mtb." ltbc Kev to The- Theosophical University Press, Pasadena Cal., 1972)' p.191.

77 reformers of the time. In the course of their stay they also met. and won for their cause. other influrntial people. Indian as well as British. Special mention here should be made of A.P. Sinnett. editor of The Pioneer, a lrading Indian paper regardrd as the mouthpiece of the Imperia1 govrrnment. and Allan O. Hume. a retired secrctary of the British Government (and later instrumental as one of the foundrrs of the Indian National Congress). both of whom cventually joined the T.S. They also succeeded in making contact with various other Indian leaders then sngagcd in joining forces against the British. Alter residing in Born bay for a few yrars. relations with Dyananda broke off. but promising new contacts wrrr made and chapters of the T.S. opensd in various parts of India. In 1880 HPB and Olcott were adrnitted to Sinhalese Thrrevada Buddhism in a ceremony in Sri Lanka (then Crylon). Olcott would go on to revive Buddhism in Asia. especially in Sri Lanka. While visiting Madras. the two wera persuadad by influrntial contacts and local mcm bers of the T.S. to stay. and in 1882 a large proprrty was boughi for the Society in Adyar. a suburb of Madras. It was soon to become the International Headquarters of the T.S. and is to this day. Here HPB and Olcott succrssfully launched a new magazine, The Theosoohis~, first published in October Circulation increased fairly rapidly. and in a few months the venture began turning a profit. The journal is still in existence today. During their stay in India. Judge. one of the founding members of the Society. became responsible for sustaining and expanding the T.S. in Amcrica. Contact was kept up through intensive correspondence. For some years letters allegedly from the Masters to T.S. members had been 'precipitated'. so it was claimed. through non-physical means. In an investigation into this phenornenon was undertaken by the British Society for

78 Psychical Rrscarch (SPR) who chose the young Mr. R. Hodgson for this mission. The famous Hodgson Report. published in had devastating results for HPB and the T.S.. causing severe losses in membership and prestige. It also tarnished HPB's reputation as a trustworthy 'medium' (though shr wasn't a medium in the usual sense) and as a spiritual Iradrr. However. the opportunity to drfend herself legally was not taken up. for reasons unclrar to this day.10 However. at the centenary of this report in the SPR. issued a belated apology. saying: 1 cannot exonerate the S.P.R. committee from blamr for publishing this thoroughly bad report. They serm to have done little more than rubber-stamp Hodgson's opinions... Had she [HPBJ been allowrd the legal and expert hclp she begged for. both Hodgson and the Society for Psyçhical Research would have been in dire trou ble.ll It has brrn suggested in various places that HPB's outspoken criticism of the Catholic Church was a main reason why the affair around the Hodgson report bccame so damaging. because the missionaries were just waiting for a good opportunity to tarnish her reputation. and they paid the Colombs (the caretakrrs of HPB's housrhold in Adyar India) very well for their cooprration. HPB's relations with Olcott became strained as a result of this crisis as wéll as through the circumstances of her departure. because she felt that she did not get the support she needed from him to fight these accusations. They Subba Row. an early Indian member of tbe T.S. and hi.. nuin rrasoa for moving to Madns, bad tumed against HPB. and he "was on the commiaee that made it impossible for W B to proceed legally against ber oppoaents. This committee decided that HPB need not be protecced by the T.S.; and rhat she should immediately be deported &om India. Even later as things became smoother, Subba Row successfully argued witb Olcott that she should aot be ailowed to crave1 back." See N.C. Ramanujachary. "T. Subba Row, 'The Secret Docuine' and Madame H.P. Blavatsky," Tbeosqpbicai Ifistocy (T.H.L Vol- S. No.. 3, July 1987, p.99, L1.~icbael Gomes. Tbeosooui.Lhe Ninete- Ce- p. 13.

79 apparently mutually blamrd eaçh other for the disaster the SPR report spelt for the T.S.. i.e. loss of members. and mistrust by those rrmaining. Thrir relationship rem ained trnse un til HPB's drath. HPB lrft India for Europe in March never to return. She travellrd back via Ceylon. Italy and Würzburg in Germany. where she wrote a large part of her major work. The Secret Doctrine. Lnter. she movrd to Ostende in Belgium. still working hard despite considrrable health problems. During these stays she was accompanied by a maid and the Countess C. Wachtmeister. who later published her impressions of HPB during this period in hrr book. Reminiscences of H.P. Blavatskv and 'The Secrel Doctrine.' The Countess also supportrd HPB further and came to stay with hcr in London. In May 1887 HPB. low in Cunds and in il1 health. was invitrd to move to London by members of the London T.S. Dr. Archibald and Bertram Keightley invited her to thcir home until a more suitable. centrally loçated residence in London was found. Here she finished The Secret Doctrine. her major work. published in the Fa11 of with the dedicated hrlp of various able Theosophists.l* She also launched the magazine Lucifer in the same year. and founded the Esoteric Section as a close-knit group of her personal students, independent of the T.S. which was under the presidency of Olcott. so that she could be free to teach as she saw fit. This was seen by Olcott and others as an attempt by HPB to gain more control over T.S. affairs, since oae author mentions that she: 12.~lavatsky writes in ber Reface to the Se. tbat."...ois work is a panial statemeni of wbat she herseif bas beeo taugbt by more advanced stu&nts, supplemeoted, a fer deuüs ouly. by the resulis of ber own study and obsmatioo." The Jecret De(;lnllk Vol. 1 t Pasadena: Theosophicd University Press, 1963) m. vii-viü.

80 was disdainful of Olcott's presidential authority. and resentful for his diminishrd respect for her... When she created the Esoteric Section in Olcott's resistance was so great that he threatened to resign. something he would do again in 1890 to force HPB to relent in hrr dernands.13 Howiiver. despite these problems and ill-health. HPB kept a tight schedule. and was able to complete a numbcr of major works in the Pour years belore her dcath in May including not only The Secret Doctrine but also The Kav to Theosoohy and The Voicr of the Silence. And she also established the Europran Headquarters Cor the T.S. in London during this time. The publication of The Secret Doctrin~drew many new admirers to HPB's London home. in parricular W.B. Yeats. Oscar Wilde. and other prominent figures of the literary and artistic worlds. The mctaphysical foundation of the T.S. also appealed largely to the men and women of the erudite professional middlc class. "whosr privilegad access to the resources of the public spherr enabled them to exercise an influence far greater than their relatively small mem bership would suggest." '4 Furthrrmore. the S.D. plus a number of articles on astrology later gathered in her Collective W ritin=, have since been a major source of philosophical inspiration for Western astrology. and drew a following of eminent astrologers and institutions who have been key to its revival today. Annie Besant. a social reformer and freethinker. joined the T.S. in 1889 after reading The Secret Doctrine and meeting HPB. She soon became a daily guest at HPB's home in London. Besant's membership meant a lot to HPB. L3.~ohnson. Jniw p. 6- See aïs~ Voi. VI. No.. 4, October 19%. p YJOY Dixon. Ciender. Politic~d Cu- * - HPB's letter to W.Q. Judge reproduced in - - p.ii.

81 since she was a well known public speaker who would draw many new mrmbrrs to the Society. She became head of the Esoteric Section shortly aftrr HPB's death. Besant and other leading Theosophists also successfully represrntrd the T.S. at the World Parliament of Religion in Chicago in As a result. new chapters of the T.S. in America were opsned. But a crisis was slowly developing with the attempt by Judge to elevate himsrlf into the position formerly held by HPB. by claiming direct contact with the Masters through letters. After considerable wrangling. Besant and Olcott finally joined forces against Judge. and the whole çpisodr endrd in the srpararion of the American section in with Judgr as president. Aftrr his death the following year. he was mysteriously replaced by Katherine Tingley. who soon closed down al1 the Lodges and moved the Society to Point Loma in California. where among other activities also a school was founded. l5 But this section of the T.S. flourished only up until the mid 1940's. Instead of uniting the members of the Society it led to the formation of many small splinter groups (such as Halcyon. ULT. etc). This procrss was further accelerated by a decision of' Olcott that: Members who disagreed with her [Tinglry's] policies were barred by Col. Olcott from rejoining the Adyar Theosophical Society. and were forced to form numerous splinter groups or drift into more liberal Christian dsnorn inations. leading American culture w ith Theosophical ideas through groups like New Thought and Unity. l6 15.Anooymous. ïhe T- Movement % a ~ O C V Smey (New York E.P. Dunoa & Company, 19??) p. 653ff- 16~icbaei Gomes, Tbeo- p. 14.

82 Robert Crosbie who had first been loyal to Tingley. decided with a nurnber of other dissatisfird members to Corm thrir own group. The United Lodge of Theosophists. in This group still cxists today. Meanwhile Olcott had put considerable efforts into restoring Buddhism in Sri Lanka. Furthermore. he put togrther a Platform of Fourteen Propositions on fundamental Buddhist principles of belief. through which hr sought to unite Buddhist groups al1 over Asia. He travelled extensively for this purpose. By November 1891 he had al1 the signatures he thought to be important. and the Platform was oftïcially inaugurated in Japan. l7 Through his efforts the T.S. aiso had a significant influence on the creation of the Maha Bhodi Society through its Anagarika Dharmapala. w hom Olcott and HPB had met yrars ago in Sri Lanka and takrn under their wings.18 New chapters of the T.S. had also bern formed in Australia and New Zealand. Olcott was also responsible for the establishment of an irnpressive library of books and manuscripts collected on his travels. and which is now housed at the International Haadquarters in Adyar. Its holdings include rare palm leaf manuscripts and Buddhist writings. In the fa11 of 1893 Annie Besant arrived in lndia where Olcott introduced her to the Indian Chapters during an extensive lecture tour. From then on she made frequent visits to Adyar and conducted lectures throughout India and Australia as well as Europe and Arnerica. She succeeded Olcott as president of the T.S. on the 17.~01. Henry S. Olcon Q l d v e Theosophical Society. Third Edition 1975) p,4f 5ff. l!~e Fourth Series (Adyar, Madras: Vasanta Ress of the for Mer detail. Stephen Rothero, ne White Bumt: The qypp O d ~ of v Hem Sted 01~~

83 latter's death in a move which. she claimed. had bren directrd by the Mastrrs. Brsant hrld this post until her death in Although the Society prospered under Besant. the rra of her leadership is brtter rememberrd in India than in Europe or America. due to her involvement in social rrforms in India. and to hrr strong political engagement for India's independence. Ig Charles W. Leadbeater. a former E nglish Clergyman (later Bis hop of the Liberal Catholic Church). exrrted considerable influence over Besant. despite his earlier expulsion from the T.S. for allcged scxual indecencies with young boys (similar charges against him were made again years later in Australia). Under her presidency Leadbeater was able to return to the Society and publish a considerable volume of books and articles. Since his influence over Besant was strong. he might thrrefore have shaped T.S. affairs more than rnay ever be known. without holding a prominent position. Leslie Price. the editor of the journal Theoso~hicül Histor~ (T.H.) characterizes the situation as follows: After HPB's death in Mrs. Besant and later Leadbeater became prr-erninent. Although they faithfully expounded the basics of the teaching in a series of Theosophical rnanuals they were soon in recript of new material through clairvoyance. dealing with past lives. initiation. occult chem istry and other m atters. The books reporting this. simpler and more accessible than the S.D. pushed it down Theosophical reading lists to the section 'for more advanced students'. Many did not advance that far? Lg.~nonymous The 'ïheos~~bid Movement A reprint of various pamphlets, of Besant where she had dealt with the issue of faith. Christian as well as Theosopbicai. was issued in a new senes by Garland Pubüshing in New York under the aile:.. J & & of ed. Gorûon Melton, 1990; The same suies also published a second volume entitied: Tbeosor,hv 1. The mer Lifg of 'IbeosopByI ed. James R Lewis. which presniis de- of the Theosophical activities under Besant.?q~eslie Rice. "Did The Secret Docuim' Fail?" i&&m (T.H.1 Vol. 2. No. 4. October

84 In 1908 Besant publicly announced the 'Coming of a World Teacher* in the form of I. Krishnamurti. whom Lradbeater. through his ciairvoyance. had identiîïed on the Madras Beach. To prrpare for this 'Coming*. The Order of the Star of the East was founded in Meanwhile Rudolf Steiner had activated the German Section of the T.S. and soon becamc head of the Esotrric Section. However. he also quickly becamc disenchanred by what he called 'spiritualistic aberrations' within the Society. He callrd the proclamation of the World Teachrr. an 'absurdity'. and drclared mem bership in the Order of the Star of the East incompatible with mem bership in the German section. He was finaily cxpelled by Besant in i This situation led to the formation of his own Anthroposophicol Society w hich still prospers in Europe and North America. Discontent among American Theosophists in the Los Angeles area Ird to nnothrr split. Alice Bailey. and her husband Foster Bailey. both mrmbers of the North American section of the T.S.. decided after prolonged conflicts within the T.S.. to go on their own. She claimed to be under the guidance of her own Tibetan Master, and in 1920 she and her husband decided to move to New York. and eventually founded the Arcane School and the Lucis Trust Publishing Company. They took many mem bers of the Adyar T.S. with them to their ne w organization. w hich s till flourishes today. Around this time, world events such as World War 1 exerted their influence on peoples' lives the world over. Besant was no exception. She remained in India throughout the War, concentrating her efforts on educational reforms. 21. Leslie Rice. The Loss of Rudolf Steiner." mo- Histm (T.H.1 Vol. 4 No-1. Janu~

85 Hrr former political ambitions as a social reformer took her deeper into the arma of Indian politics. and in Drcember 1917 she was the first woman to become Presiden t of the Indian National Congress. The idra of the Coming of the World Teacher. which caused somc older mrmbers to Irave the Society. nevertheless gcnerated a substantial rise in mernbership. However. the T.S. had a rude awakening in 1929 when Krishnamurti dissolved The Order of the Star of the East. and rejrcted the position ascribed to him. He left the Society about a year later. taking miny of its mernbers with him. He has since become known world-wide for his non-doctrinal thinking. The Society has since had a somcwhat more tranquil existence. But despite al1 the ups and downs. and considerable innrr conflicts. the T.S. was able to celebrate its 100th anniversary in and is still active in more than 60 countries. Dcspite any criticism one may have against the T.S. Movement. one still has to acknowlrdge thai what the T.S. Movernent started was a new direction in many fields of human endeavour in both East and West. including religion. politics and social affairs. as well as astrology. "In the East. the Society played an important role in the movement for Indian independence and in the revival of Buddhism. In the West. it was a major force for the introduction of Asian religious philosophy and probably the most important non-traditional or occult group of the last century."" Indeed. the Society was the first to introduce Eastern Philosophy to the West. cven before the first World Parliament of Religion of 1893 in Chicago. 48ruce F.Campbel1. "ment Wiwvived" A Histon of the York. University of California Ress, 1980) p. 1. Movew (New

86 The following passage by Dane Rudhyar. one of our four eminent astrologers featured in greater detail in chapter 8. underlines this point. of how HPB and the T.S. Movement have affected the sensibilities of m aim tream society. H.P. Blavatsky has been vilified. and the Theosophical Movement of which she was the Source (a source. bring a place through which water flows for external use by living entities) has had a very confused. twisted and often perverted career. Yet the effect of this Theosophical Movement. in all its forms. has had a tremendous. and often very little recognized influence upon the minds of fairly large groups of persons all over the world. Its basic implications - the existence of super-human beings who guide the evolution of the planet and of mankind. and who can and do establish contacts with truly individualized. steady and open individual human beings - runs counter to the exaggerated egocentric individualism of our times. as well as to the dogmatic beliefs and premises which limit the fields of modern scientific enquiry? And in an interview given to The American Theosophist Rudhyar adds an important point: "We might say that in the 1890's. something started of which theosophy and other movements were the prelude."" 3.2. Helena Petrovna Blavatsky We will attempt here to shed some additional light on the life and character of HPB. since she is considered the soul or spirit of the T.S. Movement. "She was the one center of occult and mystic attraction. around which those?~aoe Rudhyar, *. p Bill Quinn. %terview witb Dane Rudhyar." De Am p Vol. 65, No. 9, September

87 lessrr lights flitted as m oths hover around a lighted lamp."z She has bern called the 'spiritual leader' of the T.S. in contrast to Olcott who was rcgardrd as the 'administrative leader.' Shc was also a strong willcd critic of the religious and worldly establishments. a 'feminist' long before this term was coined. and a powerful medium. These characteristics causrd her a number of difficulties at a tirne whcn womrn did not cvcn have the right to vote. A woman of her stature who dared question the establishrd Churches and othrr traditional ways of thinking clearly posed a thrrat to thosr wishing to preservr the status quo. In his Annotated Biblio~ra~hv Michael Gomes lists around 600 works about HPB. and in her latest book Silvia Cranston mentions that "to date there have been righteen book-length biographies in E nglish of H. P. Blavat~ky."2~ But in spitr of al1 the research about her she still remains somcthing of an enigma-'the Sphinx of the nineteenth cantury.'n We attrmpt here to draw somr insights from the available literature. focussing on her charmer and on those events of her life and career that had a significant bearing on the development of hrr idras. particularly hrr idras on astrology as contained in The Secret Doctrine, her major work. HPB showed startling psychic abilities from her early childhood and seems to have particularly enjoyed showing off her capabilities for producing psychic phenornena. Beatrice Hastings provides some interesting insights in *. Alben L. Rawson..*Mme Blavatsky A Theosopbical ûccult Apology; -hical HLpg( ct.h.), Vol. 2. No. 6, April p ilv via Cranston. HPB: The - E Life -e of H elepp Blavuv. FoooQSr of Modem Tbeosm~cal Movew (New York G.P. Pum's Som, 1993) p. xx. TIbîd. p.,

88 her account of a situation in India when HPB and Olcott visited Sinnstt at his surnmer residence in Sirn la in Sinnett begged HPB not to talk Theosophy or do any phenomrna outside their inner circle. But she had corne there. not to taks a fashionablc holiday. but just precisely to talk Theosophy and as she hoprd. to attract the Anglo-Indian world to the Society through phenomrna. No doubt. she took Sinnett's conventional timidity as an affront. not only to herself but to her beloved Masters. On any excuse. she stamped about al1 day in a succession of rages. Sinnett was in despair. However. Mrs. Colonel Gordon. a wrll-known and hardy spiritualist from Calcutta was at Simla. and eager to mert HPB. whose fame as a wonder-worker had long since spread around India. Government officials and their wives called. Dinners were givrn. Soon no fashionable dinner was considered cornplete without Madame Blavatsky. And the phenomrna began. Airy bells rang out. raps were made to sound. apparently at will and wherever anyone desired to hear them. Simla murmured that she was helped by the Devil. but came to see and hear.* HPB's ragerncss to impress and win people for her cause through her performances became cause Cor a lot of suspicion. controversy and intrigue within the Society. as well as around her. The situation culminated in the report of Richard Hodgson for the Society for Psychical Research in 1886 which undermined confidence in HPB personally and weakened for a short period the success of the Theosophical enterprise. Howrver m uch the phenornena helped her and the Society to gain public attention in the initial stages. they finally came back to haunt her. A.L. Rawson has pointed to yrt another level in explaining the complexity of this issue. He writes: Hastings. Defew p. 13.

89 Prrhaps madame sinned beyond forgiveness against Mahatmic mercy by indulging in vulgar spirit rappings for so many years. as reported by her sister. In those days she materializrd a pipe. made music. rang bclls a whole chime... Ah the Brothers made her pay for her fun in alter yrars when thcy promised so much both to Olcott and herself. and always denied thrm the precious powrr at the critical moment." Howcver. she had people puzzle not only over her phenornena but equally over her temper. "Calm as the Aboo Hool of Memphis one minute. and the nrxt a tempest of passion finding vent in a torrent of words that scorchrd the ears of hcr lisiener~."~ But in rxplaining some of the happenings around HP%. as well as hrr extreme mood swings. it seems that one has to distinguish between her aim to pursue her cause. or for that mattrr that of her Masters. and her charactsr or persona. Shr hcrself and others in the T.S. appear to have made this distinction between the outer (tcm pcstuous) and the inner (wiser) HPB. Some of the complexities of her character rxplored by Leslie Price seem at times to border on the mysterious. Many questions raised by the Society for Psychical Rrsearch in England. and by othrrs rlsewhere. have yet to be answered-hence describe her.31 the term 'Sphinx' to 29 Rawson..*Madame Blavatsky." p. 216.?~l.~awson. ibid. p.213. There are sun*v testimonies by oiber members e.g. Dr. A. Keightley. He recounts the following situation: "When sbe read it cbrough I was subjected to what I have since learned is called epîlation. for I was dîvested of my scalp hair by hais. Exactly why 1 did not kmw, nor was I told. But when the process was fmisbed somebody 'upstain' or 'wîthin' accepted the article and was rather pleased with it king timely!" Quoted in Leslie Rice, Madame Blavatskv Unveile p24. 3L.Ibid. Rice provides an interesthg. cfitical aaalysis of the Hodgson Repon. gathering many valuable testimonies. Years earlier. HPB had biated at an important step in her own development. saying: "between the Blavatsky of and the Blavatsky of the years there is an unbridgeable gulf." de Ziiioff (ed-), H.P. B m : Cokted W m % (Wbeatoa, Hl.: The Theosophical Press, Vol. 1, 19661, p. xvi. See also A.P. Sinaen, in the Life of Bhv- (London: The Theosophical Publishing Society, 1913).

90 HPB was born into a Russian aristocratie family with al1 the privilegcs that this entailed. The family had long had an interest in mysticism and the occult and she started acquiring her knowledge of the subject early in Me. Her father was a military man. but hcr grandfather had been adminisirator of Kalm uck affairs for a w hile. "W hcn she was five years old. shr was introduced to Tibetan Buddhism as practiced by the Kalmuck tribe of the Astrakhan stepps." Hcr great-grandfather had been a prominent Rosicrucian and Frerrnason and had left an extensive library containing occult literature on astrology. alchern y. magic. masonic rituals etc. HPB admitted to having used this library at an early age to study various occult subjects. This library had a vast collection of occult literature. which no doubt included astrology since it contained the works of Cornelius Agrippa. Paracelsus and other prom inant Renaissance occult authors who dcalt with this subject." This could well have been her first introduction to astrology. iilthough this is not documrnted. HP% also serms to have been an ardent student of the works of Eliphas Levi. and may have acquired her knowledge of the Kabbalah from him. HPB may rven have met him in Paris during one of her earlier visits. since he only died in She certainly refers to hirn throughout The Secret Doctrine. Her writings indicate that she was also fam iliar with the works of the mystic Emmanuel Swedenborg. K. Paul Johnson somew hat sarcastically sugges ts that reading these books not only acquainted her with the world of secret Lodges such as those of Freemasonry and the Rosicrucians. but may also have stirred her imagination about mysterious adepts manipulating the occult undercurrents 32.~. Paul Johason. The reveaia p ~ranston. p : Iobnsai, p

91 of European poli tic^.^ In Prince Alexander Golitsyn she also found a family rnem ber with whom she could discuss her occult interests. since rhough lraning more toward Christian doctrines. he too was influenced by the samr family tradition of occult and mystical teachings. Johnson believrs it may have baen Golitsyn who providrd HPB with the address of the Egyptian magician Paulo Matamon. Dur to her mother's early death (HPB was ihrn around the age of ten) and her Cather's long absences from home. becausr of his position in the military. Helena and her sister Vera were mostly brought up by their orandparents. At the agc of 18 she was married to the considerably older c' Nikolai Blavatsky (who was around 40 at the time). but left him after a few wreks. S he thereafter escaped the im mediatr influence of her family and becamr an adventure-traveller for the next twenty years. supposedly gaining occult insights from native magicians while travelling in the Caucasus and other placcs.35 Historians are still trying to trace her steps through thesr rarlier yrars since she appears to have deliberately misled people about her w herrabouts. Her claims of having had contact with spiritual teachers during this time remain undocumrnted. although she did befriend a number OC the leading occultists in Europe.36 ".K. Paul Johnson, m t e r s revealrp p. 20. loboson does oot seem to share the officiai view of the T.S. about HPB's Masters. For a somewhat toque-in-cheek but wefl written book about HPB, the T.S. and other major occult figures such as Gurdjieff and Krishnamurti see Pecer Washington: Blavmv's Baboon(New York: Schocken Books, 1993). 35.~lavauky. Collected Writingj Vol h CairO sbe became acquainted wio Pauios Metamon a Coptic magiciao (Rawson. -Madame Blavatsky," p. 210). She also bad contact wiîb Freemasoos in Paris and London (HJ. Spierenburg. "Dr. Rudolf Steiner on Helena Petrovna Blavatsky," (T.H.), Vol. 1, No.. 7, Iuly 1986, p. 162ff.

92 It was during travel with A.L. Rawson in the Middle East that shr most likcly met the highly unconventional Lady Hester Stanhope. an interesting woman who may rvcn have bcrn a mode1 for HPB's own life at the time. An English noblewoman and student of Middle Eastern occult lore living in Lebanon. Lady Stanhope was wrll vrrsed in astrology and other occult teachings." HPB was certainly familiar with Lady Hester's life and achievements. because she is mentioned in Isis Un~eiled.~~ HPB apparently also travelled to India around 1856 and again in and claimed to have rntered Tibet (which rnay have just been Kashmir. also known as 'Little Tibet'). Shr never szttled down in one place for very long. with the exception of her five-yzar stay in the United States ( ) where she became a citizen. It was there that her life took a more decisive turn through hcr meeting with Olcott and the Counding of the T.S. In this rvent she finally found her Me's purpose. which she claimed had already been foretold to hrr by her Mastrrs in her early t ~rnties.~~ This is. in fact. why she had earlier tried to create an csoteric society in Egypt. which failed. Her instructions which she daims to have gotten from at lçast one of her Masters. were seemingly am biguous. or she misinterpreted them at the time. The knowledge that eventually went into HPB's writings was thus assem bled over tirne from a variety of sources: from copious reading. a travel itincrary that took her to the most diverse cnvironments. as well as 37~obnson, lai tiates, p. 164ff. 38.~elena Petrovna Biavaüky. ü n v w Revised and correcteci by Bons & Zirkoff (Wheaton. 1U.: The Theosophical Press, 19721, p ~il~aCranst~n. ibid p. 45ff. Sre also A.L. Rawson *Madame Blavwlry." p.208.

93 from her Masters. Her adventures journrys offered HPB ample opportunity for prolonged rxposure to the 'occult science' of astrology. though it is not casy to idrntify her sources. There is nevertheless no doubt from her w ritings that her know ledge of the subject was fairly comprehtnsive. The rxtensively researched biography by Silvia Cranston publishrd in gives only three derences to astrology and only one deals with HPB. Cranston includes a quote from a lettrr by HPB which she wrote to Prince Dondoukov. which furthrr sheds 1ight on where she acquired some of her knowledge. She writes: "... 1 have livrd with the whirling Dervishrs. with the Druses of Mt. Lebanon. with the Bedouin Arabs and the Marabouts of Damascus... 1 learned nccromancy and astrology. çristalgazing and spiritualism A.L.Rawson. recalls that they also learned astrology from the magician Paulos Mrtamon whom thry had met in Eg~pt.~~ It would therefore seem that she deepened har earlier knowledge of astrology. which shr most likely acquired in her great- grandfather's library. during hcr later travels in the Middle East. The rrsult at the end of har life was the successful publication of The Secret Doctrine. a compendium of occult wisdorn which did not corne from the divine inspiration of her Masters alone as she attests in the preface of The Secret Doctrine, but "is a partial statement of what she herself has been taught by more advanced students. supplemented. in a few details only. by the results of her own study and observati~n".~she further adds that this occult wisdom "belongs neither to the Hindu. the Zororastrian. the m.~ramtw. HPB,, p ~obnson, The Reveaia p. 31. J2.~.~. Blavatsky. The Secret Doctrine pp. vii-vüi.

94 Chaldean. nor the Egyptian religion, neither to Buddhism, Islam. Judaism nor Chris tianity rxclusively. The Secret Doctrine is the essence of al1 thèse."j3 Astrology nrverthrlrss played a relatively minor role in her public life. Her mission was to draw peoplcs' attention to Thsosophy by mcans of producing psychic phenornena. rather than to irnpress thcm with the relatively dry and demanding intellectuality of astrology. On the othrr hand. we know that the British astrologer astrologer Walter Gorn Old eventuaily movrd into HPB's home in London and was always on hand whrn advice on astrology was needrd. It is reported. for example. that she askrd him shortly btfore her death what the stars suggested about her prospects of surviving. When he tried to be vague she accused him of hiding the truth." This rpisodr suggests they may well have talked astrology on othrr occasions. He was by hrr bedside at her hour of death in May 189 Las Old latrr brcamc: famous under the nom de plume of Sepharial. The subjact of astrology as discussed in The Secret Doctrine and other writings will bc expiored in some detail in the next chapter. 43-~elena Petrovna Blavatsky. The Secret Docm (Pasadena: fheosopbiuil University Press 1963) Vol. I-Cosmogenesis, p. vü..~im Famell. That Temble Iconociast".a brief biography of "Sep&arial".(no date. but ca. 1990's) unpubtished paper. a5.~ilvia Cranston. I[EB pp- 408; Walter Gom OId. Teachsr and Friend," in: 11p.B. Inu-f Helena Petrovna Blavatskv bv some of her Pub& (London: Theosophical Publishing Society, 1891) p. M.

95 4. ASTROLOGY IN THE WRITINGS OF HPB The discussion in what follows is not intrnded to identify whethrr HPB had a clear concept of astrology iind whar that rnighr have been. This would prove an impossible task. since shr nrver intrnded to set out an exposition of astrology. Rather. there are only bits and pircrs of such a concept sprrad throughout her wholc work. We seok instead to drmonstrate that her accrptance and defrnce of astrology. iind the major ideas of hrr rclectic philosophy, have had a profound influence. lrading to a rrvival of astrology in the 20th century The Origins of Astrology according to HPB Bclief in astrology is drrply anchorrd in HPB's philosophical systern. This is based upon hcr knowledge of its occult foundation and hrr convictions about the origins and spiritual significancr of the Zodiac. In the lirst volume of The Secret Doctrine s he claims that occult philosophy provides 'sevcn keys' to unlock the secrets OC the Lhiverse. the universal sym bolism of astrology bcing one of thcm.' In a sweeping statemcnt in the second volume of this samr work shr writcs: "The history of this world since its formation and to its end is 'written in the stars', Le, is rrcorded in the Zodiac and Universal Symbolism. whose keys are in the kerping of the Initiates." She goes on to explain that the origins of the Zodiac go baçk to Atlantian timcs. She claims that Atlantis. (which she accepts as a historical fact) is l. Helena Petrovna Blavaeky. Jhe Secret Doctrine Vol. 1 (Pasadena: Theosophicd University Press. 1963) p. 155.

96 also the birthplace of the most knowledgeable of al1 astrologers. known by the Sanskrit-sounding name of Asurarniîya. who. she writrs. was also the greatzst of astronorners and magicians. "The chronology and computations of the Brahmin initiates are based upon the Zodiacal records of India. and the works of the above mentionrd astronomer and magician - ~surumû~u."~ Astronom y and astrology were not distinguishrd in the distant past. the srparation of the two disciplines only starting about 1500 A.D? HPB gors into elaborate crlculations to prove that the findings of Hindu iistronorners predatr thosr of Grercr? Shr attacks the scirntists of hrr own day as being incomprtrnt to judge the trur origins and antiquity of the Zodiac. This took a lot of courage in the hsyday of Christian rnissionaries in India. who rrnded to regard Indians as barbarians needing the light of Jesus and Western culture. Nerdless to Say. hrr assertion that the Indians actually knrw more about the workings of our cosmos. and werc far brttrr astronomcrs than thosr in the West. and that they might cvcn have influrncrd our thinking on ihese matters. was not wrll received at the time. India and Egypt were considerrd by HPB as sanctuaries where this ançient wisdom about the stars and their function in the universe was stored. Traces of thesr beginnings. she points out. are recognizable in the days of Our week. They brar the names of the planetary gods of the Chaldeans. 3.1bid Vol. n. p. 49îf. Vol. XII. p. 48 5~lavaisky, Secret Doctrine pp Wiockier and Jeremias would certainly not have quarreled with her on this point. According to Peter Davidson, Blavatsky drew a good deal of her astrologic~as~onomical information hm the Surya Siddantha a Hindu asuoaomicai work. See also Ioscelyn Godwin. "Ine Hidden Han4 Part IV," H i m Vol. 3, No. 5, January 1991, p. 139.

97 w ho. she daims. translated thcm from thosé of the Aryans. This issue is still drbatrd among historical researchers. Jrrem ias appears to support HPB. ai lrast regarding the single origin of the zodiac. He writrs: Whitney has shown in his work Lunar Zodiac that the twenty-right housrs of the moon of the Arabs. accrpted in the Koran. Sura L (munacil al Kamar. "moon harbours"). and the twentyseven or ~wenry-eighr of Vzdic India (riamtro). and the twenty-cight lunar stages of the Chinrse (hsin. i.r. "rrsting places"). in the introduction of which in the Shu-King is attribuied to the mythical Emprror Yao). though modilird by different characteristics, are yrt al1 thrrr traccable to a common origin in Babylonia by citing and quoting from a number of authoritirs." W inckler too writes that: " Babylonia is the motherland of astronomy. and of astrology. which in the Orient is inseparable from it."' Howrver. to trace the history of astrology over evcn the past 2000 ycars provrs already cxtrrmrly difficult as Tamsyn Barton points out in the introduction to her wdl rescarchrd book AncicntAstroloeu. let alone going back furthrr. By writing The Secret Doctrine the way she did. HPB hardly made this task casier. A portion of the book is. according to HPB, based on sources which were and still are not available to researchers. The stanzas of "The Book of Dzyan" on which it is based had long bcrn considerrd figmrnts of HPB's mind. but a recent study suggests they are Tibetan in origin.8 "~lfred Jeremias. The O Id Tes- p. 12. See also Simkar Balakrishna Dikshit. Ivow S i (History of indian Astronomy) Part 1, m s. R-V. Vaidya. (Government of india Press, Calcutta 1969). and Dr. Jean FiUiozat, "Amient Relations between Indian and foreign Astroaomical ) S ystems." T (Madras) Vol XXV, No. 1, January '.HU~O Wiackier. w f BabvlmQ p ~he Tibetologist David Reigle offers emdence that Le Stanzas are part of occult Tibetaa scriptures known by the name of Kanjur. (Cranston, W B p.386ff.)

98 HPB's daim that Indian astrology drvrloped earlirr than Grrek astrology has mranwhile been substantiatrd in the findings of both Indian and Western s~holsrs.~ She further daims that the Chaldrans of Babylon _rot their astrological knowlrdgr lrom the Indian Brahmins. going as far as to suggest that the Chaldeans wrrr cognatr with the Brahmins. Io This idea does not srrm overly far fetched sincr Wincklrr and Jerernias both also hint in this direction. As trologiciil know lrdgc in the form of drtailrd prescriptions for the setting of favorable dates for sacrificial rites. m arriages etc. rippcaring in the ancient Vcdic sçriptures of India. suggrsts a fairly advanced knowlrdgc of astronomy. Latrr. during the Vedanga prriod. the Jyotisha Shastra. one of the so callrd angas (or 'limbs') oi' the Veda. cxhibits evrn more sophis ticated astronom ical know lcdgr and an elaboratr as trological sy~trrn.~~ What srems native to occidental astrology is the system of the ~odiacal signs. which can br traced in the rarly history of the Chalderns and Egyptians and rnay have drrivrd from the system of the so callrd lunar mansions. In his analysis of the ancient Zodiac Jerernias writes that: "The science oi' the Zodiac can be tracrd in the records back to the age of Taurus. i.r. the prriod when at the spring rquinox the sun cnterrd the sien 9.~.~.~.~andi~.'Ongin Growtû of Jyotisha-Sbasua," mal of the Univetm of Bombay, Volxxvi (New Senes) Sept p See also Hugo Winckler and Alfred Jeremias, op cit. lo-~lavatsky. Secret Doctrine II p LAccording to Sankar Balakrishna Dikshit (op ci[), ihe Vedic period may go back to 3000 B.C. or even frrnher. ûtber xholars date the Vedic period from ûû B.C. See e-g. Simeon O. Hesanmi, "A Histotical Study of the Concept of Dharma and its ethical Value in Hindu Religion," Asia JOof Theolo~v Vol. 4, No.. 2. Feb p The Vedaaga Period has supposedly lasted from approx B.C- to 400 B.C. Western anb Indiari xholars tend to have differeat ïnterprefations oa this dating issue. Dikshit tries to trace this timing through the astronomical teferences made in the Hindu sniptures, which could offer a fairly accurate measure.

99 of Tnurus."12 Howrver. this system of twrlve signs as we know them in the West todry. appears much later in the Indian astrological systrms - around 400 B.C. Cultural exchangr through trade and wars may account for this. though furthrr resrarch in this arra is nredrd as P.V.Kanr has suggés ted. l3 hlan Lro. a Theosophist/asrrologrr whom we will be discussing more fully in chaptrr 8. èxplains the two zodiacs by saying that the Western tropical rodiaç. arhitrarily dividrd into 12 rqual parts of 30 degrees. "derives its sole value from the fact that it is the path of the Sun-by most important rnember of our system-as far the largest and seen from the rarth: but it is a zodiac for our rarth only. whrrras the constellations cmbrace the rntire solar ~ystrrn."~~ By constellations he rneans the configurations of the stars which lorm the images that supposedly portray the given meanings of the signs cg. the stars Castor and Polux are found in the constellation which is given the sign name of Gemini. and Regulus is part of the constellation which bears the sign name of Lco etc. These constellations may be larger or smaller than 30 degrrcs. Indian astronomy still uses the sidereal zodiac (the zodiac of the çonstellations) and the lunar rnansions. making it possible to include the largrr cycles of the fixed stars. Western astrology by çontrast is based on the tropical zodiac of the signs-the seasonal l?~errmias. =Testamnit, p.13. Note that the precession of the Equinox through de whole Zodiac takes approximatrly years. The current solstice point is supposed to be enmg tfie sign of Aquarius. For funher information on the origins of the Zdac see Cyrii Fagan, Astrolonical otipigs (St. Paul, Minn.: Lleweiîyn Publications, 1973). 13.~-~.~anr. The Roblrm of the 11oUoduction of kis in Inâian Astrooomy and Astrology," Bbarativa Vidva Vol. IX 1948 pp (Repmted hm The Munsbi Diamond Iubileg Cornmernoration Voluqg Part 0. l*e Two Zodiacs, in Modem Asuology. Vol 1.. June p.245

100 motion of the Sun. including the equinoxes and summer and winter solstices. But no documents èxist to vrrify the true origins of al1 this. Rudhyar subscribes to the view that the two zodiacs work astrologically at different Irvrls: "for instance some astrologrrs have tried to prove that both the sidrrrnl zodiac of constellations and the tropical zodiac of signs are valid. each rrferring to a certain aspect of lifr - but there is very littlr agreement in defining these Level~."~~ In short. this is a continuing unresolved debatc within the Western astrologicai community. HPB's concerns go beyond thrse quarrels. She bernoans the loss of the true gccul~ origins of astrology. maintaining that: "the key to ceremonial or ritualistic asrrology. with the teraphim and the urim and thummim of Magic. is lost to Europe. Hence Our century of Materialism shrugs itlsic] shouldrrs and sees in astrology - a pretender."16 On the other hand she maintains that Western astrology has produced excellent results and should She further States that we have lost the connection (that she saw) between astrology and the Jewish Kabbalah. which. she claims. was handed down to the fews from the ancient Chaldeans.18 As an indication of this connection she mentions that: "Wherever twelve are mentioned, these are invariably the 12 signs of the zodiac (see appendix E).l9 ".~ane Rudhyar, Astrologicai Timing p.216. L6.~elena Petrovna Blavatsky* 94- Vol. xiv, p l7 Blavatsky, -et Dam p L!~lavatsky. W m VOL UI. p ~lavatsky. Secret Doetrine i, p. 651.

101 4.2 'Esoteric' and 'Exoteric' Astrology The terrns 'esoteric' and 'eaotrric' appear quiie fraquèntly in HPB's works. and in those of othzr Theosophists. In astrology they are usually used in distinguishing diffrrent approachrs to judiçial astrology. It is important therefore to understand the naturr of these diffrrenccs. Both trrrns may also be distinguished from 'occultism.' For example. Faivre distinguishes "oçcultisrn. as a group of practices... from esotericism. w hiçh is. roughly speaking. the theory that makrs thrse practices po~sible."~ He notes further that the term 'rsotrricism' is fairly new. being first usèd by the French occultist Eliphas Levi in the rarly half of the 19th crntury. He also notes that the link betwéen these esoteric currents and "the Catholic and Protestant churches has been and still is difficult." This has rneant that these: "Esotrric çurrents cannor be defincd without intcllectual dishonrsty as being by nature marginal vis-a-vis the ~hurchrs.''~ Wc have already noted this rcclrsiastical hostility in the lifr and works of HPB. who was continuously at loggerhrads with the Churches and its missionarirs in introducing her nrw brand of rsotcric spirituality to India and the West. HPB hrrsrlf dors not keep to a neat distinction between practice and theory. Rather. she uses the tsrrn 'occultism' to describe an age-old (or 'perennial') body of hidden knowlcdge 9np practices related to the secret workings of man and the Universe. This collective body of knowledgr and practice is drawn from a variety of sources. including Pythagorean philosophy (which. she believes. goes back to Babylon) as wrll as Hindu Vedanta and Tibetan Buddhism. We may say therefore that the noun B~ncvclooedia of Reliciq Vol. 11. Ykculcism." by Antoine Faivre. p l Antoine Faivre and Jacob Needleman. M odern Esoteric S~int- (New York: The Crossroad hbiishing company, 1995) p. xü.

102 'occultism' is usrd by HPB as a generic concept for an al1 encompassing systrm of philosophy or cosmogony hiddrn from the uninitiated. the variants of which are qualified by adjectives such as 'occult.' 'esoteric.' or 'secret.' For example shr writrs: "Let them [practitionrrs of 'occultism*] t'irst learn the true relation in which the Occult Sciences stand to O~cultism. and the difference between the tw o...meanwhile. let them Iearn that Occuitism diffus from Magic and othrr secret scit'nces as the glorious Sun from a rush-light"." HPB refers to astrology as an 'occult science'. and one of srvrn keys that can unlock this secret knowlrdgr of 'occultisrn.'a The adjective 'esotrric' (oftrn usrd intrrçhangably with 'occult' by HPB) likewisr çarrirs the connotation of secret knowlrdgr of rulcs and practices. confined to a srna11 group of so callrd initiates or adepts who are familiar with the higher spiritual or 'astral' lrvcls of consciousness. By contrast. the adjective 'rxoteric' is normally usrd to connote something physiçal. matrrial or profane. The basic difference brtwrrn 'esoteric' and 'èxoteric' chus hingrs on the belief. based on a purportrd expcrirncr or drmonstration of. a highrr world invisible to the average human eye." In this çontext rsoteric astrology is a body of (secret) knowlrdge and practice that explains the subtlr planctary (or macrocosm ic) connections with the mental. psychic and spiritual faculties of an individual or a collective (the microcosm ). It is important to understand here that HPB is not talking about a direct inthence of the physical planets but of thrir v, -.H.P. Blavatsky, audies in Occulliya (Pasadena CA: Tùeosophical University Press, no date), p ~lan Leo. How to IuQpr a NatiMty (New York: The Astrologer's Library ) p. v. 4-~lavatsky. Collective Writin~s iip. 149.

103 spiritual rulers-the 'lords' as subtlr forces ~overning the workings of the planets. This idra. as Winckler suggests. was already held hy the ancirnt chai de an^.^ Influences ol the physical planets over the matcrial side of lifc. inçluding the manifestation of inner States as outer rvents. would then fa11 within the area of exoteric astrology. Of course modern astrology at lrast w orks with visible planets. although the whole conncction. one may argue. s till hingrs on a belief in 'the invisible.' Note that HPB considrrs the astrology practicrd during her life-time as a mixture betwern èsotcric and exotrric as~rology.~ HPB is not always clear about thrsr diffrrrnces rxçept. to rriterate. that in speaking of the planets. cg. Jupiter or the Moon. she is invariably rri'erring not to the actual planets. but to the hirrarchy of spiritual rulrrs or 'lords'. who serve as the active potencies behind thrm. She writes for example that: "Al1 the mental. rmotional. psychic and spiritual facultirs are influrncrd by the occult properties of the scaie of causes which emanatr t'rom the Hierarchies of the Spiritual Rulers of the Planrts. and not by the Planets themselves."~ And she explains furthcr in another passage. "Thus whrn Mercury is said to correspond to the right eye it does not mran that the objective planet has any influence on the right optic organ. but that both stand rather as corresponding mystically through Buddhi."% Thrra are apparrntly also differences in the way colors and metals. as well as the days of the werk. are designatcd between the esoteric and exotrric astrological systems. She includrs two tables of some of these?winckler. Histoo, of Babvlonq p ~lavarsky. Collective Writines XI& p a.~lavacsky. &hj p Further references may be found in C.W xiv, pp ~hvatsky. ibidpp. 544ff.

104 correspondences. but they are not completr.lg She also outlines differences betwrrn the two types of astrology with respect to rulership over the parts of the body. These and other distinctions also lead. of course. to different intrrprrtations. for rxam ple with respect to in Cerences that may be made about an individuals past karma. As already notrd. HPB assumes that the astrologrrs of her day have. for the most part. lost the ancient knowledgr of rsotrric astrology. While concrding that Western astrology has done good work? the cornprehrnsivc! knowledgr of the workings of the universe and the course of human life which csotcric astrology was formerly able to convcy. is confined to only a fiw.31 What goes for the semi-esoteric version practicrd in her day is what she calls 'Kabbalistic' astrology (to HPB the Kabbalah and astrology are closcly linked). though we are left in the dark about what shc actually mcans by this designation. Alice Bailey. a former Theosophist. daims for her own extensive work to follow in the footsteps of HPB (shr certainly often sounds like WB). Bailey clrarly States in her Esoteric Astrology that she is not deaiing with ordinary astrology but with its asoteric variant. a complex and somswhat confusing systcm of 'seven rays' (also hinted at by HPB in various places) that interact with the ~odiac.~z She views her contribution as the passage to ".lbid p. 544 and p See also bid p. 38ff.?~lavatsky. wt Doctrine II'?, p i.~he writes: "Astrologen. of whom here are many among the Esotericists, are iikely to be puuled by some statements distincdy coatradicting their teacbings... For let it be distinctly Lnown. nothing of tbat which is p~ted, broadcast, and available to every student in public libtaries or museums, is realiy esoterîc, but is either mixed with deliberate 'btiods,' or cannot be understood and studied with profit without a complete glossary of occult terms." Blavatsky, =ted Wrjligps XII p See also Biavatsky, " Asuology and Astrolatcy,"&p t D- VoUII. 32.~lice Baile y. A Trea on t Seven Pubiishing Company, 1951) p. 27. Vol. lti-baeric Astrolor y (New York: Lucis

105 a new astrology. which "will be occupied with the charting of the life of the sou1... the ruling esoteric planets. will gradually transform the exoteric form of the chart of the individ~al."~~ Bailey's books have rrcently given rise to a rapidly growing new movement of 'Esoteric astrology' (more about her will be included in chaptrr sèvrn). Marcia Moore and Mark Douglas. two contem porary astrologers who have bern inspired by Bailey. provide an interesting charactzrization of this approach ro astrology. They write: The point stressed by esotrric astrologers is that cosmic anergies are more than subtlr waves of impulses - they are inherently purposeful. For exam ple. mental telepathy differs from radio transmission in that telrpathic vibrations are selective and can ferret out the person to w hom they are dincted. excluding all others... Esoteric Astrology presents the picture of a universe composed not of solid material formations but of shifting streams of vibratory impulses coded to reach their intendcd targrts? Rudolf Steiner. a former Theosophist and comrnentator on rsotrricism and astrology, also acknowledged the value of astrology as an occult science and wrote about it in various publications. Further comments on his contribution will be given later in chapter seven. And Rudhyar States in an interview with The American Theosophist that: "The Secret Doctrine is an occult type OC astrology which deals with forces. with cosmic energies said to be related to certain stars-to cosmic 33.w p F~arcia MOOR and Mark Douglas. 9 - (York Harbor, Maine, The Arcana Publications, 1971). p

106 lactor~."~~ But he tries to play down the significance of the two trrms. "Actually" Rudhyar says: there is no such thing as 'exotrric' astroiogy or 'rsoteric' astrology. Therc is an approach which is. in trrms of an occult philosophy-an occult concept of the universr and the way things happen in the universci-and ano ther w hich sim ply accepts traditional techniques (one might say 'formulas' or even reciprs) which are to be memorizèd and which tell you what cvrnt çan be cxpectrd on earth when certain things happrn in the sky in trrms of the 'aspects' between planrts. etc. j6 For Rudhyar. it would seem. occult asrrology simply forms part or the Theosophical philosophy with respect to the universe: it has no real bearing on the practicr of the astrologer's work today. Its significance is too far removed from the day to day problems of clients with which the average astrologer is confronted. On the other hand. knowlrdge of the mraning of the Outrr Planrts. of their cycles and cyclic conjunctions. and of their relation to r ven larger cycles. m ay help introduce ano thrr. more drtachrd. perspective to our day-to-day problems if we are open to this kind of philosophy. j Astrology as Science. Since astrology is regarded by HPB as an 'occult science' we might lrgitimatrly ask what notion of science are we talking about here'? 1s HPB's notion of science valid in hrr time. and is it. or can it be valid today? In order to answer thrse questions we must first consider the notion of 35.g il1 Quina -An Interview wilh Dane Rudhyar." The Amencan Tbeoso~bigb Vol. 65. NO. 9. September 1977) p bid. 249ff. More on Rudbyu's views on tbis issue will be prexnted in chapter 8. S.

107 science current in HPB's time and today. and the mechanistic paradigm on which it was based. The word 'science' says Barton "is derived t'rom the Latin scirnfiu, which like the Crreck philosophia mrant knowledge in general... IL is only in this sense that science existed brfore scirntists. The word 'scientid came (from mivrd parentagr) into English not long before the middlr of the nineteenth century. whrn the word 'science' brpan to take on a modern mraning."'* The science of antiquity. as Barton points out. had a much strongrr philosophical brnt than that of t~day.~"n HPB's time science w u moving towvrd what was in rlfect a static vision of reality. assigning 'thingness' to what is essentially a continuous procrss. Alfred North W hitrhead was latrr to cal1 this trndrncy 'the fallacy of misplacrd concrrienrss.' It w as also a timt: of growing divergence brtween science and religion. This was sern as a danger to both. and not only by HPB and the Theosophists. The German philosopher Hermann Lotze. writinp in had rlready warned that: "we can never look on indiffrrently whrn wè srr cognition undrrmining the foundations of faith. or faith calmly putting asidr as a wholr that w hich scientific zeal has built up in drtail." Truc. it was also the period of the formation of the Society for Psychical Research (SPR). as already noted in connection with thrir investigation of HPB's 'phenornena.' And prom inent psychiçal researchers still hrld high offices in the Royal Society. despite somr opposition to thrir work. But the gulf that wr know today was already clrarly in cvidencr. In a critical 39 IbiJ. p. xiv. For Plutarch science stiii meant tbe investigation of Ibe Wxm% of nature." (W. Eamoo, p. 35 1) a.~ermann Loue: Microcosmus: an essav concrrnin~ man and bis relation to cbr wor1q tram. Elizabeth Hamilton ami E.E. Consiance Jones (Edinbwgh: T & T. Clark. 1885) p.a.

108 review of the science of this period Brian Applryard obsrrved that: "The scalpel had brrn takzn to the stars and our souls were next on the operation The period w u also mürked hy a growing trend towards professional sprçialization in the sciences (as indçrd in other aspects of lire). The danger hcrc (as W hitrhrad dso saw) was the risk of losing sight of the inrrr-connrctzdnrss of the whole. -Q And Janet Oppenheim shows that thrre was in the latr 19th and early 20th centuries no clear definition of science. and people of the time "thought about science from widely diflereni prrspe~tivès."~~ This is a featuro that rrmains with us still today. Frrzman Dyson argues for example ihat: "Thrrr is no such thinp as a unique scientific vision... Science is a rn osaic of partial conflicting visions..." And Applryard adds to this virw that scientists who insist that the gçnrral population brlirvc their version OC "how the world incontrovcrtibly is are üsking for our faith in their subjective crrtainty of thrir own objcctivity." Howevér. this is not io say that critics of the more reductionist view of science would automatically subscribe to the 'occult' formulations propounded by HPB. In essence. the probkm for HPB was that the rmpirical science of her tirni: was based on a mechanistic and unidimensional vision of the universe and human nature. a view still current today with the possible exception of so- 4! Applr yard. U L J p ~lfretl Nonb Whitehead. Science and tbe Modem WorlQ (New York: 'Ilie Free Ress. 1967) p. 1%. He might today be even more critical, if be could wimess today's derriiled schemes of professional spticializatioa and isolation, *.lanet Oppenhrim. The Other World t Cambridge: Cambridge University Ress. 1985) p e~rerman Dyson. 'The Scientist as a Rebel." in New York Review of BoolrS, May p ~pplrya~ Clndentmdine the Resen~ p. 56.

109 çallzd "post modern science." The foundrrs of this science - Bacon. Dcscartès. Newton and their later followers. conceivrd of reality on the analogy of a machine (such as a clock). Although recrnt research a h draws a picturc. of anothrr Newton.* The so-called 'mechanistic paradigm' which had rmerged. forms the sharèd set of hrlirfs or workinp premissrs which. aççording to Thomas Kuhn. "for a timr providr modrl problrrns and solutions to a community of practiiionzrs" (in this case most practitionrrs of modern ~cirncr).~ It is the world-virw within whiçh science attempts to understand Our universe with its phenomrna. and it appciars that rhèrr is always a significant correlation brtwcrn the prevailing paradigm and the particular concept of science held at a givrn rpoch. Wincklrr has already ohsrrved this phenornenon in connrction with Babylonian astral religion: It is. consrquently. no accident which made the Babylonians the world's teachers in astronomy. This [the Babylonian] conception of the universe was astronomy. and out of it alone could an astronomy br dcveloprd. just as our conception of the universr also grrw out of astronomy. In the stars. the Babylonian behrld the whole divine will. thrrefore. al1 earthly things must be images of the heavenly. For that which axists above as archrtype must find its counter type here brlow. The organized state must contorm exactly to the heaveniy prototype.4 *.But let US con~ede here chat Newton is somewhat ioaccurately equated with this mecbanistic vkw of science to the extent rhat only selected parts of his writings have ken taken into consideration by modem scientists. Recent reswch has revealed the side of him ttiat: "was alarmed at the atheistic implications of the revived corpuscularianîsm of their century. particularly of Cartesianism." See B.J.T. Dobbs. "Newton's Commentary oo the Enrrald Tabler of Hermes Trismegistus: Its Scientific and Tbeological Significance," in Henneticisrn and che Rcnaissancg ed. 1. Mericel and A-G-Debus t Washington: Folger Shakespeare Library. London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1988) p Thai Newton was weiî ver& in astrology is aiso apparent from this article, and also from otber recent research on the occult kg. Curry). Thomas Kuhn i 1962). Tbe Suucture of Scientific Revolution~ p. x. JB.~ugo Winckîrr. The Hismrv of Babvlwia p 149. Alfred Ieremias writrs in similar vrin that: " Tbr oldest records, as weli as the whole civilization of the Euphrates vdley, point to the existence of a

110 And the paradigms thrmsrlves would apprar to arise Crorn èpistemologies. and the zpistrmologies from speçific motivations which. in the case of modern science. was çontrol ovrr nature.49 Of course the latr 19th çrntury science wirh whiçh HPB wiis familiar had inhrritrd an èpistrmology which had already proven itsrlf remarkably successful in çontrolling nature. namr ly em p iriçism. The idrals of this em pirical method wrrr esse ntially thosc of objrctivisrn. positivism. reductionisrn and drterminism. The uhjrctivist ideal was based on chc Cartesian assumption that thrre is an objective univr rst: that r xis ts sr parate t'rom the perspective of the observer. Likrwise. positivism assumed that what is scientifically 'real' is only that w hich can bt: dirrctly txperienced through the physical srnsrs (and ihrir mtxhanical or electronic extensions). And reductionisrn assumed thar romplex systems çould br explained by breaking thrm down into thrir essential çomponcnts. Finally. determinism implird that the apparently purposrful behaviour of organisrns is determined-or 'caused.' solely hy the mechanical in trraction of thcir parts. Thrsr epistem olopical assumptions lrd to the dismissal of al1 matters not fallinp within the sçopr of its method. Thus. the subjective aspects of human nature. incloding 'consçiousnrss.' the sou1 (or 'spirit'). and various subjective statrs of feeling and rmotion. tend to be viewrd as epiphcnomrna of the brain. (w hiçh can be physically locatrd through sufficient research) and free will (self-causaiion) as the product of wishful thinking scientific and ar the same thne reiigious system which was not coafined oniy to the secret teaching of the temple. but by which the political organizatioos were forme& justice done, and propeny managed and protected." The Qld Tesmentp. 3ff..").~re H. Smith Bevmd the wst-modem minq (New York: Crossmad 1982). Srr also Glenn Peq. Stealbe Fùe from the Gods: rnvtb and mrttbd in astrolo~ical research (San Rafael CA; The Association for Astrofogical Psycbology. 1997).

111 On the other hand HPB's notion of science is that of an 'occult science' draling with the wholr of rrality. including the 'hiddrnv or non-physical (or 'spiritual') and sym bolic aspects of nature. She antiçipated W hitehead in bring opposed to a science which "disjoins thé physicai cause lrom the final end." Hrr trlrological view is closely rclated to thlit of the Hérmétiç tradition. w hich had rr-cmerged during the Renaissance in part through the efforts of Renaissance magi such as Marsilio Ficino (who translated the Corpus Hermrticum 1. Cornelius Agrippa. Giordano Bruno and John Der. This clrarly sers her at odds with the mechanistic paradigm of latr 19th crntury scicnce. Hrr virw of nature (including human nature) was multidimrnsionul and purposeful. basrd on a traditional occult paradigm holding that: 1. Everything in the universe is interconncçted (in the Hrrmetic scnse of the link between the Microcosrn and Macrocosm): 2. Physiçal events have causes at unseen levels: 3. An eternal Law governs the universe at al1 lcvels. thus al1 is govrrned by intelligence or consciousnrss lrom within (The Vrdic rra is an analogous concept):si 4. The universal proçrss movrs in cycles. which are an intrinsic part of the whole: 5. Hurnankind and the universe as a whole are slowly evolving to higher states of co~sciousness.~* For want of a brtter term we may cal1 this view the "holistic paradigm" of nature as opposed to the before-described "mechanistic paradigm" of w.~hirehead. Science and the Modem Worldp ~ sanskrit 'na' could be rranslated as: cosmic order. tbe law tbat impans harmony to the cosmos in its moral as weil as its physical aspects, 5?~hirley Nicholson. Director of the Krotooa Schd of the Theosophical Society. Ojai. California uriginaliy suggested the base for these t'ive points.

112 modern Trur science in this holistic virw reaches beyond thc narrow houndaries of physical causality and basic human srnse perception. Indrrd. H PB brlirved that mrchanis tic science is incapable of unlocking the secrets of the physical and human worlds without accommodaiing itseif to such traditional occult teiichings as iistrology and alchrmy. She says that "science has only one kry- the key of mattrr - to open the mystrrirs of nature withal. whilr occult philosophy has sevcn keys and rxplains that which science fails to set?-astrology lamrnted the growing srparation of science and religion. being one of thesr keys." HPB also This holistic view goes baçk to the philosophical traditions of ancient Greece and Egypt. Not only is the lrgacy of this tradition-basrd on the inter-connectcdness of macrocosm and mi~rocosm ('as above. so be1ow1). which is very rnuch alive in HPB's works: it also forms the background for her assertion that astrology is a 'science.' Shr argues that sincr astrology had always lormed part of this tradition. it cannot-and should not. follow the rationalistic. materialistic paradigrn of modern science. It follows a different bolistic paradigm capable of answrring the important questions of rveryday lire: those that modern science is ill-equippad to pose. let alont! answer. This difference remains a major source of misunderstanding to this day. and may be illustrated by the words of a leading British astrologer. This paradigm. that the universe is rssentially a machine. whose laws and workings can br understood by detached observation and 53.This holistic paradigm is recmrrging tuday in a somrwhat differeat form witb the Jevelopment of so-called 'pstmcxiem' science. A major goal of pst-modernism is to consrnici a new world-view through a revisioa of long-held premisses and concepts. A recurrent theme is tbat 'tnith' is a matter of perspective. See dso G. Lakoff and M. Johnson Mewbors we live by (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 1980) who point out tbat vuth is always relative to a conceptual system that is defined in large pan by metaphor. This is not to say that these modem critics would necessariiy subscribe to pre-modem or 'occult' formulations such as those of WB.?~lavatsk~. Secret Doctrine ï, p. 155.

113 analysis. was inventsd sometimè around the last half of the 17th century by people like Newton... taken as a set of rulrs. this paradigm has bérn outstandingly succossful. in enabling us to undérstand and manipulate the material world. It has been so suçccssful. in facr that we takr it as king axiomatic and have corne to brlievr that ir reprrsents the truth about the way the world actually is. IL is cornpletrly ingraincd into our habits of thoughts and feeling. Even those who dislike and oppose its implications are hrld within it... Applying the quantitative. Nrwtonian techniques to astrologiçal phrnomrna is mixing two opposing paradigms. It just does not make sonse to think of astrology in trrrns of man separate from a mechanical universr. Quantitative resrarch in this context is merely chasing its own tail sincr it is pursuing phrnomena that it is specifically designed to rxcl~de.~~ In modern terminology. astrology may be defined as astronom y sym bolically intrrpreted or. as HPB herself rxprrssed it: "Ancient wisdom addcd to the cold shtrll of astronomy the vivilying elements of its sou1 and spirit-astrology."~ In rffect. astrology combines two diffrrent elements. It utilizrs the principles and calculations of astronomy and its observable facts of the physical motions of the Sun. moon. planrts and stars. thcir orbital cycles and the courses they trace against the background zodiacal brlt. But astrology then goes further to interpret these data symbolically açcording to an age-old sys trm of sym bolic correspondences. This 'spiritual' side of astrology posits an isomorphism of psyche and cosmos-what happens 'out there' in the universe has meaning for life on this zarth. In othrr words astrology takes the actual physical statr of the heavrns at a point in time. and relates this in a meaningful way to human Alexander. yuoted in Sapbn Arroyo Tbr Ractice and Profession of AsmLo~y (Reno, Nevada: CRCS Publications, 1984) p. 60ff. 56.~lavatsky. Secret Doctrine i, p. 645.

114 brhavior andlor rvents on çarth. By contrast. modern science must avoid this quest for mraning sincr. "it only provides definitions of operational structure so that. at the end. as at the beginning. the important questions" of meaning are lrft outside the scirntific discoursr." Modern science. says Jacob Nrrdlrman. has lost the "spiritual and metnphysical impetus that shaped its beginnings. has ribandonrd modern humanity ro a univrrsr devoid of çonsciousness and purpose. and... modern man or woman has bren driven to the individual self as the locus of healinp and mrani~~g."~~ Whilc our own crntury has witnessrd a transformation of the Nrwtonian detcrm inistic physics-hm Einsteinian 'relativity ' to the 'uncertain ty' of the quantum. just wherr this so-called 'postmodcrn science' is Ieading us in a philosophical sensr is not yet ~ lear.~~ Modern scholarship has highlighted two possible reasons why the 'natural philosophy' of the Renaissance broke with its occult roots to dcvelop into the unidimcnsional. purely materialistic science of today. The first has alrrady bren disçussed abovc. The Cartesian dichotomy brtwern the objective world of 'extension' (res extrnsa) and the subjective world of 'mind' (rrs cogitans) had led by diverse paths to modern ernpiricism. which tendcd to disregard the latter in favour of the former. The second reason was the firrce opposition of the Catholic. and eventually Protestant. n-~r. burencr L. Cassidy. quowl in Arroyo. Asmlonv, p.62. In the fmt part of ibe 19îb crntury we still wiuiess a close ailîance between science and the occult. i.e. alchemy/chemisuy or physicsi astrolopy. SLT. for example. Godwin. The Hiddeo Hana Webb, The Occult Establishmen& Oppenheim. Qther WorlQ ~ntoinr Faivre and Jacob Neetîleman (rd.), Modern Esoteric S~intualifi p. xxiii.?ln a recent television program on modem asuonomy, Wysteries of Deep Space." shown on the PBS network, April , one asuonomer pointed out how close asuonomy is once again approaching ciosely the religious quest.

115 Churchrs to what they considered the 'work of the de~il.'~o These two hctors still cast long shadows on the social and intellrcrual status of astrology today. HPB's notion of astrology on the other hand. rooted as it is in the holistic paradigm of the Hrrmetic tradition. mcrts al1 the rcquiremrnts to br: called a science within this tradition. It not only applirs the laws of nature already familiar to 19th çrntury science but also those hiddttn secret laws of nature that the scientists of her day would fain ignore. but which many astrologers had long researcheds6l Firmicus Maternus defended astrology with sirnilar arguments as far back as 200 A.D?2 Clearly. as an 'occult science' based on a pre-modern holistic paradigm. the parameters of astrology can not be expected to conform to that of a mechanistic science. Frances Yates for one. beliéves that it is not appropriate or historically correct to impose modern measures of science or psrudo-science rrtrospectively on to scientific concepts of the p a ~ t The. ~ ~ as trop hysicist Percy Seym out adds that arguments brought forward agains t astrology appear to be based largely on misconceptions of astrology. and rn ay be rationalizations of pseudo-intellectual prejudices that m ay be?~ee D.P. Waiker, S~intual ami Demonic. - (London: University of m a, i c f r o m e I I ~,.. Notre Dame Press 1975) and Frances Yates, The Ro-tan - E (London: Routledge & Kctgan Paul, 1972).?The correlation between periodic Sun spot activity and commercial crises, for example, bas long been researched by astrologers. See E. Douglas Fawcen, Lucifer. Vol N, No. 20, Apni 1889, p Science has since discovered some connection becween 'above' and 'below,' for example, the recent news report that solar flare activity hd been responsible for major disruption 10 satellite communicatioas tas feported on the American CBS News at 7 o'clock, January 23, 1997). -. * 62.~ram. Jean Rhys t tram). Asmlogv.The<m -e M w s Libn Vm by F w s Maternu (Park Ridge, N. Y.: Noyes Press, 19751, p. 12ff. 63.~rances Yates, Ideas and [deals in tbe North Euroman Renaissance: Collected Essavs Vol- ili (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984). See also Jauet Oppenheim The Other Wrnld, Part III.

116 accepted by some only bccause thry reinforce their own bc1irfs.w Seymour's statement seems to br validated by an effort on part of the scirntific çomm unity to discradit as trology publicly. In the summér of 1975 the Humanist Association of the United States publishrd a lrttrr signed by 186 leading scicntists (including several Nobel laureates) lamenting the growing American fascination w ith as trology. They called it a ram pan t irraiionali ty. Apparrntly the effort did little to stem the tide. however. Two years later a Gallup poll reported that 30 million Americans admitted to " believing in as trology." Much of this hostility is a very unscientific case of the triumph of prejudice over knowledge. since mos t scientists have never seriously studied astrology or tried to test the empirical status of astrology for thrmsclves. In fact they have even tried to Calsify astrological research data. as J.Lee Lehman and others in the astrological community have In sum. arguments about the validity of astrology as a 'science' depend largely on the context of the debate and the paradigms that provide the rules of the debate. HPB was wise enough to know that astrology had bern repudiated not because it was disproved but because it had become unintelligible to those scientists caught within the arbitrary constraints of their own empirical method. She counters the objections of astronomers for example. by arguing that astronomy is the younger sister who attempts to..?dr. krcy Seymour, The Saentific Ba& of Asuology (New York: Sr- Martin's Press, 1992). ~.Theodor Roszak Wbv Astmlonv (San Francisco. Robert Briggs Associates. 1980). p. 1 66Prisci~a Cosieiio. -Close up with I. Lee Lehman" Ph.D.interview in Above & Below, Issue 1 1, FÎIl 1988, p.10.

117 ignore her own roots by reducing astrology to the "position of the Cinderella in the household of S~ience."~~ She further States: The k t Yet whrther ancient or modern. both may be called exact sciences: for. if the astronomer of today draws his observations from mathematical calculations. the astroloper of old also based his prognostications upon no less acute and mathcmatically correct observations of the ever-recurring cycles. And. becausr the secret of this science is now being lost. dors that give any warrant to Say that it never existed... that modern science has been unable to identify the means by which astrology functions dors not render it invalid (since the same might be said e.g. about the meridians of acup~ncture).~g HPB points to the connection of astrology and alchçmy with the modern sciences of astronomy and chemistry and agues that. "as long as this truth is not recognized. As tronomy and Chemistry will continue to run in a vicious çircle and w il1 produce nothinp beyond m aterialit~."~o The occasional astronom erlas trophysicis t (such as Percy Seymour) now appsars willing io recognite the mrrit in these statements. Such views are also shared by Thom as Moore. a modern scholar and psychotherapist. w ho cynically remarks: "Only with the arriva1 of the science of astronomy. with its technology and mathematics. did the sky truly begin to tecede from our intimate grasp." leaving us to experience the heavens through the 67.~lavatsky. Collected WribjgLs VI p ~lavatsky. CoUected Wri- p amon on argues to this: "Even if 1 canaot expiain why something exirts in terms of necessay causal laws, if in chis chancy world 1 cm make it... so can it aot be said 1 know it. W. Eamoa wnce a u the Secrets of N m p ~lavatsk~, Collected Writinns Vm p. 79.

118 tbrn. omniscient eyr of the television scrern beaming martian landscapes into our living r~orns.~' HPB is of the opinion that astrology should complement astronorny as psychology complemrnts physiology. The former deals with manifestations of consciousness and their relative meanings. the latter with manifestations of physical reality that srr drvoid of mraning. By its use of mathematical calculation astrology can explain what cause will produce what sprcific corn bination of effects. and may assist for example. in the 'choicr' of a future incarnation (a cardinal principle of Theosophical belief). Thus. the planrtary positions in the astrological chart of an individual born at a certain timr. date and place. show "the aggregate result of the causes already producrd." 72 HPB also inforrns us how she believes the planetary influence works. namely through the 'magnetic affinities* and attractions of the planrtary b0dies.~3 The individual is supposedly placed in a particular magnetic relation as a result of the accumulated karma of the past. On the other hand. the birth chart can only indicate the Iendencies of the individual. The pianetary influences merely predispose the individual to adopt a particular course of action (together with its inevitable karrnic effects). She writes: "The stars do not cause our good or bad luck. but simply indi- ~arnr."~~ In other words the stars do not &ter& the our destiny. but rather 71.Thomas Moore. ïhe P u ets - Wi Psy&&gv of M a- Ficinq (Great Barrington MA: Lindislaune Press 1990) p Blavatsky, Secret Doctrine 1 p ~lavatsky. Collected Works III p. 192.

119 point to a most probable future. just like the hands of the dock indicate the tim e. Howrver. to drcipher the true meaning of astrology Cor a particular individual. shr attaches the important proviso "that its interpreters must br: rqually infallible: and it is this condition. sine qua non. so very difficult of reslization. that hâs slways been the stumbling block to b~th".'~ In cffect. one should not conclude from the fact that not al1 astrologers are infallible that astrology itself is a flawed 'science'. AEter all. neither is the science of medicine judged (or rejectrd) by the many imperfections of its practitioners. Though cast aside. and rven ridiculed. by modern science ovcr the past couple of centuries HPB forrsaw the tirne when this "true science" will again triumph over the hostilities heaped upon it The Qualifications of the Astrologer HPB lists 12 conditions that have to be fulfilled by the aspirant before bring introduced to the 'Occult or Divine W isdom '." Unfortunately. the average astrologer of her time was far from thesr ideals. In her opinion the astrologer should have a firm groundinp in occultism to grasp the deeper meanings. and in particular should be a rnaster of esoteric astrology in the manner of Blavatsky herself. But there are further conditions attached for thosr who aspire to her standards. She States: "A man must be a psychologist and a philosopher before he can become a perfect astrologer. and understand correctly the great Law of Universal Syrnpathy. Not only astrology but magnetism. theosophy and every occult science, especially 7s.i3hvaüky. Isis Uaveiled [p ~lavatsky. ûccult Wisdom pp. 47.

120 that of attraction and rrp~lsion."~ Otherwisr she considers hirnlhrr superficial. She lamrnts the fact that. for the most part. astrologers have lost this knowledge. are not well trained. and are often quiick~.~8 Blavatsky's ideal of the astrologer thus rrsembles the man of wisdom of the ancirnt world who has penetrated the derpest mystrries of mankind and of the universr. Hrr mode1 of the astrologer was Asuramaya who stands at the very origins of astrolopical tradition which. she believed. go back even further than Babylon. Egypt and India to the (mythical?) Atlantis. Shr bemoans the fact that modern astrologers-other than those who are also qualified students of the occult. have lost the original understanding of the link between planetary cycles and the old cosmic cycles known to Hindu philosophy as yugas and m anvantaras." We may assume. however. that these high standards wrre not mrant to discourage people lrom taking up such a difficult task. but rather to m ake them more humble in their practice. The old esoteric knowledge rnay have bern lost but HPB still considers it a worthwhile discipline to practice. Chapter 8 will introduce four prominent astrologers. al1 of them Theosophists or closely affiliated to Theosophy. who have since worked to revitalize astrology and enhance its standing in modern society. In conclusion we can Say that while HPB's notion of 'science' was not shared by the scientific community of her day. and would not be admitted n.~lavatsky. Collected W r i w p W.~lavauky. Collected Wriiians p See also ibid Vol. IV, p ~lavatsky. Collected Wcitinns III p Manvantara, in the pefid or age of Manu (it comprises about 71 maha-yugas...). Sir MMoaier WiiiiamsA Sanskrit Ennlish Dictioaarv.1984

121 by most scientists today. this is not to say that the underlying assumptions-the paradigm on which it is based. are no longer valid or 'true.' Post-modern science itseif is rven now groping its way towards a vision of rrality with holistic and indcterministic features akin. in some respects. to those of the pre-modern 'occult' tradition to which she subscribed. Syivia Cranston. citing a nisce of Albert Einstein. has reported that the celebratrd physicist always kept a copy of The Secret Doctrine on his desk. She also mentions a number of other physicists who were acquaintrd with HPB's work? HPB was of the opinion that astrology itself has al1 the marks of a truc science, albeit an 'occult science' that marches to a different drumrner than the mechanistic versions of hrr day. Unfortunatrly. her writings provide no clear outline of an astrological 'system'. and reveal little of the lost knowledge that she bernoans. Neither do we know whrther sht: ever practised astrology herself. or sought the guidance of astrologers (other than SepharialTs shortly brfore hrr death).81 Wr arc only left with her staunch defence of this 'occult sciencet bcfore what she regarded as the tunnel vision of an arrogant scientific establishment.?~raostoa. HF%, p. xx. See aiso Cranston. "Science and the Secret Doctrine." ouest Autirmn 1993, p s we will show in chapter seveo. Judge and Olcott, ber two main partners in the crusade for Theosophy, did regularly consult asuologers.

122 5. MAJOR THEOSOPHICAL IDEAS IN CONTEiMPORARY ASTROLOGY In this section wr will outline four major sets of idras that have workrd their way into the world view of modern astrology. Thesi: include those of the rnacrocosm and the microcosm. of karma and reincarnation, of planetary cycles. and of the psychology of the soul. These concepts have bern part of the èclectic teachings of the T.S. Movement (not new inventions of HPB or the T.S.). and were transmittrd through their various activitics as will bc outlined in chapters 6-8. We should mention herc. that the above concepts were to some degrec also transmittcd through the psychologicai and occult works of C.G.Jung (who was not himsrlf a Theosophist but was acquainted with Theosophy 1.l It is Our task in this thesis however. to argue that the T.S. Movement as a wholc has been a prime mover in channeling these ideas into more ganrral acceptance among a majority of contemporary astrologers in Great Britain and North America. We have already pointed out in chapter 2 how Hermetic, Platonic. and Ncoplatonic ideas had been rediscovered during the period of the Renaissance. particularly in Italy. In 17th century England these ideas stili circulated among the more prominent astrologers. However. as Curry States. in the 18th century until about the mid 19th century they had become dormant. and were replaced by a rather more popular or vulgar type of astrology with 'fatalistic' implications. The more learned cosmological- philosophical astrology rediscovered during the Renaissance. was no longer l.11 is not our intention to dwell on these Jmgipn influences. However they must be mentioaed in passing if only because of the attention given to them in contemporary astrological fiterature and prac tice.

123 in the public ryr.? The Theosophical teachings of HPB and her followers brought back not just the memory of these ancient spiritual and occult theories but also the inspiration to study them anew. They did not invent or modify the above concepts The Theory of Macrocosm and Microcosm and Universal Sympathy The Hermetic notion of the macrocosm and the microcosm sees the physicai 'Whole' or a universal ~Consciousnrss' of some kind. as undividrdly present in even the smallest particle. and the human sou1 as a reflection of the Divine. The 'little world* or the 'little man' is the larger Whola in miniature. This isomorphism of different elements and levels of existence results in a series of 'correspondences' and 'sympathies' between thtm. In the West this 'occult' conception was Cully embraced by Neoplatonism and probably dates back-via Plato and the Pre-Socratics. to Babylonian times. lerrmias has observed for example that: "The Babylonian teaching is based. as may be seen from the former deductions. upon the idea of a pre-established harmony between a celestial and a terresrrial image. It it the part always corresponds to the wh01e."~ Jeremias also finds this same idea in the Chinese and Egyptian cosmogony. We might add also the example of India. where the notion of the 'Heavenly Man' as the source of Creation is found as far back as the Rig Veda.4 HPB 2~w. Roahew and Power: Astrpl-lv Malm Enda. (Cambridge: Poüty Ress. 1989) p. 95ff. 3.1eremias, The Old Testameng p ?Iu the oo-cafled Pumhasukta section of Rigveda X

124 also calls him 'Adam Kadrnon.' syrn bol for the macroc~sm.~ while the 'earthly Adam' sym bolizes the microcosm (sre appendix F)? Evrntually. this idea cvolved into a vast nctwork of such correspondences. One example of such correspondence (in the West at least) would be that brtwren the signs of the zodiac and different parts of the human body. Thus Aries (the first sign) symbolizes the head-the following signs rrpresrnting progressively lower parts of the body. down to Pisces (the 12th and last sign) symbolizing the Ceet (see appcndix A). The innrr organs of the body (liver. kidneys etc.) are also related to the zodiacal signs (and planets) in this rnanner. knowledge which was applied in ancient. medieval and Renaissance medical pra~tice.~ Thrse ideas of rnacro-microcosmic correspondence were rediscovcred and resurrrctrd in the writings of Renaissance magi (as Frances Yates calls thrm) such as Marsilio Ficino. Cornelius Agrippa and John Der. and imbued astrology with new confidence and nrw insights for interprrting the corn plex sym bolism of astrology.8this idea of a law of correspondence or analogy constitutes the philosophical basis of astrology and providrs a universal vision of life on this earth. According to the astrologer/ 5.1sis Unveiled, p (see also 456fO. p Also m Secret Dot* Vol. 1. p. 215 she writes:"the fust Heavedy Man is tbe unmanifested Spirit of the Universe. aod ougbt never be degraded into Microprosopus [Microcosm]- the lesser face of Countenance, the prototype of mm on the terrestriai plane." This is vue even today for chose wbo have studied bis rnaaer. Howevcr, - the use of asrrology in medicine bas declined in the West siace the 19th century. 8.n~oject Hindsight" is a recent example of an attempt to recover lost or dormant astrologieal knowledge fiom the past. It is sponsored and unôercaken by a number of contempomy astrologers ( Robert Zolier. Robert Hand, Robert Schmidt and Ellen Black) to translate extant Latin and Greek asuologicai works, or texts related to astmlogy. A major goal is greater accuracy, ma& possible, they believe, because of their astrological background. See ~ Q Y Oiiarterlv,. Vol. 64, No. 4 Au- *. 1994, p. 4ff. See also n e As- J o u n i a l, of ~ Vol. 36, No.. 1, JanuaryEebruary The project bas teceatly beeo shelved as a tesult of intemai disagreements amoog the various coüa~rators.

125 psychotherapist Glenn Prrry: "Correspondences were cxplained by the herrnrtic concept of 'sim ilars* and 'sympathies.' Similars are those structures that agree in design though they may differ in magnitude. Sympathies arc resonant bonds of vibratory frequencies that unite ail sim ilars.""icino also rem inds us in the rarly part of the Renaissance. that the "sky within truly seems as vast as the sky without. and the planets are just as massive. mysterious and unearthy" not simply good or bad.i0 It was primarily HPB who re-introduced and popularized these ideas through her Throsophical writings at the turn of the 20th century. and later other Theosophists followed. An example of hcr version of macro- microçosmic correspondence. as reported by Manly Palmer Hall. is that: Man is a little world - a microcosm inside the great univrrsc. Like a fetus. hc is suspended. by al1 his three spirits. in the matrix of the macrocosm : and w hile his terrestrial body is in constant sympathy with its parent earth. his astral sou1 lives in unison with the sidereal anima mundi. He is in it, as it is in him.11 How endemic to modern astrology these ideas have since become is indicated by the following passage from the well known contemporary British Jungian psychoanalystl astrologer and author of many successful books. Liz Greene. According to her. such ideas are:... familiar to al1 astrologers who have studied the antecedents of their art. because it is based on the law of signatures or correspondences. You can find this same perspective in many astrological texts of the g.~lenn Peny, The New Paradigm and Posmoderii Astmlogy." in G ~ M Pary Essavs ai Rvcholonical Asuolonv: Theorv and Ractice (San Rafael CA: ïhe Association for Asmlogical Psychology, 1997') p. 2. lo.~bomas Moore, The Pl- W - i. m p l'.~anly Palmer Hall, Tôe Secret Tac- of al1 A~ea Seventeeotb Editioa (Los Angeles: The Philosophical Research Society, IN., 1971) p. WUUU.

126 20th century. becausr the schools of Theosophy. Rudolf Steiner. Alice Bailry et al. have retained the old Hermetic vision of reality. So the principle of Mars. for examplr. is not only a planct: it is also found in the rarth as iron. and in the human body as the adrenal glands. and in the psyche as the aggressive instinct. and so on. Saturn is not only a planet. but also lead in the earth. and as the human skrletal system. and the impulse for self-protection. The sun can br found not only in the heavens but as gold in the earth. and as the human heart. and as the capacity to love. The vision of a unified cosmos with interconnections via a finite number of archetypal lines was fundamental... to the old Hermrtic Tradition of alchrm y and astrology. as well as to Theosophy. l2 C.G. Jung. a former disciple of Sigmund Freud. took particular interest in the religious and occult traditions of both West and East. He lists the Hrrmctic notion of rn acro-m icrocosrn ic correspondence-found astrology and alchemy of 'magi' such as Agrippa and Ficino. as a in the Corerunner of his idea of 'synchronicity.'l3 Jung has thrrefore also bren w idrly s tudird and referred to by modern astrologers Karma and Reincarnation The Hindu notion of karma is typically described as the law of cause and cffect opcrating in al1 spheres of human existence. Furthermore. this karmic law regards human existence itself as the result of activities performed in previous existences. Belief in reincarnation is thus an inevitable corollary of belief in karma. The sou1 may therefore evolve over many lives. The metaphor of the small Stream joining the big river and ultimately the ocean 12.~iz Greene and Howard Sasportas. 91 ' gspo10~v~ Vol. 2, York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, Inc., 1988) p L3-~ail Gusiav Jung, "Syncbronicity: An Acausai Cmnectiog Rindpk" in Jùc Collecccd Works of CG- Volume 8: The S m a n d of the Psv- Second Editim, tram REC. Hull. Bollingen Series XX (Rinceton, NJ.: Rincetoa University Press, 1967), p. 485.

127 (symbolizing the final merging with the Wholr which is also described as 'rnliphtenment'). is oftrn çited in this context. Blavatsky and the early Theosophists drew çxtensivrly on thesc Hindu and Buddhist philosophical and rcligious ideas. though the actual sources with respect to Buddhism are not neccssarily identifird. "The Buddhism of H.P. Blavatsky clcarly indicares that it deals with a systern of Buddhist teachings which - as a whole - is not found in any of the many schools of Buddhisrn. though the conclusion is warranted that HPB's Buddhism shows a certain relationship to the Yogacarya School of Buddhism." l4 HPB describes karma in a num ber of ways. but hrr basic notion is that: "Karma is the unerring law which adjusts rffect to cause. on the physical mental and spirirual planes of bring."15 Theosophists believr that the rffects of al1 actions and thoughts. good or bad. will inevitably be rxperirnced in somr form. soonzr or later in the soul's development.16 In other words. the presrnt Iife of an individual (in terms of expcriences. moods and thoughts) is the result of the actions, moods and thoughts of former livrs. This gives a new twist to the traditional Christian idea of retribution. since through karma we are in effect punished not 1QL our sins 1 4 ~ Spierenburg. ~. The Buddbism of H.P. Blavatsky (San Diego: Point Loma Pub., 1991 ). p. vii. I~.H.P. Blavacsky. The Kw to Tbeosdq (Adyar, Madras: The Theosophicai Publishing House. 1995) p Sec: also Blavatsky, -et Doctnnc Q, p. 305ff. 16.Hp~'s formulations and useages of iems such as or may no< necessarily correspond to chose found in Hindu or Buddhist texts. This is not oaly because of differences in language. and the pletùora of schmls within ûorh Hinduism and Buddhism, but also due to her own interpretations (or those of her 'masters'). The following quotes may make this ciearer: 'This is aot orthoâox esoteric Buddhism. But it cornes very aear to out esoteric philosophy of "Buddhism" (Wisdom religion) taught by out Lord secretly to the elect Arhats." (Collective W s p. 175). At the end of a discussioa on 'Jiv~' sbe also writes: "My own iaference is that al1 the diffîdty here lies in the words, but that the idea is oae." (Collective Wn-. IV, p. 536). With respect to the term 'soul,' she explains that: "every learned Buddhist believes in the individual or divine Ego... Neither Buddha aor Christ ever wrote anythiag themselves, but both spoke in ailegories and used 'dark sayings,' as di Initiates did..." (Key to Tbeosodhu, p. 58). And also, "... After allowing the soal, when escaped fiom the pangs of personai tife, a sufficient aye a hundredfold cmpensatioa, Karma, with its army of skandhas, wairs at the tbreshold of Devachan." (The Kev to TbeosoPby; p. 87).

128 but & them. Retribution for past wrongs becornes automatic and also more personal. as are rewards Cor past good dreds and thoughts. Western astrology was just beginning to absorb these Eastern ideas of karma and reincarnation around the turn of the twrntieth crntury. largcly as a result of Blavatsky's eclectic philosophy and the Movement she initiated. This will become even more clear when we discuss the influence of such aarly Theosophistl astrologers as Alan Leo. and Charles E.O. Carter. As a rrsult. the horoscope is now corn monly looked upon as showing the results of past lives and actions. and the rolr of the astrological counsellor is to interpret what this means for the present life of a particular individual. Titlrs of modern astrological textbooks, as well as articles in astrological magazines. suggest that a majority of astrologers today is familiar with thcsr notions. and takes the view that our present lifr or incarnation is determined not by 'fate' or 'chance' but by our karma. cxpressed through the planrtary constellations at the timr of birth. 17 Furthermorr. as presrnted in this thesis. these concepts wrre spread largely through the influence of the T.S. Movement. whether by mem bers thernselves. or by those affiliated or strongly influenced by the T.S. Movemrnt. As a result. more and more astrologers in the West no longer look at karma in terms of 'good' or 'bad' but in terms of the necessary rxperiences that a developing sou1 must undergo in the interest of spiritual growth. The so-called obstacles or problems experienced by an individual in particular areas and times of life-symbolized in the horoscope by certain planetary positions and activated by the current movement of the l7-aoy current cataiogue of astrology books wil1 indu& tities wicb tbe words 'karma' and 'reincarnation.' Examples include: Stephen Arroyo, Astrolonv. Karma and Reincarnation: Mary Devlin. Astrolonv and Past îives: Martin Schuixnan, Karmic Asaolony (4 vols...), to aame just a few.

129 planets- are thus regarded as opportunities. or as necessary challenges to bz faccd to achieve persona1 growth.18 Howevsr. it is up [O the individual to confront or avoid the challenge. According to the law of karma the sou1 is given the choice to progress or regress almg the path of spiritual cvolution. To the familiar criticism that astroloey is 'fatalistic' HPB therefore counters that "it is only because that (sic) mankind has svrr shut its eyes to the great truth that man is himself his own saviour as his own destroyer. That hr need not accuse Heaven and the gods. Fates and Providence. of the apparent injustice that reigns in the midst of humanity."lg Thus wr should not blame the planets in our birth chart. but rathcr accept responsibility for a life which we ultimately have created through our own action. Shc elaborates furthrr in an important statement that fatalism: implies a blind course of some still blinder power. and man is a frer agent during his stay on carth. He cannot escape his ruling Destiny. but he has the choice of two paths that lead him in that direction. and he can reach the goal of misery... Those who believe in Karma have to believe in destiny. which from birth to death. every man is weaving... When the last strand is woven. and man is seemingly rnwrapprd in the network of his own doinp. then he finds himself completely under the empire of his self-made destiny? Karma thus also carries a positive connotation. and throws the responsibility back ont0 us. challenges us. This perspective has shifted Western as trology away from its traditional popular sim plis tic 'fatalism '. A problem is no longer viewed in a 'fatal manner.' as something to which one For a good discussion of this topic see Doris Hebel. Psv- hcroductim. lg.o~vatsky. Secret Doctrine I p bi& p. 639.

130 must be resigned. but as the prospect of a spiritual gain in the future. This attitude puts a diffarent tone or perspective to any discussion on the question of 'free will versus fate' with which the astrologer is faced. The increasing complexity of modern society also makes accurate prrdiction even more difficult. To prrdict a client's vocational possibilitirs is far more difficult roday. for example. than it was a hundred years ago. when prediction of a persons work was rven possible wirhout astrology. Cor the larger part of society brcause choiccs were very limited. Today however. career choices are numerous and changing rapidly as technology advances. This complenity goes beyond the scope of even the most experiencrd as trological practitioners. On the other hand. a ' fatalistic'. drtrrm inis tic view still prevails for exam ple amongst the majority of Hindu as trologers. and the great mass of the population at large. Instead of the interpretative analytical approach practicrd in the West today the Indian variety is still predominantly predictivs in characrer. This is perhaps less surprising than it might appcar at first sight. Indian society is still organized along the rigid functional lines of caste. justified by age-old religious sanctions and myths going back to the Vedas. Lack of education among the masses also serves to perpetuate superstition and a ritualistic pattern of life. conditions that are easily exploited by unscrupulous religious professionals. Vivekananda already labelled the popular Hinduism a hundred years ago as a 'religion of the kitchen.' to express his disgust at those for whom when or what to eat. or with whom. had assumed greater importance rhan the moral and spiritual values of iife.

131 The rcsult is that in India today. astrologers who practice according to the high standards of the Vrdanta (the most philosophical of the Hindu schools) and who seem to have a superior knowlzdge at thrir disposa1 than most Western astrologers can provide. are relatively few and far between. More common is the kind of popular 'fatalistic' type of astrology in which. for èxample. the accurate prediction of a person's date of death is a source of pridr and the hallmark of an astrologer's success. This of course is the very antithesis of what HPB is seeking in the professionalism of the astrological practitioner. She rathrr stresses that. "in astrology the stars do not cause our good or bad luck. but simply indicate the same."" In other words. the horoscope does ~ QI retlect a fixed pattern. Birth in her vicw is the baginning of a dynamic process which could lead. with (astrological) guidance and awarencss. to a fulfilling life. This idea is now acceptrd even in the West by astrologers who do not subscribr to the notion of karma. W hile this 'karmic' perspective has become particularly corn mon in Western judiciary astrology (persona1 or 'natal' astrology). it also serves as a useful explanatory hypothesis for mundane astrology (the branch of astrology that looks at the charts of nations). According to this view. which HPB also holds. individuals with a particular karma to work out in a particular life-time would 'choose' an incarnation in an environment (in terrns of family circumstances. country. culture etc.) that offers them the necessary conditions for their further spiritual unfo1dment.n As a rrsult of these streams of thought. the concepts of karma and reincarnation have had a pervasive and profound influence on Western 21.~lavacsky. Zz.~lavaüky. Collective W- Ia p The Kev to TbeosoDby, p. 140.

132 astrology today. rven as practised by non-theosophists. They providr what many astrologcrs brlieve is the rnost satisfying explanation of the causes for the troublesome events of life. and hrnce the mraning and purpose behind them. This may not only influence the attitude taken towards the ment itself. but may also lrad to a radical change in perspective. and a different perception of reality altogether. This is important to the axtent that our perception of reafip is what ultimately guides our emotions and actions (as modern psychology now belirves) Planetary Cycles The meaning and function of planetary cycles is the third major concept which. though always a principal tenet of Western astrology in gencral. became rencwed and deepened through the influence of Eastern philosophy via Theosophy. Blavatsky leaves no doubt about her belief in the influence of the stars and their respective spiritual rulers. and in the importance of their cyclic motions to events on earth. She writes for example. : It is true. on the other hand, that the exoteric cycles of rvery nation have been correctly made to derive from. and depend on. the sidereal motions. The latter are inseparably blended with the destinies of nations and men. But in their purely physical sense, Europe knows of no other cycles than the astronomical. and makes its computations accordingly.8 Her ideas in this direction encouraged especially Rudhyar and his Collowers to look into the matter in a different way. They sought to investigate how these cycles could track the life of an individual as well as the course of a nation. and lead to more profound interpretations than might otherwise have - U-~liivatsky. Secret Doctrine 5 p. 645.

133 been possible? The notion rhat the sky with its planets and stars may indicate the drstiny of nations as well as human brings. is not rrally new as the intrrprrtations made for the monarchies of old have revealrd. But the old Hrrmetic virw is dismissed by rrductionist science as the Swiss astrologer Alexander Ruperti (a studrnt of Dane Rudhyar) has noted: The grrat sturnbling-block to acceptance of the astrologer's use of astronomical cycles to interpret what is happening on earth and in human nature is the fact that astrology uses the planets' cycles as well as the day. month and year cycles. Scientists cannot understand how it is possible to relate planets to events in human lives because. for them. the planetary 'cause' and the 'human èvent effect' do not belong to the same order of phan~rnena.~~ HPB must largcly br credited Cor re-emphazising the importance of the cyclic nature of timc based on these planetary influences. Again. she took these idras in large part frorn Hindu cosrnogony. which has long subscribed to an rlaborate system of cosmic cycles of pater and lesser significance and duration. But nrithcr was she averse to drawing on rescarch undertaken in hrr tirne in support of her ideas on the matter. A case in point is the findings of a Dr. E. Zassr that she felt "proves that in the history of al1 the proples and empires of the Old World. the cycles marking the millennium. the crntennials as well as the minor ones of 50 and 10 years' duration. are the most important to bring in its rear some more some less rnarked event in the history of the nation swept over by these historical waves."" On a. ~ interesthg n dissenation by Janice Paff-Saiitom bas ken Miten whicb deais witb bis subject. since she relates Rudhyar's theories of planetary cycles and their importance to human life. to the psychological life-cycle theories of ~ s o ami o Jung. -Q of tbe Con ~lexaader Rupeni, Cvcles ~f Beco- the m e n i of mwq (Reno. Nevada: CRCS Publications, 1978) p Blavatsky. Collective Writin~s I& p The original article on Zasse appeared in T& Theosoptiisi of luly 1880.

134 galactic lrvel shr believes the world is subject to the influence of the Hindu cycles known as yugas. mahayupas and manvantaras (infra-red space photography has recently revealed thar our galaxy is actually moving in a spiral). The esoteric astrology of the ancients. as HPB sres it. could still provide the key to intrrprrr the timing of thrsc cycles. The great conjunctions of the so called 'outrr planets' (Uranus. Neptune. Pluto). as well as Jupiter and Saturn. are furthrr sub-divisions of thrsr larger cycles which have been observed throughout history. Today's interpretations are largely based upon such observations.n The influence of HPB's teachings thus resulted in a deeper understanding amonp astrologers of the so called. 'outer planets' (those beyond Saturn) which have much largar cycles thrn the 'personal planets'? Astrologers studying these teachings believed they were thrreby enabled to better interpret the workings of the universa as it effects us. Dane Rudhyar was especially attuned to the galactic dimension of the cosmos and its potential for a kind of transpersonal Astrology which would expand the present concept of astrology. He writes for examplc: If as students of astrology we attempt to discover the basic rhythm structuring the periodical transformations of human societies and civitization. which in turn reflect as well as concretize fundamental changes in the consciousness of the vanguard of mankind. we have to look for such a rhythm first of al1 in the periodical motions of the slower and most distant planets. Uranus. Neptune and Pluto. These. *.. ". See Dane Rudhyar, AsmlopiEal T u n ~ i t i o CO a the New A gg New York: Harper & Row *. Pu blishers, 1969); Rudhyar. The D m o n of (New York: AS1 Publishers, 19751; Sieve Cozzi.Geaeratiorrs - 0 (Tempe AZ: American Federation of Astrologers, 1986); Sepharial, f (New York: Samuel Weiser, 1976). ZB.~ranus (discovered in 1781) bas a cycle of 84 years; Neptune (discovaed in 1846) ùas a cycle of 164 yean and Pluto (discovered in 1930) bas a cycle of approximately 248 years.

135 planets have becn relatcd in the preceding chaptrr to the crucial transformation of human living conditions and social-cultural values during the last centuries." Rudhyar has undrrtaken extensive research on the cyclic influences of the outer planzts: for example he relates the relatively rare conjunctions of Neptune and Pluto to the dawning of important turninp points in history. Thus. he associaces for example the most recent conjunction which occurrd in "with the discovery of X-rays. radioactivity. the quantum. and Einstein's famous formula reducing matter to cnergy. and making of light the sou1 of space."" In addition to bring harbingers of social change. the outer planetary cycles are also significant indicators of the archetypal contents of the individual psyche. As such they are the triggers to 'human cycles of unfoldment.' and testify to the correspondence between the human 'microcosm' and the 'galaçtic dimension' of the Universe (the 'macrocosrn').~~. In this sense. they represrnt forces manifesting within each individual on an instinctual or archetypa1 level. which may also give rise to the 'mass psychology' of collective movements. These forces rnanifest for example as trends in fashion. music. architecture. or the economy to name just a few. Liz Greene also notes in this context that the word 'generation' is used colloquially in a very loose rnanner. But a closer look sugpests there is more to this term than a temporal category for a particular segment of the population... -?~udh~ar. Asvolo~ical T m the w o n to the ne w (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1969) p ?8udhyar. The mai of Asrnlp~y, p Otber asaologers have built upm bis approach. See the series by Robert D. Doolard "The Pluto-Neptune-Cycles," in The JO- January 1990 througb Febrwy 1W1. -".~udhyar. Occult ~rep~tation for a New Are, p

136 The age difference betwrrn an individual and his parents can Vary enormously. because there are women who bear children at fifteen and men who father childrrn at sevanty. Therc is no clrar biological demarcation Cor what constitutes a generation. But there is a clear linr of basic attitudes which stamp a seven-ysar group who al1 have Uranus in a certain sipn. and a fourreen-year group who al1 have Neptune in a certain sign. and an righteen-to thirty-year group who al1 have Pluto in a certain sign. So you have a collrctivr of people who al1 rcspond to a particular myth or pattern ernbodied by the outrr planet.3' The implication is that a genrration dcfined by the sign position in the zodiac of the outer pianets may open a new door for interpreting societal events rhat happcn to one group or another. For example, response to a certain planatary position rnay manifrst in a war t'ought by a particular group of people: or in a new law passrd to drop drafting men of a certain age into the army. rather than another. Equally. a new school regirnen may be introduccd. or evcn a natural disaster rnay occur such as an earthquake. drought or flood. having a particular effect only on the lives of a certain group of people. These possible rvents are interpreted by the astrologer according to the symbolism of the signs and position of the plansts. In sumrnary. Thcosophists subscribe io the existence of a universal law of justice based on the perspective of a constantly-recurring cyclic time. In Hinduism this law is based on the Vedic 'rta' or cosmic order.3 It is immanent in al1 creation and governs the universe and the Hindu cosrnic cycles (from the larger kalpas. manvantaras. yugas etc. down to our 3 2. Greene. ~ ~ ïùe Outer Planers & Qeu Cvctes: the Astroloev of the Collectivç (Reno. Nevada: CRCS hblicatiws. 1983) pp ~or funber information on ibis see Job McKenrK. Udu E u (New Delhi: Orientai Bmks Reprint Corpontiun. Second Edition ).

137 planetary cycles)? These ideas were adopted and adapted by HPB in The Secret Doctrine. Certain astrological groups since the turn of the century have incorporated thrse ideas into an astrological system with deaper meaning. Rudhyar. in particular. later conductrd extensive investigations into the historical and persona1 influences of such cy~les.~ Theosophy and Western astrology have both acknowlrdgcd further subdivisions of our planctary systrm to revral the cyclic influence of the so called 'personal planetst- Mars. Venus. Mercury. and the Moon. Of these. Mars has the longest cyck (roughly years) and the Moon the shortest (28 days).j6 HPB Cor axample. relates hrr Seven Root Races to the anergies of diffrrent personal plancts and planes of experience. The first Root Race was supposedly born under the influence of the Sun. the second under that of Jupiter. the third under Venus etc." 5.4. H PB'S psychological Emphasis The fourth major influence of Theosophy on the practice of astrology today is HPBts insistence on an alliance with psychology. She required the qualified astrologer to be not only a philosopher and occuliist. but also a psych~logist.~ Of course HPB disagreed vehemently with the direction psychology was taking in her own time. "Soul. the Self. or Ego. is studied by modern psychology as inductively as a piece of decayed matter by a?~ircia Eljade. Cosmos and Historv, Hindu cosmic cycles are explained in detail in the section of chapter 3 eatitled: "Cosmic Cycles and History." 35.~is disciple Ruperti explains a cycle 3 s a smctured seguence of pbases in the developwn< of some iife process; most people tbink of a cycle simply as a repetitive eternal return to the same startiog point. If a cycle is reduced to a close& circle of repetitive events, it cannot bave tbe creative, evolutionary meaning..." See Ruperti, Cvcles of Becomin~ p ~ee again Rupeni. 37.~lavatsky. &get DgtnsLP p. 29. M.~lavatsky. Collected Writinns III p. 192.

138 physicist." she rails? And she frarrd that great harm could arise as a result. HPB's idea of psychology and psychotherapy was that of 'therapy for the soul' and drrives. once again. from her interpretation of the philosophies of Advaita Vedanta and Buddhism. These philosophies dêal in great drtail with the mrchanism of the human psyche. Their (Sanskrit) vocabulary of trrms for mental States and functions is prrhaps evrn more comprehcnsive than that of the Western psychology of our own day. and has sincc penetrated our own vocabulary to some degree. Therapy for the soul. as sprcad by the T.S.. was soon familiar to many people interested in the subject and was further explored through the work of the Society for Psychical Ressarch (SPR) in England. Despitr the damage done by the Hodgson Report. the SPR was closely affiliated with the T.S. from its beginning. and many of its prominent members were also members of the T.S. (or had becn at one time or another)." In the second half of the 19th century and at the turn of the 20th century psychology still served as a link between science and religion. Prominent psychical researchrrs still held high offices e.g. in the Royal Society. despite somr opposition to their research. The rmerging interest in the psyche during the course of the 19th crntury. and particularly the advancernents made by Freud in the field of psychoanalysis. helped form ulate and publicize these findings. HPB herself would no doubt have discarded Freud's definition of the unconscious as being based on physiology. since his:?~lavaülry. Çoflected Writin~s Wu p ~ ejanet e Oppenbeim. The Other Worl<l (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1985). Pan IL 5.

139 narrow definition of the unconscious did not include telepathy. rxtrasensory perception. and other such occult phenornena that would latrr be studied by transpersonal psychologists... Western psychology had rstablishrd one of its fundamental concepts. the unconscious. by taking it out of contrxt from the occult. Forgotten werr the numerous manuscripts by thcosophists. alchemists. rosicrucians. and m ystics on this s~bject.~' Howevrr. Theosophy as well as Western astrology and psychology have sincr accrpted the psychological theorics of Car1 G. Jung who expanded upon the ideas of Freud and endowed them with a deeper spiritual meaning. Articles on the psychology of Jung bcgan appraring in the American Theosophist as rarly as Lectures on Jungian psychology and its relation to Throsophy are often given at Theosophical Lodges. Theosophical teachings have not only been a major inspiration to the 'New Age' movement. as Melton has cxplored. it has also inspired various new forms of psychotheraphy. such as Maslow's 'Humanistic Psychology' or Assagioli's 'Psychosynthesis'. which would qualify to be called a 'therapy Cor the soul'. and a means of spiritual development in the way HPB would have wished33 Sincc the turn of the century psychology has increasingly worked its way into astrology and is now one of its most formative influences. It has helped re-orient the goals of modern astrology and re-structure the methods of conveying astrological information to clients. Planets. aspects and signs of the Zodiac are no longer looked upon as good or bad (malefic or 42.~xamples include: Charles A. Berst '"Ineosophy and the Psychology of Jung." Theosmhv~ Vol. 33. Apni, 1945, p. 80, and May 1945 p Laurence J- Bendit. "A Modem Schooi Th- Vol. 40, September 1952 p. 177,. of Gnosricisn." m a n ".~obeno Assagioli. was iofluenced by Mce Bailey.

140 benefic). Predicting drath is no longer the preoccupation that it was back in the 19th century and before. This change in perspective is nowhrre more evident than in the many books available in book stores today. advertising astrology as a tool for better self-understanding. The combination of psychology with rhis new brand of astrology has since bccorne a vrry refined tool for character-analyses. Increasing num bers of psychologis ts are Carniliarizing thamselves with astrology and benefitting both thsmselves. their practices and their ~ lients.~ Today. since astrology has once again becorne more fashionablc. people may consult an astrologrr out of genrral interest. curiosity or as a result of a birthday gift. However. most people seek out an astrologer only as a last resort. after having explored al1 other means (cg. a marriage counsalor. their bank manager. their colleagues etc.) of resolving their problems. But they may give more or less wcight and significance to what the astrologer says. and may interpret what he says in quite diffrrent ways. In sum. we have outlined the four major components of the Theosophical world view which have rrvitalized astrology in the 20th century and given it a new perspective. As incorporated into astrology today these main themes can be traced to the writings of HPB herself. which constitute the metaphysical bedrock of modern Theosophy as well as later Theosophists. i.e. Leadbrater. Besant or Judge. Wc do not suggest that the T.S.Movement alone has been responsible for this rise of interest in astrology since the turn of the century. Psychology. in particular the psychotherapeutic theories of Car1 G. Jung. R. Assagioli. A. Maslow and other hum anistic and transpersonal psychologists. have also *~ee Bill Herbst. '6Asadogy and Rychotâempy," The Mooorain Asmlorer, AprW May p. 41.

141 significantly influrnced the practice of astrology sincr World War II. These changrs werr further accrlerated during in thé 1960's and 70's. Our position howrver is that the impctus for many of the changes in the relationship between astrology and psychology owed much to the new philosophical thrust providrd by the ideas of HPB. These ideas were transm itted to modern astrology through the Society she founded (sec chapter 6-7). and the subsequrnt activities of prominent Theosophistf astrologers who followed her ideas. such as thosr we have srlected as representativrs of this revival of astrology for this thesis (see chapter 8). Wt: will now show in chapter 6 how the multi-facrted organization of the T.S.Movrmcnt and some of HPB's more prominent colleagues virwed astrology or hclped to spread its ideas.

142 6. THEOSOPHICAL VIEWS AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS ASTROLOGY Sincr astrology appeared in the writings of HPB as part of ancient lore it was more or lrss accrpted by most prominent Theosophists (wc will narne a lew). though no t necessarily em braced w holeheartedly. The m ixed opinions and prrjudices about astrology which we find in the general population in the West (mostly among the adherents of a materialistic s~irnce)~. also extended to the ranks of Theosophists. and has lrd to frequent tensions within the T.S.. despite HPB's obvious endorsement of astrology.? In the course of research on this subject. the present writer had discussions with a num ber of Theosophist/astrologers as well as non-astrologers. Most of ihem. but rsprcially those involved in deeper studies of Theosophy- because of their work in Theosophical libraries or archives for exam ple. rxhibit a general acceptance and appreciation of astrology. But there is a tendency to br somewhat critical of what they cal1 'New Age astrologers'. who seek only to market astrology. Theosophists who were negativs or am bivalent in their cornments about astrology were usually amonp those who had had a negative experience with an astrologer in the past. Others had either not investigated it or had no knowledge of HPB's endorsement of astrology in The Secret Doctrine. l.8elief in asnology for the large gmup of Indian Theorophists is not in question since it is part of their ancient spiritual herirage. 2.~ick Campion rerninded panicipanu of this problem in a Lecture to the Theosophical Hiscory Conference in July Cf- Nick Campim, ~ Q Y Vol. 65, No. 4. Autuma p. 6. He aiso remarked to the writer tbat certain Tbeosophists may bave looked dom on asüofogers as 'Fortune Tellers.'

143 This am bivalence was no doubt what prompted a symposium held by members of the T.S. in London in 1912 on the question "Should Astrology be studied as an independent science. and krpt apart from al1 Theosophical intrrpretationsb?"-' The presentations offer a representative samplr of both sides ol the debate. delineating the pros and cons of astrology within the T.S. The final resolution of this question at this symposium must have bern in the affirmative. since it was shortly thereafter that an Astrological Lodge was created within the T.S. Wr will explore the history of this Lodgr in chapter Astrology in Theosophical Journals The lounding of the London Astrological Lodge however did no t settle the controversy in other parts of the Society. as indicated by articles in Theosophical rn agazines. including The Theoso~his t. the official rn agazine of the Adyar T.S. For example. in an article in the November 1939 issue of The Theosoohis~ a Theosophis t/astrologer corn plains that not rnough attention is paid to astrology within the Theosophical teachings. To this the thrn president G.S.Arundale replied: "As a matter of fact there are very many astrologically-minded members of our Society. and there are Lodges w hich specifically concentrate upon the as trological aspect of Theosophy. as for example the St.Louis Lodge. U.S.A.".(we return to the subject of this Lodge in chapter 7). The P a, a magazine founded in America in the late 1880's under the leadership of W.Q. Judge. and later renamed The Theoso~hic& Path, also became a forum for controversy and debate on the subject of astrology. j.~ee * Beiog Transaction No. I of The AstmlogicaI Society (London: L.N. Fowler & Co., 1912), p. 2.

144 Latrr. in the Fifties. an astrologrr writing in the magazine Theoso~hia. taments that: Many Theosophical students are opposed to the practice of astrology. One earnitst member of astudy group said to an advocate of the divine science. 'Wouldn't it be better to devote al1 your effort to Theosophy?... Thus cornered by his well-mcaning friends and fellow students. the least of the kasdim answered. 'Astrology can br no more separated from Theosophy than can geometry. algebra or calculus be set aside as not being part of the body of rnathernati~s.~ This rxchanga of virws lends support to Leslir Price's earlier observation that rnany Theosophists under the reign of Besant did not advance to a reading of HPB's writings. However. that this controversy is still alive today is indicated by a lctter to The Ouest m apazine (a relatively recent magazine published by the American T.S.) of autumn Here Jane Evans. a Theosophistl astrologer. writes: "To my way of thinking astrology proved the Theosophical precepts. lifting them out of the realm of belief or a systrm of abstract thought... It isn't only certain scirntists who are opposed to astrology (as Mr. Tarnas pointed out) but some leading Theosophists as well."5 But despitr the fact that not a11 Theosophists of the past or present were as favourably disposed to astrology as was HPB. or were even antagonistic towards it. this has not prevented articles on astrology h m being published in Theosophical journals. or books on astrology being printed and sold by the Theosophical Publishing Houses. In fact a computer searchable index io The Theoso~his~, (made possible through the efforts of

145 a dedicated Australian Theosophist).6 reveals that articles on astrology have apprared in it quite frrquentiy sincr its inception in However a drcline in the nurnber of articles on this topic apprars to have occurred since L980. The Amcrican Theoso~hist. the journal of the American T.S. affiliated with Adyar. has also feaiurrd many articles on astrology sincr it was first pubiished in In tact the November 1978 issue of this magazine was drvoted entirely to astrology. featuring articles by Rudhyar and Sepharial. among others. Thus Throsophist/astrologers have continued to voice their ideas on iistrology in the various Theosophical journals: and articles in these publications have certainly helped to bring astrology to the attention of their rradérs. and possibly also to their friends Astrology in the View of Prominent Theosophists This section reviews some of the attitudes and opinions with regard to astrology of a number of the more prominent leaders of the Theosophical Movement in the pasi. Their views are considered important to the extent that: 1. they were influential within the movement: 2. ihey were al1 authors of books. some of them being extrernely prolific. and their books were also read beyond the Theosophical community: 3. they were leaders in their particular group of Theosophists and their point of views were taken seriously:

146 4. some of thrm even became founders of nrw proups. such as Steiner Cor Anrhroposophy. or Bailey for the Arcane Schooi. Thus the radius of their influence can be assumed to be extensive. particularly since most of their books are still in print. The ambivalence within the T.S. Movement with regard to astrology may pcrhaps ba explained to some extent. if we consider the positions held by the two main founders of the T.S. On one hand we have HPB. a strong advocate of astrology on the evidence we have. On the othrr hand. we find Olcott. her closest ally. as being quite ambivalent but open minded about astrology. although convinced of the existence of psychic phrnomcna. many of which hc had witnessed in HPB's presence. He had even been accused by HPB of having an 'ardent and gushing imagination' as she States in a letter to Franz Hartmann. In his Old Diarv Leave~, Olcott describes having visited a place where a Brahmin in India had impressed him by reading astrologically from old palm leaves about his own past. and that of the T.S.. as well as about the future. Then he discusses the issue of astrology; The question. so often put me as to my belief in astrology. will naturally recur in this connection. 1 must answer it as 1 always have. that I have not yet had evidence enough CO warrant my saying I rither believe or disbelieve. Many facts in the experience of others. some in m y own. go towards proving the truth of this alleged science. yet not enough for a cautious man to base theron a positive belief. 1 am waiting. most ready to be convinced. yet drtermined not to Say I am unless 1 have a good case to go with to the jury of sensible men.... Who is to Say that when 1 sat with that Telugu astroioger. he may not 7.~ohson, The Masten Reveal J p. 9.

147 have ciairvoyantly read rny history and traced out his sequel in rny own mind or my aura?8 The prognostication about Olcott's death by this same Brahrnin. as put at September. 9th was obviously wrong. since Olcott died in February This incident. howrvrr. does not disprove astrolopy. but it shows the tendency among Indian astrologers to be more 'fatalistic' and often too bold in their forrcasts. though hr was correct with most othrr predictions. But Olcott bsliavcd in psychic phrnomrna and supernormal events andwanted to give astrology. Hindu and Western. a chance to prove itsclf. He felt confident that Sepharial. Alan Leo. and other London-basrd Theosophistl astrologers. wcre fully equipped to defend astr~logy.~ W hile Srpharial was in Adyar. Olcott opened a 'Bureau of Astrological Rrscarch'. where people could send in their questions to be answcred at no charge by Sepharial and another Hindu astrologer.l0 The project may have endrd with Sepharial's return to London since no furthrr mention of it is to be found. Thus the matter was ncver resolved for the T.S. in any definitive way. and the ambivalence towards astrology. was to remain within the organization as already illustrated through the journals. will be Curthrr shown in the attitudes and opinions of other prominent leaders of the movement. W.Q. Judge W.Q. Judge. one of the founders of the T.S. and HPB's closcst associaie in North America during her final stay in London. acknowledges the importance of the doctrine of cycles to the whole Theosophical system in 8-~. S. Olcon 91d Diarv I.eave% Vol. 3, p. BI. 9.~. S. Okott, Old Diarv I.eav& Vol. 5. p Qee announcemeni in ïùe maso~hisg VOL XIV. Seprcmber, p. 749.

148 his book The Ocean of Theosonhv. In chapter 14 hr expounds upon his cyclic theory. pointinp out that: "Affrcting man rspecially are the spiritual. psychic. and moral cycles and out of these grow the national. racial. and individual cycles. Race and national cycles are both historical. The individual cycles are of reincarnation. of sensation. and of impression". He gors on to talk about the importance of the zodiac and its use by ancicnt peoples. However. as time went on. Judge seems to have become more ambivalent about the astrology practiccd in his time. siding with HPB that contemporary astrology had lost much of its original knowledge. He initially had very good cxperiences with astrology. as is evident from an article rntitled "Astrology Vcrified." written in April He had consulted a rnrdical practitioner who also practiced horary astrology. He writes: I consulted him many times... and cannot remem ber a case io which he made a wrong answer. His mind was peculiarly fitted to give a sound rrply to any question astrologically put. and it was with sincere sorrow that 1 heard of his death... These experiences lead me to the conclusion that Horary Astrology is a correct mode of divination... If Astrology will relieve one at any crisis from anxiety. is it not well to foster its pursuit and spread its farne?il Twelve years later however. in a short article of 1894 entitled "Dirful Prophecies." [sic]. he denounces the prognostications of astrologers about rn undane affairs. He writes: They agree with H.P.B.. who said that her eastern friends told her of coming cyclic changes now very near at hand. Beyond doubt there is ll.~.~. Judge. *Astrology VeMied" The ïht?~so~hi~& April 1882 p. 2lff.

149 some truth in al1 thesr sayings. although here and there astrologers definitely prognosticating are not supported by Cact.... Theosophists too often occupy thrmsclves with these woful [sic] lookings into the future. to the drtriment of thrir present work. They should try to discover the fine line of duty and endeavor. leaving the astrologers of today. who are more at sea than any other mystics. to con over a zodiac that is out of place and calculate with tables which delude.12 Thrse two passages are somewhat contradictory. Judge never goes into detail about astrology after the manner of HPB but acknowledges its value for unders tanding the evolution of mankind and personal developmeni. as reflected in his theory of cycles. He also appears to criticize the Ptolemaic system here (whiçh uses the tropical rathcr than the sidereal zodiac) for being "out of place". Dr. Franz Hartmann Hartmann. head of the Grrman branch of the T.S. for a short period who knew HPB quite wrll and who had also stayed at Adyar (India) in thosr early years. may have had his first experience with astrology there. l3 He later became more intimately acquainted with astrology as noted in his book. Denkwürdiee Erinneruneeg.(l898). He read Agrippa (one of HPB's sources). and wrote on the practical applications of astrology in a book entitled The Princi~les of Astrological Geornancy (published in 1889). This subject also has recently returned to favour! 12. W.Q. Judge.?Xfol Rophecies." The Pa* Marcb l-1~1 a letter CO Jhe Tbeoso~m experience with an Indian astrologer in Adyar. Vol. XVI. No. 6. March* p. 400, Harrmano relates an 14-~eotnancy is a fom of divination tbrough figures and shspes. originaiuig in Arabia. Since the Renaissance it bas also ôeen used in coonection with as~logy. Sec Frisciila Jchwei and Ralph Pestka. -lete Book of Asbolo~&& Ge- (St. Paul, Mina.: The Llewellyn New Times, 1990).

150 Alfred Percy Sinnett Sinnett made the acquaintance of HPB and Olcott soon after their arriva1 in India. where he worked for the British Government. He witnessed countless performances of HPB's psychic powers. and their friendship had considerable impact on his life. He is cautious in his judgement about astrology. He talks of the 'astrological mystery' of bring unable to axplain how astrology works in producing accurate results. especially in horary astrology. He does not condemn contrmporary astrology as a whole. but bemoans the fact that "we have lost touch with the finer details of the astrological art as practicrd by the scientists of the ancient world" fi Alan Leo The Throsophist and astrologer Alan Leo is jhe kev figure in the degree to which he was able to enrich astrology with Theosophical ideas. He is one of four astrologers whose life and impact are detailed in chapter 8. We include him brirfly here since he found himself-as both a Theosophist and an astrologer. in the unenviable position of having to fend off the hostilities of those in oither camp who disliked any thought of an integration or alliance betwren the two disciplines. On the one hand were those Theosophists who regarded astrology as popular fortune telling. They were either hostile to astrology or regarded the extant version as debased. On the other were astrologers hostile to the "Theosophical trend" of Leo. or fellow Theosophistl astrologers bent on undermining Leo's efforts in this direction. ~?A.P. Sionet& w (London: ïhe Theosophical Publishing Society, 1901) p. 66.

151 In drfçnding his astrology against fellow Theosophists who lookrd on contêrnporary astrology as "debased." Leo drew a sharp distinction betwren the vulgar forms of astrology practiced at the time and the rrvitalizing efforts of those like himself whom he calls Theosophical astrologers. Hr uses extensive quotations from The Secret Doctrine to argue that HPB hcrsrlf made such a distinction. and frerly admits that hc is "very sensitive whcn I find Theosophists making the most of every opportunity to throw cold water on the efforts made by astrological students to work within thc Throsophical m ovement. l6 Furthrrrnorr. he corn plains that: It will. I am sure. surprise many Throsophists to know rhat 1 have suffered more at their hands from misunderstanding than I have from those who know nothing whatever of Theosophy: and more especially from those Throsophists w ho think that Theosophy is an exclusive study consisting of holiness and devotion only. l7 Howevcr. Leo was also criticizcd by his fellow astrologers. Non- Theosophical astrologers were against him. "for interpreting Astrology in trrms of Theosophy. giving it thcreby a wider mraning than certain of its rxponents are prepared to consider ju~tifiablr."~~ But he also had to contend with opposition from Theosophistl astrologcrs. Thus he complains that: "some of the 'Theosophical' astrologers themselves have deliberately added to the burden. and some day it may be necessary to name those who have not only done everything possible to prevent the work from becoming publicly known. but have also gone out of their way to try and ruin it." 19 l6 Alan Leo. *Asuology and the Occult Ans." Vol. XI. No. 2. March p Jbid p l?~lan Leo. The Theosophical Trend" Modan Astrolony, Vol. W. No. 5. May 1910, p. 178.

152 New idras in any field provoke resistance and rrsrntment from thosr whost: interests or beliefs are threatened by thern. And the field of astrology is no exception. since therr are: "...doubtless many to whom Astrology makes its appeal quite apart from any general solution of the problem of life. and by thesr the idea that Mr. Lco associated it with a school of thought with which thry had no sympathy was perhaps not unnaturally re~ented".~ A lice A. Bailey Alice A. Bailey was a long time Theosophist who founded her own spiritual organizations. the Arcane School. the Lucis Trust and the Lucis Publishine Company. She probably became acquainted with astrology through the writings of HPB whom she always held in high asteem despite hrr and her husband's quarrels with the politics of the T.S. in the post -HPB cra and their distancing Crom it (although she still remained nom inally a Thsosophist for a considerable timr). In she published a book cntitlcd Esoteric Astroloq. w hich has since inspired a variety of astr~logers.~~ For rxam ple Alan Oken. a popular contemporary astrologer. wrote SouL ccnteredastroloev. a book which weaves in a number of Bailey's ideas (such as the theory of the Seven Rays). But less knowo astrological writers have also turned to her for inspiration.22. In fact. her books on ssoteric philosophy and astrology have inspired a considerable and growing following for what has since corne to be known as Esoteric Astrologv. Zi.~ailey daims that most of ber books are channeled. some through the same mastem bat HPB daimed contact witb. In fact, she Qes not consider most of ber books to ôe her own mations, and never claimed to how much about astrology.?sec for example Stephea D. ne Asm>loqical Dv to the Srnet- (Montreal: Immedia, 1994). hgh is a Montréal author who relies heavily on Baile y. Aiso see Roben R. Leichunan, MD. Japücse and Car1 Japikse, Forces of the Zodi#i: CO- the Sad (Me1 Press, 1985).

153 Their mouthpiece is the The Journal of Esoteric Psvcholoey which rrgularly carries articles related to Bailey and esoteric astrology. During frrquent lecture tours to Ascona. Switzerland in the 1920's and early 30's. Bailey also met and influenced Roberto Assagioli. the founder of Psvchosynthesis (a form of psychotherapy). He. in turn. influenced the founders of the popular Swiss Astrological School of Bruno and Louise Huber.3 Their books are currently popular in both Europe and North Am erica. Rudolf Steiner Rudolf Steiner was a former German Theosophist who lrft the T.S. to crrate the Anthroposophical Society. This organization also appears to have opened peoplrs' minds to astrological issues. Anthroposophy incorporates the Theosophiciil tcachings with a strong admixture of Christianity and ~osicrucianism." The Society has a substantial mem bership w ith branches the world over. and is famous for its alternative Waldorf School systrm (Waldorf Schuicn). Steiner was exiremely prolific and several of his books rlaborate on the qualities of the planets. the meaning of the zodiac. and the spiritual hierarchies of planrtary ru1ership.a. 3.~ir~ohn R.Sinclair. Tbe B ~ ( T ( ~ u m s t oress: n e Thorsons Publishing Group. f 984).?~ax Heindel. an earty disciple of Rudolf Steiner. later foundeâ bis own Rosicrucion Fellowship in California The Fellowship haid a sumg emphasis on Asuology and thus became an additional force khind tbe spread of asmlogy in North America.... ".cf. Rudolf Steine~, The S o m m e - Phvs ical World. 2- Plaaeis. Cosmos. based on lectures held in 1909 (New Yak: Anthroposophic Ress, 1970); Steiner, & Sqg&&, four lems given in Stuttgart. September 13-16, (New York: Anthroposophic Press, 1972); Steiner, of Linhtofhv and ten lectures given in Oslo, June 1912 (London & New Yo*: Rudolf Steiner Publishing Co., 1945).

154 While Steiner did not write on personal astrology it can be assumed that he accepted it. since he includcd Throsophical theorirs about the nature of astronomyl astrology in his writings. Further support for his acceptance of astrology is lent through the high rsteem in which he held the poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe throughout his life. Goethe's familiarity and belief in astroiogy must have bern known to him since he wrote his doctoral thesis on the farnous German writer? He went as far as to name the main Anthroposophical center in Dornach. Switzerland. the Goetheanum. A small anccdotal cxample of how astrology has spread through the writings of Steiner and the Anthroposophical Society. which may not be so atypical. may be mentioned in this connection. The present writer's husband learned of astrology in his youth through an uncle who was an Anthroposophist. His son bccame also an Anthroposophist and inherited his fathrr's knowledge of astrology. He servrd for a time as manager of Wotkins Bookstore. a major esoteric bookstore in London that. in former times. used to be frequented by HPB herself. Annie Besant Besant's work as president of the T.S. was focusssd more on social. spiritual and organizational issues. It cannot therefore be said that astrology took up much of her attention. As her mentor. HPB nevertheless impressed upon her that the course of cosmic. terrestrial and human evolution was controlled and guided by planetary forces. %ee Emil Saenger. Goethe und Weltb&l &r A m (Beriùi: R. von Decker's Verlag, G. Schenck, 1932).

155 The following passage from her book. Evolution and Occultism will illustrate the rxtent to w hich she follows HPB's ideas on the subject of astrology. S he w rites: Let us look for a moment on the rough plan of the whole. Let me put as though it were a great drama writtrn by a divine prn.... ideas written. as it were. in the heaven: for it is suggestcd in very ancient thought that what we cal1 the signs of the zodiac have a definite connection with the course of human affairs. Of that. in the broad outlinr. therit is no doubt in the minds of any who penrtrated somewhat the veil. The importance of these starry influences cannot be over-estimated: for inasmuch as human beings are related in the composition of their physical and other subtler bodies to the worlds among which they move in space. there must be magnetic relations existing between them and the system of which they form a part. and at certain epochrs in the history of evolution there will be one or another dominating influence present in the atmosphere in which men think and act. and they can no more escape that influence than their bodies can escape the influence of the far-of suri..? In her work The Innrr Governrnrnt ofae World: sha attributes astrology to the Venetian Mastcr. Head of the Third Ray "to know the exact time to do or not to do things."a Besant thus did acknowledge the value and validity of rstrology and. according to testimony from older Thcosophists at Adyar. sought out astrological advice before taking difficult decisions. She even made an effort to study Hindu astrology under the influence of the famous British astrologrr Alan Leo. but found it too casuistic and n.~nnie Besant, Evolutioa apd Oc- Vol. 3 in the series (Loodoo: The Theosophical Aiblishing Society, 1913) p qksephine Raosom (cornp.). -ai of the Tbe~hemoabical (Adyar Madras]: Theosophical Publishg House, 1938) p. 51. %ee Bepin Behari. Fundamentais of Vedic Astrolory: (Salt Lake City: Passage Press. 1992). p. 22.

156 Lradbeater was a long standing Throsophis t who latrr brcame Besant's ciose associate. and exerted considerable influence over her (to the disenchantment of m any Theosophists). He was considerrd the "Powrr bchind the throncm Santucci argues that Lradbeater may actually have introduccd more individuals "into the world of the occult through his numerous books than any other writrtr on this s~bject."~~ His many books are publishcd through the Theosophical Publishing Housc. In many of Leadbcatcr's writings he was supposcdly guided by his psychic vision. some of it more clcar than others. Astrological references are scarce in his writings though as the following passage suggests. his views on the subjcct are basically positive. but cautious. He writes: The more we contemplate the matter the less does it seem rational or possible to suppose that the planrts can affect the earth or its inhabitants to any appreciable extent: yet the fact remains that a theory based upon this apparent impossibility often works out accurately. Perhaps the explanation may be found along the line that just as the movement of the hands of a clock shows the passage of time. though it does not cause it. so the motions of the planets indicate the prevalence of certain influences. but are in no way responsible for them -32 Thus he agrees with HPB in that the stars do not cause our good or bad luck. but simply indicate the same. His conviction with respect to astrology ". ~ n Tbe o The- ~ ~ ~ Movemeat (New York: E. P. Dution 8 Company. ~1925). p ~ames Santucci. BosoDhv BPe Theosow S e (London: Theosophicai Hbtory Centre, 1985) p. 9. '*.c.w. Leadbeater. ne Hidden Side of ( Weatoo. il.: Tbeosopùicai Publisbing House, 1962) p. 301.

157 also follows the line of the old saying that the wise man rules his stars. the fool obeys [hem.j3 Katherine Tingley Tingley followrd W.Q. Judge as leader of the Point Loma Group. Shr srrms to have been somewhat antagonistic toward astrology and other occult disciplines. rven though she herself came to powcr by displaying her psychic powrrs." Dr. Gottfried de Purucker Puruckrr succeeded Katherine Tingley at Point Loma. He was as prolific as Lradbeatrr and had his many idcas published via a Theosophical Publishing Company. He respects ancient astrology. regarding it as a grrat and noble science and part of the ancient Mysteries. But his view on modern astrology is more critical. He sers in it only a mere shadow of its ancient glory 35 Y~rnmett A. Greenwalt çpliforpia U w Po- 1189% 1942 (Berkeley: University of Caiifornia Press, Second Revised Edition, 1978) pp. 55 anci Rirucker. of -1 PbiloscabvCovina CA: Theosophical University Ress, 1947), p. 487; See also his wt Cr~osspty (Pasadena CA: Theosophical University Ress, 1973, p. 10.

158 7. ASTROLOGY AND THE THEOSOPHICAL MOVEMENT We pass now from the differrnt views on astrology by prominent Theosophists to an examination of how astrology was spread through the activities of the Theosophical Movement in North Amcrica at the grassroots level. This will be demonstrated by our findings about the astrological activities of the individual Lodges. many ol whiçh have offéred courses on astrology and have taught the wider public for decades Astrology in American Theosophical Lodges Information about astrology in American Theosophical Lodgrs was gleaned from a careful review of the rnonthly column. "News from the Lodges". which has run for many yrars in The American Theosoahist (hereafter A.T.) together with its forerunner The Theosoohical Messrnu (hereafter T.M.). These longstanding journals have been the official mouthpiece of the major American section of the Theosophical Society (Adyar) sincr The most important Lodge from the point of view of its sponsorship of astrology has been. and continues to be. the Theosophical Lodge of St. Louis. Missouri. which has undergone various changes in its long history. It received its original charter in September signed by Olcott and HPB. and recently celebrated its 115th anniversary. In 1910 it was recognized as a German-speaking branch. An astrological school was first established at this Lodge by Charles E. Luntz. a business man. in He went on to become president of the Lodge in He had to defend its astrological activities against the fears of other Theosophists that astrology would take time away from the serious study of Theosophy. However. he

159 experirnced that these classes attracted outsiders to Theosophy. and argucd in a 1932 article that: " Some of our best members and most earnest workers came via the Astrology route."l The Lodge was in its cighth year of astrological classes at the timr. He also reveals that astrology was çorrelated with Theosophy in Lodge classes. providing deeper insight into astrology than would otherwise have been possible. By his own account Mr. Luntz was responsible for helping to set up similar schools in other Lodges of the American section of the Adyar T.S. During his long presidency (hr only died in 197 1) Luntz thus inspired astrological activities. lectures and classes in many North Arnerican Theosophical Lodges. He also edited a journal called Ancient Wisdom. issued by the Lodge. which frequently presçnted astrological articles contributed by him and other Theosophists. In addition. he wrote and published books on astrology such as The Occu It Inter~retation O t ' the Bible, and Vocational dance bv Astrolony (still published by Llewellyn Publishing Company). Wa therefore thought it curious when a recent review of the history of the Si Louis Lodge came out with no mention of these extensive astrological a~tivities.~ This prompted us to question the Lodge about this matter. The reply from the Lodge was very interesting. While discussing our letter in a meeting. Mr. Trauernicht. the author of the study. told that Luntz had at first "planned to $ive a lecture debunking astrology. but after investigating this subject. never gave the lecture- the rest is history."3 His conversion L.Cbarles E. Luntz, 'The Place of Astrology in a Theosophical Lodge," Tbe Vol. XX. No. 12, Decembet 1932, p t ~ etbe e Vol. 82 No. 3, March 1994, p ~ener from Matilyu I. Smith, TreasuierlSecretary of the T.S. of Si. Louis, daud September Me-

160 held fast for the rest of his lifr. Howcver. thcy did not give an explanation why the astrological activities were not mcntioned. A recent Bulletin issued by this Lodge revrals that astrology classes are still bcing conducted on a regular basis. The currcnt president. Mr. Kcnnrth Heskrtt. has since inforrned us that the Lodgr rncrnbar currently in charge of thesr classes (a Mrs. Ruth Williams). also providrs regular as trological counselling on a Local radio station. In addition to the StLouis Lodge - the most long standing sponsor of astrological activities in the American section of the T.S.. Our furthrr enquiries identifird a total of twenty nine Lodges at various locations in the U.S. and Canada that have provided astrological instruction. mainly during the years bctween the two W orld W ars. Details are listcd in appendix G (with references to A.T. and T.M. as the case m ay be). It should be borne in mind howrver. that this list can. at best. providr only a partial account of as trological instruction within T.S. Lodges. This is because the information given is largely restricted: 1). to Lodges affiliated to the American Section of the Adyar T.S.. and 2). to classes held mainly in the period between the two World Wats. Whilr we did corne across a num ber of later references these are sporadic. and clearly incomplete (even in the inter-war time period). Rrporting on Lodge activities was never compulsory. and the subject chosen was always a function of the whims and interests of the editors themselves (whose persona1 attitude to astrology could well have varied considerably, as already indicated).

161 Rrliablr data on astrological instruction w ithin the other two main T.S. groups is rnuch more difficult to corne by. While a similar review of C Theosophical journals publishrd by the T.S. IPasadena). and by the United Lodge might well have added to our findings. constraints of time and travel costs precluded this. On the othrr hand the anecdotal evidence gained through discussion with librarians and also with a num ber of long-standing mrm bers of these groups. leaves the impression that w hile public astrological activities are no longer pursued in these groups. this was not always the case in the past. In any rvent. many mrm bers do have a knowledgc of astrology. WC were also informed that a Mrs. K. Robinson. a well known membér of the Theosophical Society in Toronto. had been active in teaching asirology to mem bers and the public for free over a period of about forty years? Other examples of such anecdotal rvidencr were also heard. W hile not conclusive. the above evidence docs revral that astrological classes. including lectures on astrology sponsored by the T.S.. have been held by T.S. groups al1 over North America at least since the early 1920's. Such activities were normally attended by T.S. members and non-members alike (since certain Lodge activities were. and still are. open to the general public). suggesting that large numbers of Theosophists and non- Theosophists were introduced to astrology in the context of the traditional Theosophical teachings. particularlg as regards the notions of karma and reincarnation and the Herrnetic idea of 'as above so below'. which play such a large part in both Theosophical and current astrological thinking. J.~e are grateful to Mr. Robin Amstroag. a hg-standing member of rhe astrological commlmity in Toronto. for this information.

162 Thus. wr can conclude that the Theosophical Lodges. as the local presrncr of the T.S. Movement throughout the United States and Canada. have su bsrantially contributed to the spread of as trological know ledge to a considerable body of people for at lrast three quarters of a century. Indecd. Rudhyar was himself introduçed to astrology at Krotona through such Lodge activities. This spread of Theosophical influence into the dornain of astrology is further evidenced in the establishment of America's oldest and most prestigious astrological associations. as will be outlined in the following section Theosophy and the American Federation of Astrologers Our earlier resèarch into the history of astrology in North Amrrica lrft us with the impression that the oldest and most prestigious astrological group. The American Federation of Astrologers (AFA) might have counted many Theosophists among its founders or early mem bers. Further credence to this impression was given by Doris Chase Doane. a long standing member and current president of the AFA. Asked whether Theosophists were prominent among the founding members of the AFA. she immcdiately rxclaimed: "Oh. quite a number of them!" Her response encouraged us to serk the necessary factual evidence to confirm this perception. A rostrr of founding members was eventually found in the book: Fiftv Year Historv of the AF& supplemented by a 1946 AFA Yeubook that 'materialized' during a chance visit to a second-hand bookshop in Los Angeles.'?~dna C. Edmuodsm. A Fi-Year yjyav of the F w of &polo- AZ: The Americao Fedemtion of Astrologers, 1990). See also the 1946 Y- Federation of Astrologers. (Tempe of the American

163 We acknowledgr with gratitude the CO-operation of the three major groups of the Theosophical Movement who wrre willing to share their mem bership archive information with us for the purpose of this section of our study. Thus. our findings revral many prominent Theosophists among the carly founding members of the AFA. including such astrological worthirs as Llzwrllyn George. Marc Edmund Jones. Charles E.O. Carter and Robert de Luce. Two of thcse names have already been mentioned in Our section on the history of astrology in North America. A speech by G.J. McCormack in 1943 shows that the founders of the AFA recognized the importance of the English pioneers and their efforts in the cause of astrology in America. Singling out Raphael. Zadkiel. Lco. Sepharial and othrr British astrologers. hr says: "AH the aforementioned were instrumental in paving the pathway to m aking today's American public as trologically cons ci ou^."^ The overall num ber of T.S. mern bers who were also mem bers of the AFA in the ycar of its founding and shortly thereafter is quite substantial. The records of the archives of the Adyar and Pasadena T.S. organizations in the United States show (to date) that a third of the initial membership wsre Throsophists. However it was pointed out that this information is not cornplete since al1 records prior to 1912 have been l~st.~ Thus there may well have been an even greater representation. Furthermore. an older 6.~eported in the Silva Anaiversary Issue of the AFA bulle^, May p ~pn request for ais informatioa. Kirby Van Mater of the T.S. Pasadena. gave me a letter în Fehary 1997 indicating the membership of 2 persons king mernbers ai their Society, and later (Juiy 1 ltb) confî~med 2 additional members. In the same way 1 received 2 leners fiom the archives of the T.S. (Adyar) Headquarters in Wheatoa (Marcb 7th and May the 27tb 1997). indicatiog 14 more members of the T.S. who also were members of the AFA.

164 rnember from the United Lodge of Throsophists recognized about sevcn additional mem bers of the AFA list as most likrly mrm bers of their Lodge. but we wrre not able to formally confirm this since the archives apprar to bc in disarray and scattered throughout North Amrrica? It is thus conceivablr that as much as half or more of the founding mem bers of the AFA werr Throsophists. We also found a num ber of Theosophists among the rarly Board members. ten of whom had brrn honoured with an 'Honorary life membership." We also discovered that the wife of the prrsident of the AFA in 1946 was a Theosophist (and he was most likely also a mrmber of the United Lodge). We can also confirm that two Vicrpresidents of the AFA in the 1940's were Theosophists. Thsre are no doubt other cross connections which may be no longer traceable. The rarly founders of the AFA were very rnthusiastic and. in retrospcct. somewhat ovrrly optimistic reparding the future of astrology. Thry believcd that astrology would soon gain the recognition of society as a science. provided the appropriate research could be undertaken.1 This optimism is also rvident in the original name of the organization which. at the founding in was the American Federation of Scientific Asrrologers. Its present name was adopted shortly after the war in L The AFA also saw its role as defender of astrological principles. and came to the rescue of its members in defence. They even rstablishcd a special Legal Fund to assist astrologers in occasional law suits. Llewcllyn !~his îafomatim was obtaiaed by Dr. Carea Elin (CO-autbor of books with S.Cranston) 9.~drn~ndso0, ~itfv-v- p. 20. l0.see Keye Lloyd (1946 Resident of the AFA). *Addtess to the 1946 convention." 1946 Yeaibook of the American Federation of Astrologers, p. 3. l.edmundroo, Fiftv-vear Histow, p. 27.

165 George apparently made a vcry generous donation to this Fund. The organization also introduced an cthical code for the practice of astrology. and Iater (in the 1960's) worked out an examination scheme. in the form of a set of tests to raisr standards for the practicr of astrology. The organization eventually began publishing the works of its own mrrnbers. Today however. the extensive AFA catalogue also Includrs books published by other organizations. and will accept the writings of nonmembers upon approval by their rditing drpartment. The AFA had affiliations wirh regional and other astrolopical groups from the beginning. some of them being Theosophical in origin. These "organizations were a tremendous assrt to the Federation"; they hosted conventions and rducational gatherings. and made financial contributions to the AFA. l2 In the early years there were around 17 affiliated organizations: in the 60's and 70's the number almost doubled.13 One of them was The Church of Light with Elbert Benjamine and his wife. both of whom were mem bers of the AFA themselves. The AFA held, and still holds, annual conventions as an occasion to welcome kno w lcdgeable speakers as well as other as trologers. Over the yrars however. a num ber of mem bers became disgruntled and formcd a nrw organization under the namr The Association for Asrrological Nctworking. l4 But apparently other splinter-groups developed as we1l.b lj.~he rasons for members leaving the M A were manifold. Sme were no doubt persoaal. However comments heard from former members point tu disagreement wirb the management of the organization. or with the way it had changed over rime. 15.see AStrD10f~~ Now. The wofld of qgpplppv in the 1990'b produced by MAN. The Associacion for Astroiogical Networkiag.

166 7.3. The Astrological Lodge of the T.S. in London England The Theosophical Lodgcs. spearheaded by the St. Louis (Missouri) Lodge with its active president Charles Luntz. certainly hclprd to sprrad astrology in Norrh America. However their role and influence. as far as we can tell on prescnt rvidence. may not quite compare in importance with that of The Astrological Lodge of The Theosophical Society in London. Enpland. whosr history wt! outline in this section. A prime reason is that neither in St. Louis nor elsewhere in North America do we have the formation of an Astrological Lodgr as such within the T.S.. astrological activitirs king rather part of the overall activities of the T.S. The T.S. took root in England a few years aftrr its inception in 1875 in New York. London became a rather special kind of T.S. center. being about half way betwern Arnerica and India: HPB and Olcott made frrquent visits there whilr staying mainly in India. London also grew in importance with the concentration of Theosop hical activities around HPB aftrr she had rstablished her home there in the last four years of her life. As suggrstrd in chapter 2. a num ber of astrologcrs also began to recognizr the value of HPB's Theosophical wisdom. Alan Leo joined the T.S. soon after his introduction to HPB through Sepharial. and his passion for hcr trachings eventually spilled over into his astrology. He had alrrady had some success as an astrologer by this time. And The Astrol~er's Magazine that he launched with a friend in 1890 at the age of 30. turned out. over the years. to bc the most successful astrological magazine in England. However. these astrological activities and those of his friends remained officially separate from those of the T.S. uniil the First World War.

167 a.) Lodge History The idea to form an Astrological Lodge within the Theosophical Society was finally broachrd by Alan Lco and his wik in and in Novembrr of that year a charter was granted by the T.S. to that effrct. Leo intuitivrly realized that a close link bttween astrology and Theosophy would be very fruitful for both disciplines. The purpose of the Lodge was thus to pursur the study of astrology from a Theosophical viewpoint. It was also expected to providr a forum by which to educate Theosophists who wantad to lrarn about astrology. This same idea guided Mr. Luntz years later in his efforts in St. Louis Missouri. Since Lro did not wish to head the organization. his wife assumed the rolr of presidrnt. with himself as vice-president and treasurer. After several meetings the name was finalized as the Astrological Lodge ofthe Th eosoph ical Society (A. L. T. S.). The rarly meetings consisted mostly of lectures on Theosophy. and Leo himself was alone in providing astrological input. Prominent Theosophists such as A.P. Sinnett also gave lectures at the Lodge. l6 Unfortunately. Leo was not to srr the fruits of his labour. He died suddenly two years aftrr the founding. and David Frerdman. also a Counding member. carried the banner despite the odds of the war. After the war. Charles E.O. Carter. anothrr founding mem ber. returned from active duty and he and Freedman slowly took things in hand. Carter reminisced on this period in the first issue of &trolo~y in 1926 : "When I I6.~his information derives from unpublished minutes of Meetings of the then called 'Middlesex Lodge" between July 13th and September 20th in London.. These documents were obtained from Paaick Curry in London.

168 returned from the war in autumn of after Alan Leo's death. 1 found most of the activities which he had fostered were in a process of decline. Indeed many of his most intimate associates sermrd to have lost intrrest in his work after his decrase." l7 In 1922 Carter took over the presidency from Mrs. Leo (following hér reluctant rrsignation) and revitalized the Lodge.I8 Under his 30-year presidency the Lodge developed steadily into a respected institution. However. the purely Theosophical amphasis in the Lodge was gradually reduced ovrr thé period. New mrmbers urged more lectures on astrology. arguing that the Lodge had been set up specifically to educate its mcmbers in astrology. and that the T.S. had various other Lodgrs dealing with solely Thcosophical issues.lg In 1923 the Lodge also established a unique ritual. prrformcd twicé a year at the annual solstices. The full content was known only to mem bers who participated or attended its performance. but it had to do with some form of representation of the plancts." Attendance at Lodge meetings incrrased in 1924 and Carter was able to accorn modate this heightened public interest by renting the very fine and spacious hall of the Art Workers' Guild. During the course of it was decided CO transcribe the lectures and keep them in a library established 17.~barles E.O. Caner. The Nativity of the Editor," Astrob (Fit Number). December p *~n this agitation. quite peaceful of course, 'The Now [New] Party" went against the wishes of Mn. Le0... wbo was unable... and was out of touch with tbe temper of members." M. Rhodes, 'The Lodge Map and its Progressions," Lecture delivered to the A.L.T.S. in London, January 13th p.6. Mrs. Leo tinaiiy resigned on January the 2nd 1921 (see ibid p.7.). L 9 ~ edelivereâ c ~ by Mrs. Rhodes to the Astrologid Lodge. Ianuary 13th 1930, London. Ii is a kind of summary of Lodge history up to that time.?hoabella Kitson. me Lodge Riaial," &&gy, Vol. 65, No. 3, p. 57. The spirit of the Lodge at the cime is well siimmed up by Alexanâer Ruperti: "Iae Astrological Ldge was a branch of the Theosophical Society, and most of tbe asoologers therie were Theosophically orienteci. They came into the m m in long robes and 1.liited about their masters and aü sorts of thiogs." Lyon Be& "A Conversation with Aiexander Ruperti on Astrology's Place in the World," ne Mo- No. 76. Dec./Jan, 1997/98.

169 by the Lodge. The support of al1 the Lodge rnembrrs also enabled Carter to launch the journal "Astrolo~y" as a quarterly magazine in This journal is still publishcd today and has bccomr a widely read. international magazine with a professional reputation. Mrm brrship continued to grow steadily. and by 1930 the Lodge counted I40 mrm bers. Initially. mem bership in rht! Lodpe also requirrd mern bership of the T.S.. but this requirement was quietly discontinued in the 1930's. More and mort: astrologers became what was known as 'associate members'. which meant they did not have the right to an rlectrd office. Over tirni: however the balance shifted and the Lodge held more 'associate rnembcrs' than 'full rnembers'. hence emphasis shifted furthrr away from Thcosophy. Meetings wrre only rnonthly during the Second World W ar. and these werr hrld at the headquarters of the T.S. The Lodge returned to the hall of the Artworkrrs' Guild after the war ended. The Lodge has since alternated brtween these two locations. and in September of 1994 moved once again back to the headquarters of the T.S.*' Differences in the privilrges of the two categories of mern bership. as well as different ideas on astrolopy and on how to run the affairs of the Lodge. led finally to a kind of mini rebellion. And in 1948 the Lodge gave birth to a teaching institution known as the Faculty ofastrolugicol Studies. The idea was to offer a more forma1 rducation in astrology having different levels and exams leading to a Diplorna. Courses were offered on site as well as by correspondence. The *!AS anounced in a leatlet in the swnmer 1994 issue of Asmbnv.

170 Faculty has in a scnsc bccomr the sucçessful realization of Alan Lro's rarlirr attem pt in founding the short-lived As trological Institutr in " Charles Carter was obviously sympathrtic to this idra and supported this nrw enterprise in many ways. It is often affectionally called the 'child of the Lodge.'" Carter accepted the position of Principal for the the first few ycars. but srepped down in 1954 to bc succeeded by Margaret Honr. The Faculty then proceedrd to sever its forma1 links with the Lodge becausè of differences of opinion: howrver. close informa1 links continue to this day. In 1956 the locally-hrld courses were closed for lack of students to covrr the cos ts. but the correspondence courses continued unabated. Margaret Hone had brcomc the backbone of the enterprise with her widely read The Modern Tsxtbook of Astrolo~y specifically written for thzse courses. She remained Principle until Scveral thousand students. young and old from over eighty countries have bern aducated in this manner by the Faculty : and the training process continues to this day." In 1958 a further split occurred when various membrrs of the Lodge form cd The Astrological Association (A.A.). In revealing the corn plexities behind this move John Addey writcs that:... the Lodge had for very many years been the backboae of English Astrology. but after the second world war there was a feeling abroad that the interest in astrology was outgrowing the theosophical cradle in which, since its modern revival, it had been nurtured so n.~bis idea bas contuiued CO float amoiig the aas~ological community ever since. as akady wted witb the AFA's idea of holding exams in North America. Voiced in the 1940's the idea in that case only came ro fruition in the 1960's. ".~indsa~ Radarniacher. Thiules Carter and th Faculty." &&g& Vol. L. No. 1. Sprîng p ~eff Mayo. The Faculty of Asuological Studies," No. 1. FaU W.

171 successlully. and that the tirne had corne when... a new and independent organization with a Coundation as broad and universal as astrology itself. was nerdrd? This feeling was of course fclt more particularly within the British astrological community. The Association also launched a ncw magazine. "The Astrolo~ical Journal", which has since also achieved an international reputation and continues to be published. All threr CO-lounders had previously held positions as vice-presidents of the Lodge. and had also rerained their rnembership within the Lodge. Charles Carter lookrd w ith lavour on the way this second child of the Lodge had struck out from its parental home. The Association took great pride in astrological rescarch and has assrmbled an excellent library over the years. However. despite the formation of this new Lodge offspring. al1 was not wrll with the old A.L.T.S. itself. Years of discontent among 'associate mern bers'-i.c. non-theosophical astrologers who did not have full rights as the T.S. mrm bers. and much legal wrangling with the T.S.. led in 1982 to a spiit. with an agreement. "that the existing body representing the cooperative unity of Theosophists and non-theosophical astrologers. be named: the Astrological Lodge of London (ALL.)."% This left the rump of the old united A.L.T.S with Full members only and a new ALL consisting of Full a 'associate mem bers'. In the words of the Lodge president at the time: "The spiritual mantle of the Theosophical Society was removed from the wider body of the Lodge. However. by virtue of the 'Spirit and Work' drcision. the transmission from the Lodge's origin through to its current?~ohn Addey. '"The Asmlogicai Association." of ASM- No. 1. FaIl 1970, p. 13.?~eoffre~ Cornelius. The Asmlogical Lodge from Alui Leo to the present Day." Asm>lonv, Vol. 60. No. 1, lanuary 1986, p. 41.

172 Corm is guaranteed by the new ly defined ALTS. so long as the ALL émbodies ~oopcration."~ But this CO-operation was not to be. nor could it under the circumstances. The yrars from 1982 until 1994 were apparently full of persona1 and legal wranglings among the mcmbership of both groups. as well as with the T.S. Howrver. dur in part to insufficient mrmbrrship and attendant quarrels the T.S. finally "withdrew the ALTS charter. leaving the ALL as the only inheritor of Alan Lro's founding mission.'*28 According to persona1 rrstimony. it had been a difficult time for al1 involved and èverybody now srems to br happy that al1 is bahind them. But although the ALL was officially separattd from the T.S. in L994. it is ironic that it started having its meetings at the T.S. headquarters once again that very same year. Nick Campion puts it this way: "Indeed. since the inexorable demise of the ALTS it is now once again the sole representativi: of Alan Leo's original. safe in the arms of its Theosophical parent. Yet. unlike when it was still the awkward adolescent to the TS's stem parent. now it is the TS's rqual. an independent cducational charity? But this is not the end of the long saga of the Lodge. In 1983 Geoffrey Cornelius created a third split by founding his own group called The Company of Astrologers. The Corn pany s till operates successfully today. However the Iatest chapter in the history of the Lodge was written by the A.A. with the establishment of the Urania Trust in London. This initiative was apparen tly made possible in part. by a subs tantial private endowrnent?hi& p. u. 28 Nick Campioo. "Reguni to Gloucester Place." ~ P V Vol. 64. No.4, Auamia p. 3 6?~ick Campioa. "The Lodge is Eighty." Astmlom ûuarmly, Vol. 65. No. 3. Summer p. 1.

173 given to the A.A. for the purpose of establishine an astrological study centcr. The Urania Trust was to open in 1989: howrvcr things were delayrd into the next year. It currently provides a permanent home for an imprrssive astrological library with accessibility to students as never before. It is also an active study center with lectures. workshops and classes. One other important British astrologica1 organization should be mentioned here sincr traditionally. astrology in Britain had laggrd behind the U.S. (Dane Rudhyar) in associating itself with developmrnts in drpth psychology. However this has changed to some degree through the influence of the internationally known Centre for Psychologicol Astrology founded by Liz Greene. a Iungian psychoanalyst and astrologer. W hile lhis Centre was not launched by anyone directly associated with the Lodge (as far as the presrnt writer is aware). it is noteworthy that Liz Greene was a eraduate of the Faculty. and one of the laading members of the A.A. is now C Co-Director of this Centre." It is crrtainly a ccnter of which HPB would have approvrd in that. as we have mentioned elscwhere. she also wished the astrologer to be a psychologist. b.) Analysis From the material accessible to the present writer. it would seem that the formation of the Lodge within the secure. kgal frarnework of the T.S. was both a blessing and curse. On the one hand. it passed the weight of the tradition of the T.S. to the Lodge. possibly enhancing its standing as an institution. and also imbued its members with a sense of pride. Secondly. the link with the T.S. also made the Lodge more respectable in the eyes of M-Asmlo_pv Chumrly, Vol. 62 No. 3. Summer 1992, p. 2.

174 the widcr public. This is important for the growth of astrology. since astrology was met with more suspicion in Europe after the second World War. Thirdly it made it legally more difficult to dissolve or change the constitution of the Lodge at the whim of any of its rnembcrs. The fact that it was officially one of the Lodgrs of the T.S. apparently also carried with it certain implications of support which could not easily br ignored. Finally. it is evident thar the Lodge in fact provided a training ground for its members on how to fun such an organization. Apparently the members who split off to found thrir own group had al1 previously held alrcted positions wirhin the Lodge thus gaining ~xperience.~~ Al1 of this helprd. in part. to preserve the Lodge (at lrast until 1984) and allow it to takc roots and grow branchas. On the othrr hand. these benefits could not halt the growing dissatisfaction among the 'associate m m bership'. w ho challenged 'full mem bers' about inrquality of status and other philosophical issues. a battle which led to the inexorable demise of the original Lodge. But these problems are not that surprising when viewed in rttrospect. We have already cxplained that despitr HPB's own knowledge and convictions about astrology in relation to Theosophy, many of her followers did not fully share her views. The Symposium held at the T.S. in among others. is early testimony of the tension between astrology and Theosophy in the minds of its mem bers. 31. "And we too in the Association must account ourselves descendents in tbe same line, as we are happy to do, in the sense tbat most of tbose who have been coocenred in starting the Association owe a great deal of their astro1ogicai education to the Ldge or Faculty." (John M. Addey, J+& Astroloeical lourqî, December 196 1, p. 6)

175 Of course this does not invalidate the value of Alan Leo's legacy. which has been açknowledged by many astrologcrs. Ellen McCaffery for example writrs: "Through Alan Leo's work. and that of his friends and followers. a very definite revival of interest took place".32 In sum. what emerges from the above survry is that the original Lodgç has eiven rise to four different astrological institutions. al1 of which are now b independent though still interlinked. since member in one organization invariably rrtains membership in one or two of the others. They also participate in each others' meetings and lectures etc. and thus promotr a regular exchange of ideas. Through their efforts. they have established high standards in astrological sducation. which has also assistrd in building a more secure rcputation for astrology. While the initial Theosophical impetus has bern diluted by related philosophical teachings or. as in the case of the A.A.. by a slight technical bent. these institutions have created an atmosphere of respect Cor astrology. and have cncouraged and attracted numerous professionals in Britain and abroad. Finally. from the nurn ber of advertisements in British astrological journals. it would serm that this has also Isd to London becornine the preferred location Cor the establishment of several other astrological centers dealing with the various branches of astrology (see examples in appendix H)?. McCaffny. qgpploev: lu mon * 32.~llen in the Western WorlQ (New York: Samuel Weiser, Inc ) p More on bis issue in the following chapter.

176 8. BRIEF BlOGRAPHICAL HISTORY AND ANALYSIS OF FOUR LEADING ASTROLOGERS 8.1. Alan Leo {founded the London Lodge in 1915) 8.2. C.E.0 Carter (Prusidenr of the London Lodge in 1922) 8.3. Marc Edmund Jones (founded the Sabian Assemb-) 8.4. Dune Rudhyar (fofounded Humanistic Astrology) Srlrctions of four astrologers as represrntative of the influence of the Throsophical tcachings on the revival of astrology in the 20th century wrre undertaken on the basis of the Collowing criteria: 1. Thry wrre eithrr rnembrrs of a Theosophical Society. or had close connections with the Theosophical Movement: 2. Thry showed evidence OC Theosophical influence in their astrological w ritings: 3. They wrre prominent in their field and had a large following: 4. Thry lived and worked rither in Great Britain or North America. Thrse çriteria rnay be questioned by some as arbitrary. But they are offrred as the most appropriate and complete for the information available at this iime. We do not daim that this list could not be improved upon or cxtended. It is nevertheless a start in the right direction to serve as a spur for further research. The aim was to select four undisputed reputable. prominent astrologers. We were also looking for a balance in our selection for the two regional areas of focus for this thesis. Thus we sought to give equal weight to both England and North America. Alan Leo and C.E.O. Carter are the most Eitting examples in the case of England. The choice for North America proved somewhat more difficult since one or two other astrologers might well have qualified. Marc Edmund Jones and Dane Rudhyar were finally

177 selrcted on the strength of the close link brtwcen the two (as will bccorne apparent in what follows). as well as of their widesprrad popularity in the as trological corn m unity. Each of the following sections starts with a brief biography. t'ollowed by an appraisal and a description OC the particular person's approach to astrology. The latter two sections rely somewhat rxtensively on quotations. since this serms the most convenient and convincing way to present the nrcessary evidence A lan Leo a). Biography William Fredcrick Allen was born on August as the first son of a couple in the North of England. His father had served on active duty in lndia for several years. a country the son would later visit twice and whose philosophy would influence him greatly. After becom ing rn ore fully ocquainted with astrology around 1888 he changed his name to Alan Lro since a majority of his planets were positioned in the zodiacal sign of Lro. He did not enjoy a happy childhood. The rnarriage of his parents was not eood and they separated when he was about 10 years old. His mother was C somewhat of a religious fanatic and a member of a Protestant sect. Her religious convictions are also believed to have been the cause of the marriage break up. Leo was thus burdened from an early age with household duties as well as having to take care of his younger siblings. However. at the age of nine. while standing upon the heights of Edinburgh Castle and looking over Carlton Hill. Leo " had an interna1 vision which

178 liberaird my sou1 from a bondage that had hitherto held it."' At the agr of 15 hr was proud of being able to support his mother through his own work. Lro had always bren a very religious person in his own way. Howrvrr. life seernrd too complex to him to fit the framr of a narrow crerd such as his mother's. although he did not doubt the existence of a God or Highrr bring at this tirne. But his idras about it wcre still vague. The sky with its stars and planets fascinaied him from an early age and he read books on astronomy. He also has been always interestrd in people and thrir differences. In his teens. he came face to face with extreme povrrty whilr working at odd jobs in the slums of London. This cxperience made him think alm ost continually about "the terrible inequalities of the hum an race togethcr with other problems of life."2 At the age of 17 Lro found the first profound answers to this inner quest while listening to a discussion betwern his mother and "a gentleman of the samr religion who had just returned Crom India: in which the theory of reincarnation was mentioned. I told my mother that it was the most reasonable hypothesis 1 had yet heard."3 Lro accepted the theory of reincarnation immediately as the most sensible answer to the inequalities hs had observed in life. Leo's first contact with astrology was in his early twenties, w hen working as manager of two grocery stores in Manchester. He fell il1 and on the recommendation of a friend. visited a herbalist for some medical advice. *Alan Leo. Esotenç Vol. in human *Vol.Wtrology for W" Senes (New Deîhi: Sagar Publications, 1970) p. vi. 2.lbid p. vi. 3.1ba p. n.

179 This herbalist (a Dr. Richardson). used to base his diagnosis on his patient's horoscope. After studying Leo's chart. the old man trusted hirn and agrwd to introduce hirn to astrology. Lro was immadiately attracted to the subjrct and from then on became deeply absorbed in the study of astrology. weaving the idea of reincarnation into it. Dr. Richardson also brirfly introduced Lao to Theosophical idras. although with no forma1 link to the Theosophical Society at that timr. But Leo then "subscribed to Thcosophicai Siftings. and other books published by the Society? In 1889 Sepharial introduced him to HPB and Leo soon joined the T.S. The Thcosophical teachings also introduced him rven deeprr to the idra of karma. This. Leo Mt. answered more of his questions about Me's inequalities. and he also started to apply this idea to astrology. Lro eventually met Olcott and Judge. and latrr Besant. These contacts further deeprned his cornmitment to the Thcosophical cause. In a speech many years later he expressed how much astrology had really rneant to hirn pérsonally. He says: It has given me the key to unlock my nature. and understand it as nothing else could have done. and has been to me a great blessing. Everything 1 have touched in this life in connection with Astrology has been a blessing. for there are connected with it great and mighty Beings who do a vast amount of good.5 For several years he successfully held a job as a traveling salesman selling sewing machines for a large London based Company. In July at the j.8essie Leo et al. ne Life and Wofk of w: Tbgow-AsiLplgaer-m (London: Modem Astrology Office, 1919) p. 30. (hereafter L-W.A.L.). S.~ee Re- to The Astrdogical Society, London England, May 28h (UnpubLished paper from the T.S. archives in Adyar (Madras) India, owed from Patrick Cuny io London).

180 age of 30. he and his frirnd F.W. Lacey (who had also joined the T.S.) published The Astrolo~sr's Mayazinc. which. ovrr the years. turned out to be the most succrssful astrological magazine in England? The magazine gave Lro the opportunity to outline his ideas of astrology to the public. Leo C also had a good business sense. and while traveling throughout the country on business he contacted and "secured the services of most of the leading astrologrrs. with the exception of Mr. A.J. Pearce (the modern Zadkid)." who becamr a fierce critic of Leo's type of a~trology.~ Leo also prrsuaded the well known occultist John Thomas. who wrote under the pen name 'C haru bel.' to contribu te articles to the magazine. Besidrs Zadkiel's continued criticism of Leo's magazine in his Almanac. it also receivrd a critical review from the Daily News in August which actually srrved to give more publicity to the magazine. To attract subscribers to thcir new journal the two entrepreneurs offered a free calculation and brisf delinration of a horoscope for thosr who subscribed to the journal for one year. This brought 1500 subscribers in the first year as well as lots of work for Leo and La~ey.~ The magazine led to many contacts and invitations. and Leo's job as a traveling salesrnan gave him the opportunity not only to stay in contact with various astrologers throughout England. but also to deliver free lectures on astrology at the requcst of many of the subscribers. This proved to be the beginning of a career as a lecturer on astrology. 6.~epharial had just startecl a magazine of bis own two or three months earlier called F m and Funune, but it folded after only a few issues. He thereafter supported Leo's and Lacey's magazine wirh articles. (See F.W. Lacey in LW&., p. 39). Howevn a certain envy of their success seems to bave lingered (see Lw Mernorial Number of Modern AStrolo~v. December 1917 p. 36ifn- *-1t was Lacey who oormally did the delineation of the asmlogicai cbans after Leo had worked out the calculations. &.WU p. 59n).

181 Contacts through the journal eventually extendrd to Grrmany. the Netherlands and France as well as to North America. It also featured the occasional arricle about Hindu horoscopes. promptrd by Sepharial's visit to India. Leo's parlner. Lacey. handed ovrr full responsibility for the journal to Lco in 1894 whrn persona1 demands on his timr made it impossible to krcp up the heavy work load of the previous few years (he eventually also left the T.S.). About this time Lao met his future wifr. who had sent in a rrquest for a free horoscope and was eager to meet the man who had commented so accurately on it. It was also around this timr that people began sending in money for more detailsd interpretations. This was later to grow into a full Iledged business. In the summrr of 1895 the magazine was cxpanded and renamcd Modern Astroloey. with Leo as the sole editor. It rnjoyrd a long career that continurd until 19J0.9 According to Nick Campion it was the first serious astrological magazine to survive more than one or two years. l0 However. Lro's goal was not only to 'purify' and popularize astrology but also to givr it a definitive Theosophical bent." Leo's emotional life had a turn for the better in September of 1895 when hr married his wife Bessie Leo. They were well suited to each other because she shared his interest in Theosophy and had become member of the T.S.. 9.~is magazine Modern cwtinued into the 1940's uoder the eâitorship of Bessie Leo and Vivian E. Robson, a Tbeosophist and authof of several books on astrology. l0.~ick Campion. **Alan Leo: père de l'astrologie Anglaise du XnD siecle," in Pamck Ciary... Nick Campion & Jacques Halbrom, 11 v a ce- - * 1.w (&s B u k Paris: Editioas La Grande Conjmction. 1992) p. 20. See also CCWWAJ9 p. 44.!Alan Leo, "The Purifrcation of Astrology," Ludix, Vol. MV, No. 80, April 15, 1894, p

182 though also having occult interests of her own. She had studird palmistry and phrcnology and had also lrarnrd astrology under Lao's supervision. Shr supported hrr husband's work and took an active part in rnany of his enterprises. The following year they both wcnt on a tour around Great Britain to gather like minded astrologers to form an Astrological Society. Leo wrnt on to found six Astrological Societies. al1 of thcm having a relativrly short lifespan. Most of them lasted less than a year.12 He and his wife wrre also involved in the foundation of a Masonic Lodgr. by the nama of Hermes Lodge and were initiated into Co-Masonary like rnany other Theosophists (HPB. Olcott. Sinnett. etc.). However the Lro's seventh and final effort succerded in 1915 in creating the The Astrological Lodge of the Theosophicol Society. the history of which we outlined in section 7.3. Lro also ioured al1 over Britain giving astrological lectures at Theosophical Lodges in addition to those given at the invitation of subscribers of his magazine. In "this way he becamr well known in many theosophical and astrological centers. and did usrful work in both connections." Lro was regarded not only as an excellent astrologer but also as a good businrssm an. Soon after the renarning of the magazine Modern Astrolou, hr wcnt into business. charging one shilling for a test horoscope. The work load increased rapidly and in 1899 he had a number of people working for him in his London office. By then he had left his previous employment and turned to astrology as a full-time professional. He decided to employ people to assist him and began to recruit a srnail staff: two or three astrologers to do the mathematical calculations 12.~ampioo. "Alan Leo: pke de l'asorologie Anglaise du XXO siedc" p. 17. See also L.W.A&, p i 3 ~. ~ p. ~ 10. ~.,

183 and as many clerks to write out the drlineations. which hc mostly dictated himself. and to attend to the clericai work connected with his no w rn ultifarious astrological activities. These included his periodical. book-publishing. correspondence courses and an astrological society. By 1903 he was smploying no t'rwer than ninc people. not counting his wife Bessie who played an active part in running the business. l4 Nevrr before had an astrological business flourished likr this. He also opened offices in New York and Paris. although the New York office closrd in 1903.". The magazine was distributed internationally. a situation which had also nrver occurred in the past. This al1 signified the start OC a new era for astrology. "Within three years of the inception of the Test Horoscope scheme Leo & Co. had mailed of thesr primitive horoscopes." l6 These prefabricated horoscopes were a forerunner of our modern astrological columns in magazines and the first example of the popularizing of astrology. Unfortunately he soon came to regret his pioneering work. since it led to abuse of his method by charlatans who advertisrd in a similar manner. asked for more money, and produced less accurate information. This finally led him to stop the production of Test Horoscopes. To this effect he remarks in his presidential address at the Astrological Society in May 1910: "because there are corning up a great number of people who are nothing short of quacks and charlatans. who do impose upon people to-day to a very great extent: and of course Astrology suffers in consequence." ~llic Howe, Urania's Children: the stranne world of the astroloaers (Loadon: William Kimber, 1%7), p. 62. l'.set Residentid Addres~) May 28ib p. 2.

184 His aim, throughout his carrer as an astrologer. was to raise the lrvel of knowledgr about astrology. and to rlevatc: its standing in society. Thus in a letter to a critiç he çrnphasizes that: "During the past five years 1 and my collragurs have worked hard in the face of ignorant ridicule to purify iistroiogy. and. what is more. have but rccrntly enlightened the Indian astrologrrs of a system of predicting long lost to thern."18 But hc mentions rlsewherr in his writings that he also profitcd a grrat deal from discussions with Indian astrologers. Since the magazine Modern Astroloq was circulaicd internationally it also provided a forum for many fruitful and sometimes heatrd discussions ovèr issues of Throsophy as wrll as astrology. However. Leo soon turned more toward the writing and publication of books and manuals. His first book. cntitled Astroloev for All. and was intended for the curious inquirer who was not yet serious about astrology. His second book entitled Casting thç Horosco~e. was an introduction for the serious student, with lots of mathematics. However. "Lro purposefully brought the subject within reach of any lowrr middls-class lady with sufficient intelligence to master a few elementary arithmetical calculaiions and copy the seem ingly appropriate 'cook-book' intrrpretation from one or other of his works." l9 He published seven major volumes in all. among them The Art of Svnthesis and Esoteric Astrology which was his fast major work (they were al1 translated into German soon after publication). According to Bessie Leo he further published about 30 smaller books or manuals. His major works have been reprinted many times and are al1 still in print today. Bessie Leo also wrote 18.~an Leo letter to Vol. W. No. 80. Apnl p. 163ff. O~owe. Urania's Childreq p. 64.

185 articles for the magazine. somc of which were later published in book-form (as Astroloeical Essavs (in 1909). Lro had to fight three lawsuits. The first in 1909 partaining to his wifc's inhrritancr (which they won) opened his rycs to a world he had ignorcd in his rnthusiasm for astrology. It was there that he experienced: the insinuations of the plaintiff's Counsel... and the apparent bias and prrjudice of the Judge hc [Leo] wrotr: "1 must confess my am azement. It srems to me manifestly un fair..." Howrver knowlrdgeablr about the spiritual and even business worlds hr may have been. Leo was still remarkably naive about the world of social and cultural power...". as well as the history of perseeution of astrologers in England? After this somew hat traumatic experience the Leos made their Cirst trip with Annie Besant to India and to the Adyar Headquarters of the T.S.. and in made a second trip to India. In the second law suit in 19 IJ Leo was accused of 'Fortune Teiling' similar to the accusations made against Evangeline Adams in New York in the same year. However Leo did not win the case (as Adams did): the outcome was inconclusive leaving both parties dissatislied.2' In Iuly 1917 he was again brought to court and fined twrnty five pounds. Al1 these experiences made Leo even more determ ined to educate people brtter about astrology. and also to anchor astrology firmly to the Framework of the Theosophical teachings. In L9lO "Leo established n>pamck Curry, A Confus' ion of Ro- : Victow Ed war- (London: Collias & Browu Limited, 1992). p *.~arcia Moore and Mark Douglas. Aurolow. The Divine Scie=% p. 647.

186 the Asrrological Insritute. the only one of its kind. for the proper promulgation and kaching of Astrology and allird truth~."~ This institute lasted beyond his drath. but was only partially successful. He also introduced correspondence courses for those who could not come ro meetings. This initiative showed Leo's farsightedness with respect to what was nerded to improve astrology's standing in socicty. This was a novcl dcvclopmrnt at the time. But it look many more years for his idra to really come to Cruition with the establishment of the Faculp of Astrological Studies in an offspring of the Lodge he had foundcd (the Faculty successfully startcd to teach correspondence courses which still continue to this day). The first steps to form the Astrological Lodge were taken by Lro and his wife and a small group of Eriends in the summer of and in Novcmber of the samr year the charter was granted by the T.S. Lao thus laid the foundations of what proved to become a most valuablr astrological institution. one which rventually served to revitalize astrology even beyond the boundaries of Britain. The Lodge (as mentioncd carlier) is still active after celebrating its 80th birthday in Chastened and possibly depressed by his last Court cxperience Leo tried to develop an astrology with less cmphasis on prediction and more on Theosophy and psychology. However his own destiny cut these efforts short. He died unexpectedly of a stroke in the arms of his wile in August 1917.

187 However. the legacy of his astrological work is still very much alivr today through his books and the work of the Lodgr which he founded. b.) Appraisals by Others This short section offers a selection of appraisals of Alan Leo's work given by his CO-workers. readers and other sources. As Howe quite aptly puts it. Alan Leo was "this crntury's first major astrological publicist and. furthrrmore. the first astrologer of al1 timr to practicr his art on a large and wrll-organized professional scale"w The extcnt of his enterprise. with offices in various countries. is unique and impressive even by today's standards. Leo's aim was to educate the broader public about astrology. its methods and its practical results. by reaching out to a large audience through his Test-Horoscopes. "A number of studrnts of the present day [in have in fact dated their first acquaintance with astrology from the receipt of one of these test horoscopes..." LS Leo was highly esreemed by his students and CO-workers who brmoaned his loss saying that: "Alan Leo was more than an astrologer. He was a powrrful intellectual and moral force. and his death ai a comparatively early age leaves a gap which it will be impossible to fill." They emphasize that: While a practical astrologer using his art in a scientific way to improve the material conditions of al1 who sought such assistance. yet. strangely enough. he practically stood alone among professional

188 artists as one who never lost sight of the spiritual aspect of As tr~logy.?~ And another èxplains that: 1 nevrr grasprd the wonderful occult truths of Astrology until 1 heard Alan Leo rxplain them in talks we had during part of a winter we al1 spent together at Cannes... Taught as Mr. Leo taught it. Astrology now srems to me to br one of the best possible guides to right living." Working for Alan Lm seems to have bern viewed as more of a privilepe Without his presence to act as a centre sorne of them-myself among the num ber-would crrtainly not have accomplished so much work as thry did.... Because of this. although othrr astrologrrs have donc useful work. no one has accomplished quite what he did. and now that he has gone no one is able to fil1 quite the samr p1ace.b The following culogirs written by students are taken from the Mernorial Numbrr of Modern Astrolo~y, published shortly after Leo's drath. Another characteristic was his capacity for work. w hich was remarkable. and for getting the best out of others. Many people were associated with him. and who were pleased that he should act as a centre for their united activities. In this respect and in his ability to influence. mould or "manage" a considerable num ber of people. he seems to me to bear somr resernblance to Col. H.S. Olcott. although on a smaller scale. 2 6 ~. ~ ~ ~. p. 155 and p. 161.?ME Campbell RaeQ "Alan Leo: An Appfeciation." Reviey Vol. XXVI. kember p. 343.?L.wA.L* p. 122.

189 No one ever workrd with Mr. Lro who was not the gainer from a spiritual standpoint. His method was to develop the initiative of his CO-worker~.~ French author Jacques Halbronn concludes from his analysis of Lro's impact on astrology in France that Leo with his influence on astrology can be viewed as "la tête d'un veritable Empire qui couvre tous les pays anglophones (Inde. Ausrralir. États Unis). la France. les Pays Bas." Haibronn also views both Leo and his wife as pioneers in the renaissance of 'Esoteric Astrolopy' and of highrr education in astrology. The author and astrologer Ellen McCafferey agrees. saying that: "Through Alan Leo's work. and that of his friends and followers. a very definite revival of interest took place. with ever-widening circles of devotees. among thrm some of the bcst brains in the country."31 Charles Carter. the astrologer who followed in the footsteps of Lro. rrmcm bers that in the days of Alan Leo: "British Astrology stood high in the world: indeed he was almost the Master-Astrologer of his tige. not only in Great Britain. but throughout the civilized world. 1 am not so happy about the position of British Astrology nowadays: the moral earnestness that made Leo great seems less in evidence today."32 Many pages could be devoted to similar testimonials and mernoria from the Cour corners of the earth. This overwhelming response was not out of (Leo Mernorial Number). Vol. XIV R(ew Series), No. 12. December p. 369 and p "~ac~ues Halbronn: *La Fmce Astrologique l'heure d' Alan Leo." in :La Vie Asa>lociauc.. ii v 4 sent p ~~len McCaffery, its bistorv -ce i a Westera Wou Riew York: Samuel Weiser. foc., 1970) p ~harles Eso.Carter speaking at an Alan Leo lecture delivered at the Harrogate Cooveation in See Asnohy, Vol. 61. No. 1. Spring p. 18. He dso had hinher praise for Leo's wak in the same lecture.

190 courtrsy but rather out of a wish to honor a man who had not only enrichcd thcir personal lives and was dear to thrm. but who had also succeeded in building and managing a large and influential rnterprise which has left indelible traces on the astroiogy of today. c.) Alan Leo's Theosophical Astrology Let us state at once that it is not our intent to undertakc a general analysis of Leo's astrology. or indeed that of the other astrologers who follow. Rather. our purposr here is simply to highlight the Thcosophical influence found in their astrology. When Leo joined the T.S. it was not to remain an ordinary member. He soon became part of the inner circle. and Theosophy was very much part of his life-hençe also of his approach to astrology. "He could not think of Theosophy as complate without the great science of Astrology. but rqually he could not imagine Astrology. one of the great Ways to God. without Theosophy."33 This led Leo to forge a new path in astrology. unique at the timr in corn bining the spiritual teachings of Theosophy with the traditional assurnptions and technical practices of the old astrology. In effecr, he created a new Theosophical version of astrology which has served as a mode1 for the study of astrology ever since. He not only acquainted many people w ith as trology. he also " brought. through Astrology. m any hundreds cverywhere to a knowledge of Theosophy...".w This section seeks to illustrate this development by presenting those features of Leo's astrology 33.M4 tmemorial Nimiber). Vol. X N. No. 12. Decemôer p b, p. 357.

191 w hich provide the dis tinctly Theosophical influence. w hethrr procreding directly from the astrological idras of HPB herself. or more indirectly from his own long-standing association with the T.S. and its teachings. This influence may be virwed in trrms of four major sets of ideas which can bc identifird in this respect. These are: first. the issue of 'esoteric' vrrsus 'exoteric' astrology: second. the issue of planetary rulcrship: third. the significancr givcn to the qualifications of the as trolo ger: fourth. the notion of karma and reincarnation and fifth, the issue of the role of psychology in astrology. In drawing a distinction between esoteric and rxoteric astrology Leo followed closrly upon the idras of HPB. The following passage providrs an indication of his understanding of HPB's message. He writes: Esoteric Astrology teaches the Immanence of God. and seeks to discover through the positions of the hravenly bodies the changes in Nature we know as the laws of God. It recognizes the important part thesr divine Intelligences must play in the destiny of Man. for thry are his celes tial prototypes... Herein lies the main difference between Astrology esoteric and exoteric: the former is concerned with man's actions from within. and with the power to harmonize himsclf with Nature's laws. and the latter with man's impulses prompted by the attractions that are without: for Esoteric Astrology shows the possibilities latent within al1 mankind. of unification with the Divine W ill Or as he refers to HPB's statemcnt 'Yes! our destiny is written in the stars.' Leo further illustrates the differences between the two types of as trology. 'esoteric' and 'exoteric'. as follows. 35u.. Vol. IX. No. 7. Iuîy 1912 p. 276.

192 Esoteric Astrology deals with the abstract cause. the philosophy and the inner or more subtle point of view: whilst Exoteric astrology is content with the effect. the practice and the concrete or outcr expression. preferring the tangible and evident to the speculativc and theoretical... We may define Esoteric Astrology as that side of the subjrct w hich views al1 stallar phrnomrna from the standpoint of unity: whilst Exoteric Astrology begins its study from the side of diversity and separateness. The Esoteric Astrologer looks upon the wholr expression of life as procerding from one central and prima1 source. and therefore serks to understand the subjrct from the point of view of the One flowing lorth to the rnany? And Charles Moore. a student and admirer of Leo's work. writes: Indeed. his various books furnish abundant testirnony of his endeavours to give a superior philosophical and religious interpretation to the mundane branches of the astral science. so that this cxoteric aspect m ay be rightly placed as secondary to the esoteric. using the former as a bridge whcreby the materially-minded may be drawn..."n Thrsr ideas show definite parallels to statements made by HPB on the same subject. as outlined earlier. Leo also shares HPB's ideas with regard to her conviction that magnctism plays a significant role in astrology. In his presidential address at The Astrological Society in May 1910 he also mimics HPB in remarking: "You may not be aware of it. but the first essential of esoteric Astrology is a knowledge of magnetism." Leo also accepts HPB's notion of planetary rulership. He writes: MAI.. Leo. Wteric ASPPIMY, p. xiii. 3 7 ~. ~ Ap L

193 The physical planets have no direct "influence" upon humanity. but the Lords. angels. or Spirits of the planrts. as they are sometimes calicd. do affect al1 things êxisting upon our globe. We may safely consider the physical planets as the dense bodies. or vehicies. of the Planrtary Spirits. who in rurn are under. or within hipher influences.38 By 'influence' hr means different vibratory States which supposedly permeate the universe. He also introduces the Vedantic concept of the three yunos (ramas, rajas and sattva) in this context. serking to put the qualities of these gunas in Western terms by assigning ramas to 'slavery.' rujas to 'service.' and sattva to 'rnastery': He also refers the tamas quality astrologically to the planet Saturn. in the srnse of inrrtia and resistance. Leo aiso held high standards with respect to the professional qualities of the astroioger. similar to those of HPB. In his presidential address he illustrates his ideas by quoting at Iength rom the writings of a Iriend. a medical doctor in Norwich. who had elaborated 12 criteria essential to the competent astrologer. Reading from this long list ha finally arrives at the one quality or characteristic which can never be achieved by training or rducation done. even the best: "The astrologrr's invincible criterion is instinctive knowledge or intuition of truth; and which. not preceded by perceptible meditations. is grnius."" And he expresses the vision of his idrai by saying: "If the students of Astrology added to their study some knowledge of the ideas of Theosophy. the most pronounced of which are those concerning Karma and 3 8 ~ Vol., U<. No. î, Febniary p. 49. r?~lan Leo, Residm Ad- Society, May 28, 1910, p. 2. given at the Fmt Annual General Meeting of the Asmlogicai

194 Rrincarnation. the band who btlieve in brotherhood would be just doubled in size."a Leo countrrs critics of the 'Theosophical trend' of astrology presented in his magazine by saying: The "theosophical trend" çonsists of nothing more nor less than a brlief in REINCARNATION. and a knowledge of the laws of fatc ar KARMA. There is no particular rrason for calling it theosophical rvrn. excrpt for the fact that theosophists hold thesr ideas. which are common to the Eastern races as a fundamental part of their phil~sophy.~l Leo also ndvanced HPB's ideas with respect to the importance of psychology in the practice of astrology. While he "did not use the languapr of philosophy. and 1 never heard him cal1 himsslf a psychologist. but no one has better understood our rnortal corn bination of Emotion. Reason and Will. or set it out so plainly before us."" In the Art of Svnthesis Leo outlined the relation between the universe and the human being in three major categories within which he sees a rolc for astrology. "Firstly. there is the Self, which is always hidden behind the veil of matter...". He relates this Self to consciousness. "Secondly. there is the Not-self. which. from the point of view of any man. is the rest of the universe. cverything animate and inanimate that is not himself." He relates this Not-self to the outer world. "Thirdly. there is the Relation between - - MA^ Vol. WI. No. 7. Juiy 191 1, p u-. Vol. VU. No. 5, May 1910, p ~M.A. (Mernoriai Number). Vol. XIV. No. 12* December 19 1% p. 378.

195 Self and Not-self: and this is rrpresentrd concretely by the body in which the man is f~nctioning."~~ Each of thesr catrgories has great complexity according to him. and can be classilied in various ways within the field of astrology through the planets and the signs of the zodiac. In his opinion: The second and third of these groups have received an undue share of attention from astrologers in the past. the first having been confined to ordinary descriptions of character. It is only in recent times that the importance of the astrology of the Self with its varying powers and s tates of consciousness has been recognized and attem pts been made to devalop it.u Leo popularized the phrase that "Character is Destiny". and if such is the case. il est alors necessaire de faire du caractere le foyer et le point de depart de l'interpretation astrologique. C'est ainsi que naquit l'asirologie de la psycht? ou astrologie psychologique dont I'interpretation ne souligne plus des questions du type longévite. richesse ou nombre d'enfants mais plutôt le pattern inherent il la personalité. L'btude de l'astrologie psychologique fut cependant loin de constituer le but final de Lé0.~5 Leo's final goal was rather to corn bine psychology with the important Theosophical notions of karma and reincarnation. In other words he sought "Alan Leo, The Art of Smibesis (London: L.N. Fowler & Co. Ltd.. Nith Edition 1970)' p Leo' s definition of the Self is that: "Under Seâf we include the varying types of character, disposition, temperamem. and states of consciousness innumerable; al1 characteristic of planets and sigos and their combinations." (Ibid p. 1 1). Jarbid p Nick Campion. *.Alan Leo: père de l'astrologie Anglaise du XXO Siecle." in:la Vie Asiroloeiaue il y a cent ans, p. 27.

196 an astrology that incorporated spiritual (Le. Theosophical) as well as psychological aspects Charles EwO. Carter Charles Carter did not bring any ncw Theosophical idras to astrology in the manner of Alan Leo, While Leo was the creator. Carter became the able custodian of Leo's lrgacy in his role as long-standing presidsnt of the body Leo foundcd in the Astrologicol Lodge of the Theosophical Society. In holding this position for alrnost 32 years. and differing with Lro in certain respects. Carter was neverthaless responsible for maintaining the Throsophical connection with astrology. John Addey (the founder and first prcsidcnt of the A.A.) has aptly described Carter's role in the following terms: in the field of astrology and in relation to the institutions connected with his name ha was not primarily an initiotor (the magazine Asrrology was his only 'creation' in this sense): he was. rather. the solid ground upon which others stood to do their initiating. Similarly. although cndowed with considerable originality of thought he made relatively few innovations in astrological doctrine. but brought. instead. a greater unity. clarity and depth to existing concepts. * Carter's role was thus quite different from that of the ground-breaking Leo. acting rather as the sustainer of the innovations he inherited. stabilizing and axpanding on them. Unfortunately there is no entant source of biographical information on Carter as in the case of Alan Leo. We therefore have to rrly mainly on articles or notes written by him. or about him by members of the *The Asuolo~ical Journal Vol. XI. No W69. p. 2.

197 Lodgr and othrrs in various journals. as well as on the available verbal testimony of those still living who wrre formrrly close to him. a.) Biography Charles E.O. Carter was born on January 31st at Parkstonc. in Dorset. England. He was the youngrst of the four sons of William and Eliza Carter. His father was sornewhat of an adventurer. having makr his fortune in America and Australia before finally srttling once again in England where he became a newspaper proprietor and rditor. He apparently took a great interest in political affairs and is said to have supported Annie Besant when she was prosecuted for an article on population control (which was considered 'obscene' at the tirne)." Carter's preparatory school education took place in England. However. the grrater part of his secondary rducation was carried out in Germany. his fathrr being impressed by the Gerrnan education system. There Carter iearned Greek. Latin. French and some ltalian in addition to German. He rarly on took a keen interest in classical mythology and poetry. which he retained throughout his life. Between 1907 and 1910 he took an extrrnal degree in Logic. as well as in Law from London University. He did serve for a short time as a barrister (possibly around 1911) although he hints in a 1926 article that he did much brtter financially "in building and estate development".~ His real estate gains and also those rom successful betting on horse racing. made him financially independent later in life. to 47.~ach Matthews. - b T Lectm at tk Astrological Lodge, 1979 (Audio Tape). A member of the A.L.T.S. gave the tape to me in Zach Matôews was contacted but could noc provide me with bis written script. JB.~aner. Asmlo~y. Fit issue, Decemkr p. 6.

198 He first came across astrology as a member of the Vcgetarian Society during his student days in London. He writrs about this incident: "1 happrned to see an advertisement of the late Alan Leo respecting shilling horoscopes. and this kindled a flamr of rnthusiasm for astrology that never died down."-") In Cartrr married his Me-long corn panion G wcndolyn Phyllis Pollock. She shared his interest in astrology throughout her life and continued to support his efforts in this respect. Carter and David Frerdman wrre arnong the few people present at the founding of The Astrological Lodge of the Theosophical Socierv in and nrver lost contact with the Lodge from then on. However Carter's enthusiasm Cor astrology was brirfly interruptrd whrn he joined the British Army in the First World War. serving as a Captain in the Royal Artillery from 1916 until he returned to London in The following year saw him in service once again for a short period. this time with the occupation forces in Cologne (possibly becausc of his knowledge of Gcrman). In the meantime Freedman and a small band of supporters had bcen struggling to keep the Lodge going. In describing his impressions Carter writes: "When I returned from the war in the autumn of after Alan Leo's death, 1 found most of the activities which had been fostered were in a process of de~line."~~ Carter's first priority. with the support of Freedman, was in devoting his full attention to reviving the Lodge. Bessie Leo remained president but was

199 cventually outmaneuverrd and succeeded by Carter in January By rhrn mem brrship had increased substantially. and Mrs. Rhodes statcs in a lecture delivered in 1930: "not only has the Lodge benefited and increased by our president's constant and faithful service. but the wholt: cause of Astrology has advanced as ~ell."~~ Carter achirved this surge in mrmbrrship during the early yrars of his presidency at the Lodge by arranging a grrater number of astrological lectures in proportion to the Throsophical ones. This attracted new rnembcrs whose primary intcrest was as~rology. Carter also wanted a bctter home for the organization and finally succeeded in housing the Lodge meetings in the respectable Hall of the Art Worker's Guild on Queen Square. To this he remarked: "... the first time for many a long century. 1 think. that astrology has been housed in fitting surroundings. at least in Europe."** It is not quite clear when Carter joined the London T.S. though this could have becn as rarly as 1915 when he assisted with the founding of the Lodgr. He would definitively have joined by 1922 since only T.S. mem bers could hold official positions in the Lodpe." Besides his many articles for astrological magazines. Carter soon started writing books on astrology. He publishrd several valuable books on various facets of astrology during his lifetime. His Cirst publication was & 53.~.~. membership Listings bave bem aiid ofien still are carried out by volunteers. and are ihus no< always as complete as one might hope, However, he has been coafïmed as a member of the T.S. through records in the archives of the T.S. in Wheatm. The same probiem arises in the case of obituary notices. Thus no obituary was found for Carter in the issues of the London T.S. bulletin following his deaih in October 1968.

200 Encvclooaedia of Psvcholoeical Astrolo~y. publishrd in 1924 by the Theosophical Publishing House in London. The book retlects the growing interest for psychology within the astrological community and also contains information on medical astrology. a sprcial interest of Carter. It has bern on the AFA book-list until quite rccently. In 1925 hr: published his second book. The Princiolrs of Astroloey. also through the London T.S. It is sdll in print. In 1928 he wrote the Zodiac and the Soul. which contains his philosophical vizws with respect to astrology. many of which are in the range of Theosophical teachings. It is also still widely read. Carter also launchrd two magazines (the first was Uranus) in the ycars aftcr assuming the presidency of the Lodge. since he and Brssie Lro did not ser rye to eye on many matters? But he also wantrd an official journal Cor the Lodge that would be independent of Alan Leo's Modern Astroloee. then rditrd by Bessie Leo. The first issue of Astrolo~y (the Astrologers' Quarterly) was finally launchrd in Decem ber L 926. and the journal- affectionately called 'Quarterly.' has been successful ever since. Later it was renamed Astroloev Ouarterlv. It has since provided a reputable international forum Cor intelligent discussions on al1 aspects of astrology. The idea of a Faculty of Astrology as an educational institution was originally brought forward by one of the members of the Lodpe. But it was Carter's support for this idea which led to its foundation in He gave 54.~aner describes Bessie as "a queer old body if chere ever was had a great talent for wbat I would describe as inept intederence." Carter, "Reminiscences of Alan Leo," Vol. 39, No. 4. December 1965, p. 121.

201 it his personal and financial backing. the latter by funds lefr in his çare for the advancemrnt of astrology. It was he who suggested that the Astrological Lodgc of the Theosophical Society should sponsor the venture. naming [him j the first Principal and giving him power to choosr his officers and set the organization in motion." He also cornpiled the Faculty's Code of Ethics which may well have served as the mode1 for the Ethical Code of the AFA in North America. Carter stepped down as president of the Lodge in Novembcr but remainrd principal of the Faculty until L95J? Upon resigning from the prrsidençy he was given a small carnera in recognition of his services. In Novrmber 1959 hr resignrd from the editorship of Astrolo~v but remained Patron of the A.A. Again there was a little ceremony: this time he received the gift of a tape recorder. Mr. Freedman recalled his rarly association with Mr. Carter and mrntionrd the part played by Alan Leo in thosc days in establishing a high standard of astrological journalism in the magazine "Modern Astrology". The Lodge Quarterly was the natural successor to "Modern Astrology" and Mr. Carter had only faithfully upheld and sustainrd the standards set by Alan Leo over the years but he had also enabled readers of the magazine to rnjoy the fruits of his own as trological wisdom." According to an editorial written by Ronald C. Davison (editor of &&&gy at that time. and later president of the Lodge). Mrs. Carter dird in late Davison characterizes her as having a "gentle and unassuming pzrsonality. Although she rarely spoke at meetings she was devoted to the?lob Addey. The As- Sa J o a Vol. XI. No /69 p. 5. Vo1.33. No... 4,p.56f. Dcc also John Addey, The Astmloni~ JouDecember. g.astrob~v, Vol. 33. No. 4. December 1959 p. 102.

202 Lodge and its idrals and was a regular attender. In a way she typifird the kind of mem ber who is not only the backbonr of our Lodge but of al1 groups...".j8 As timr went on. and more and more non-theosophist mrmbers joined the Lodge it becamç difficult to balance the resulting tensions of the two bodies (sce section 7.3). The following observation by Carter might well be an oblique criticism of the T.S. organization itsalf: "However. thosc organizations chat makr a great parade of srcrecy have as a rule but littlc that is genuinely esoteric in their possession. and often their assumption of the mysterious is but a bait to attract the foolish..."" Of course the organization suffered sarious losscs in membership and reputation after the rejrction. by Krishnamurti. of his role as Messiah for the T.S. Carter was later to m aka a rather more direct astrological indictment of the long standing former presidrnt of the T.S.. explaining that: "Dr. Besant was of course an extreme case. becausa of the Uranus oppositions. However brilliant she was. her Saturn was weak in Pisces in the 12th and thetefore her hold on 'hard facts' was but a slippery one."60 On the other hand Carter was not confrontational by nature but a reserved and rathrr private individuai who tended to be evasive about his own views on controversial issues. whether on matters of astrology or Theosophy. This evasiveness is apparent in his manner of expressing that: It will be out of place to try to explain rny personal philosophy. and many who read this will already possess their own. A generally 58~~10PV Vol 36, NO. 4. December 1962 p. 1. N.~aner. Asmi- Vol. 23. No. 2. June 1949 p. 6. M~aner. Asmlogy Vol. 33 No. 4. Decemba 1959 p

203 acceptable conception is necessary. for particular beliefs only attract certain types. Thus many find Reincarnation a consoling doctrine: but othrrs regard it as the vrry reverse.61 It was no doubt axactly because of Carter's evasiveness. or let us cal1 it 'diplornatic attitude'. toward such matters. that he was able to keep a delicate balance in the Lodgc for such a long time. not only between dilferent viewpoints among astrologrrs within the Lodge. but mcre importantly between the Lodge (as an astrological cntity) and members of the T.S. who were antagonistic towards the Lodge in its astrological Cunction (a problem discussed earlier). He was apparently assisted in his efforts by a Miss Rigg. an early member of the Lodge.62 Carter also formzd a small group with close friends. known as the 'Universai Order.' though not restricted to astrologers it would seern. Mem bership was by invitation only and meetings were hrld monthly. apparently at his home. A number of prominent figures of the Lodge. Faculty and A.A. were part of this group although otherwise nothing is publicly known about this exclusive circ1e.a Carter apparently suffered from claustrophobia which restricted his travels by train or air. With the exception of travel during his youth and World War 1. and a visit to Jamaica in his movements consisted mainly in covering the short distance between London and his Dorset home and local travel in Enpland. Not that this had any effect on his international reputation for his contributions to astrology. His contacts with as trologers 6f.~aner. The Astroloni~(Romford, Essex U.K.: LN. Fowla & Co. Ltd.. LW Edition. 1977) p. 15. Rhodes. "The Lodge Map and its Rogressiooi*. p Douglas Burn, Astrobgy Vol. 61. No. 1. Spc"g 1987 p. 7ff.

204 in North Amrrica wrrr sermingly numerous and already are revraled by the advertisrmrn t of an Amrrican lady astrologer and Theosophis t in the firs t issue of Astrolofyin Her namr also appears with his in one of the early yearbooks of the AFA though it is not clear what role. if any. Cartrr may have played in the foundation of this important U.S. organization. However wt! have it from one of its members that he also correspondrd with Mr. Ernest Grant. who was one of the prime movers in the Coundation of the AFA? Many years later Carter dcfinitely becamr "one of the foundrrs of the International Society for Astrological Research. accepting the position of Honorary Vice-Prrsident at the time of incorporation. His collaboration in the first months of ISAR'S existence has been in~aluable."~5 Carter dedicated his wholr lifc to the cause of astrology through his work ar the Lodge. the journal -. as well as through his support for the institu tional offspring of the Lodge. Nothing expresses his life long comm itment and drdication more than the following statement that: "Astrology remains what it has bren for just short of fifty years-an unfailing interest and consolation. in the study of which 1 have invariably found refuge from the worries and distractions that must sometimrs occur in the bes t of lives." 66 Charles Carter died on the 4th of October 1968 as a result of complications arising from a stroke he had suffered shortly before.? ~ e did for example send in a paper to be read at the 1946 AFA Convention. "m (Newslener of rhe ISAR). Vol. 1 No. 3. November 1968 p ~aner. Asirolonv, Vol. 33. No. 4. Dccember 1959 p. 105.

205 b.) Appraisals by Others The life and lrgacy of Charles E.O. Carter has inspired numrrous tes timonials of his contributions to astrology in Great Britain and North Amrrica over the years. That he is still held in high csteem internationally is clear not only from the fact that sales of his books continue unabatrd but also in the mernorials to his lifr that have bern written by his many students. associates and admirers. In the words of one admirer: "Mr. Carter has done a great job by taking the torch from Alan Lro and continuing the work of the Lodge al1 thrse many years. He knew someone had to do it and ht: was the one."67 John Addey. the president of the A.A.. in a speech honoring Carter's 75th birthday. went as far as to cal1 Carter the 'pivot' upon which al1 the astrological activities. particularly in Britain turnrd. revitalizing the interest in astrology." h latrr obituary suggests that. in his role as presidsnt of the Lodge. Carter was "dirrctly involvcd in cvery important step taken during the dramatic renaissance of serious astrolopical activity in twentieth century Margaret Hone. a succrssful author in her own right who had succeedrd Carter as principal of the Faculty. and who had worked closely with him in the Lodgc. adds: Through his careful and scholarly writings. and his Libran chairmanship of the Astrological Lodge of London. the Headquarters of Astrology in Great Britain. the 'Royal Art' has flourished in this 67ne A s i m l m Vol. XI. No p. 7. "The As- JoiapiJ December p. 6, 6?K~smos (Newsletter of the ISAR). Vol. 1. No. 3. November p. 3.

206 crntury. has been purged of many of its superstitions and has gaincd the respect of al1 who give time to its st~dy.~o At the suggestion of Iohn Addey. the A.A. and the Lodge drcided to dedicate a Carter Mernorial Lecture. held once a year at the A.A. and the Lodge in his hon~r.~l The Faculty had earlier established a Carter Scholarship: Each year the Principal-Emeritus. Charles E.O. Carter gives an rward to whichevrr student. having taken the Junior Course. gains highest marks in the rxamination for the Certificate. The award covers the cost of fees for the Senior Course and the rntrance fee for the Diploma examination? Carter offered support to al1 the new enterprises created by former mrm bers of the Lodge w ho were. more often than not. no longer close to the T.S. This taises some question about his own relations with the T.S. However. his reticence on al1 matters of a personal or philosophical nature. dots not yirld anough information to do any more than speculate on thcse rnatters. Iohn Addey nevertheless emphasizes that: "Carter affirmed from the outset his belief in the need for an independent Astrological Association and has been a most staunch and generous Patron."73 Carter also showed considerable ski11 in homeopathy and his knowledge of pets made him especially dear to many of his close friendd4 He is revered around the world. for his books but also the correspondence courses of the Faculty in which he had a hand. As a student explains: "Mr. 70- (Newsletcer of the ISAR). Vol. 1 No. 3. November p. 5. 7~.Ast101~ Vol. 42, No. 4. Decemkr 1968 p nasq&gy, Vol. 38, No..4. December 1964 p " The -al JO- December p. 6. %bid p. 2.

207 Carter was well known throughout the world. though many of us never knrw him except through his many good deeds which will br long remembered.75 Many of his students and associates also felt after his drath that thcy "have al1 lost a 'father' and guiding spirit."76 c.) Carter's Ideas about Astrology As already indicated. Carter was not an initiator but structured the existing situation and provided the "solid ground on which others stood to do their initiating? - Carter did not agree with al1 of Lro's ideas. especially those contained in Lm's book Esoteric Astrolo~~. which Carter strongly criticized in his latrr yrar~.~g He rnay have felt that Lro had fallen undcr the influence of the second generation of Theosophists under Besant. of whom he did not think very highly. as already reported. However. both Carter and Leo had to tread a fine line among the Theosophists. We may recall here how much Lco himself had suffered at their hands. Without him acknowledging it directly. the rn ore p hilosophical elements in Carter's w riting however. does reflect his Theosophical bent. as for example when he writes about astrology being part of the Arcane Tradition which... has appeared in many forms at different periods and in different countries. and. whilsi ever inwardly the same. its outward presentations have varird. A modern European may feel drawn towards the wisdom as it appeared in ancient Egypt. or in the Upanishads. or in the Greek or Chaldean Mysteries. Al1 these are 75Tbe -al JO- VolXi. No. 1, 1968/69.p bid, p. 6. %id, p. 2. niah Searcb Vol. 2, No -2, 1974 p. IOff.

208 temporal and local expressions of what is rssentially beyond timr and space. the Philosophia Perennis. as Aldous Huxley calls it. Carter was a prominent astrologer and Theosophist and seems to have assimilatrd most of the tenets of Throsophy which Leo had reintroduced to astrology. He most certainly ferls that the astrologrr has to look bryond the mnterial sidr of life to grt "a right understanding of the Arcane Tradition... must look to find an adequate background for his astrological thought. w hilst attem pts to ingratiate ourselves w ith the physicist will m errly Içad to hum iliating rebucfs."a The following passage from the samr article shows a somew hat vague definition of 'esoteric'. He writes:... rsoteric has acquired another cornmon rneaning. namely something that belongs to a greater or less degree to a certain attitude of mind and tradition. which cxists al1 over the world. differing in outward Corm but always marked by an essential similarity of virw-point so that. for example. a student of the Kabbalah. an Indian yogi. a Chinrse Taoist. a Tibetan disciple of the Mahayana. an alchernist or a gnostic would al1 understand one another. On the other hand. a modern scientist would lump them al1 together as ignorant beings who had not yet out-grown the notions of the Dark Ages.*l The implication here too is that astrologers should try to adjus t their practice to the current standards of science. This position certainly agrees with the way HPB felt about this subject ~mr. w%suology and Esoterkism," Vol. 23. No. 2. Iune 1949 p. 13. BoJbib p bid p. 6.

209 He also believes in a close relation between some form of Kabbalah (or a spiritual system of numbrrs basrd on Pythagoras) and astrology since this would provide: a kry. to secrets after which many astrologers have sought but which lie outside the scopc of a book such as this and are of such a nature that the present writer will certainly never commit thcm to print. lest thry be put to unworthy uses by those who have not earnrd a titlr to this know ledge.82 He is also in agreement with HPB. and goes on to emphasize, like hcr. the need for secrecy with respect to certain occult knowledge. According to Carter's friends. and statements made in his own writings. he was attracted to Nroplatonism and also Taoism. though he also acknowledged key notions of Hindu philosophy. He mentions for exam ple. that the Bhagavad Gita and the three gunas (ramas, rajos. and sattvd point to the "numerous values of astrology. that it provides objective proofs of profound archetypal idea~."~ His accrptance of the notion of karma and reincarnation. (major tenrts of Leo's 'Theosophical astrology' ) are also evident. particularly in chapter V of The Zodiac and the S a. And. since the body is usrful to it [soul] in iis quest for self-gnosis. this attachment is perfectly right. except when the soul forgets itsclf. identifies itself with the body...thus it becornss attached to worldly objects both in the way of hate and love... Between its lives on earth "charles E.O. Caux. The Z w d The Spyl (London: The Tbeosophical Publishing House. 1983) p. 78.

210 the sou1 probably returns to a condition more similar to its own nature... This critique of self-forgrtfulness and attachrnent to worldly objrcts also exhibits a close affinity with the Hinduism (Vedanta philosophy) as accepted in Theosophical teachings. He also em braced the Hermetic notion of the microcosm and the macrocosm. as rxpressed e.g. in the 'law of correspondences'. and felt that: "belief in the chaotic and haphazard governmrnt of the Universe is hardly possible to the astrologer. and frorn a perception of the unfailing physical ordcr of things we can venture to have faith in a corresponding mord order."a Carter was also quite critical of certain modern trends in astrology. As notrd above. he dors not feel that astrology should attempt to accommodate modern science. and he also finds fault with new trends towards statistical. technical or ernpirical attempts to validate as trology. In his view. for rxam ple: Doctors and psychologists are beginning to use astrology. not as a result of rigid tests. but simply because they Cind that it serves a useful purpose in their clinical work. This is a welcomc development. but it must be borne in mind that for the most part the people are em piricists. not philosophers. and therefore they cannot help us in our prrsent quest. They only know what we already know. that Astrology " work~.~?ibicl, p. 78. Vol. XM New Series). No. 4. Apnl 1922 p %carter. op cit Asmion~~Vol. 23. No. 2. Juae 1949 p. 9.

211 Furthermore he does not feel that the truth of astrology lies in the details sincr. in his experiencr. horoscopes: "are not sharply drfined photographs: somztimes thry are badly out of focus and blurrrd..." In addition: I would assert that we should go too Car were we to claim that the horoscope shows everything in precision... (It is not a] magical script. in which al1 is set down and fixed to the smallest detail... It is much more reasonable to say. with Ptolemy. that the astrologer can but speak in general terms: only God knows details. The problem is that: "On cvery hand. in Astrological circles. one hears the constant cry for proof - proof in the Corm of endless collections of physical data..."88 Carter also has an opinion on the qualities of the astrologcr which is vrry rnuch in line with that of Leo and HPB. He continues in the same article: "... therr are very few modern students of Astrology who are able to regard themselvrs as spiritual beings. and obviously. whilr this is so. we can scarcely axpect them to consider cven the possibilities of spiritual principles working from within." And he not only attacks the public who tend to judge astrology superficially. but also the astrologers who bow down to such public pressure. He says: True Astrology is a most important branch of one of the grcatest of al1 sciences - that of the Human Soul. How sad. then, that many *-caner. The Alan Leo lecture. 1937, repiated in Asaobnv. Vol. 61. No. 1. spriag 1987 p. 16 and 17. This is ecbœd by Roaald Davison, a smdent of Carter, who wriies with respect on tbis problem: "Altbough asuological mtb is &monsuable, man needs a rational explanation for its validity but because the real basis of asmlogy lies outside lime' and 'space* in the sense that we comprehend them it is aimost impossible to provide such explanaticni in tenns tbat will appeal to the materialistic minded. Astrology deais not oaly with the nature of things but with their latent possibilities. which are located in a dimension not apparent to ouf five senses." Roaald C. Davison. As~rob~v. The Ciassic Gui&- vaur Horom (Sebastopol CA: CRCS Publications. 1987) p. 7. q~aner. Uranus Vol. iï. No. 2, Cktober 1924 p. 62.

212 approach her. in thrir ignorance. with the old. old cry: "Prophrsy unto us!" and think that a correct forecast of some public event is more important than the knowledge which allows us to penetratr far bençarh the obvious and the superficial. to the very hrart of mma9 WC may çoncludr this review of his ideas with his optim istic cal1 to the astrological çommunity: "1 have more hopes of winning acceptancr from p hilosophrrs than from scientis ts. Neverthrlrss the bartle s hall be won - and the soonrr. the better for human enlightrnment."~ 8.3. Marc Edmund Jones The significancr: of Marc Edmund Jones for our hypothesis stems from the tact that ha is highly rrgardcd in North America as an astrologrr and philosopher as well as a Theosophist. He became familiar with. and was influrnced by. Thcosophical teachings early in life. He had a high regard for HPB and Throsophy. to which hr rcfers on numerous occasions. and is of the opinion that: "Perhaps the most important work in modern Western occultism is the Secret Doctrine by Helena Petrovna Bla~atsky."~' He is distinct howcver. in the Christian bent of his Theosophy. which also spills over into his astrology. This may have attractad people to astrology who othrrwise might have rejected it. He was influenced in this unconventional Christian approach toward as trology and philosophy in 89.~lan Leg Memal Lecm p. 18.?caner. Ko- (lad of the ISAR). Vol. 1. No. 3. November p ~arc E. Jones. The Sabian Manuai: a rituai for living (Stanwood, Wash.: Sabian hbüshing Society. 1957) p 52. However. Jones Qes fault HPB for giving out ioo much iafonnation about the Masters, (which even she berself lacer bernoans). He writes:"thus it was probably a mistake to give out much if anything at al1 about the Masters of Wisdom, since the average person could not have and aever can bave any means for knowing whetber be is making touch with a real one... Hence every charlatan since has peddled his mths on an authority which is accepted in geoeral but beyond checking-..-*o Stan Carnarius. Jones Pmctives & Selecm (Interna1 publication of the Sabian Assembly, 1984) p. 55,

213 general by his rarly comm itment to the Presbyterian Faith. as well as by the Christian Theosophist James M. Prycc. author of The A D O C ~ ~ D S ~ Unsealed. a symbolic intarprrtation of the Book of Revelations. We might also mention hrre his attraction to the writings of Ibn Gabriol. an 1 lth century Jrwish philosopher and Kabbalist who livcd in Spain. Alfred Jacob. a friend and studrnt of Joncs and member of the Sabion Assembly (a group Jones created together with his students) iranslated one of his works callcd. The Fountain of Lifr under the encouragement and guidance of Jones. Therr is a sketchy biography of Jones compiled Crom diary notas by Stan Carnarius. a short "Photo Essay" by Diana Roche posted on the Intçrnct as well as other unofficial biographical material Curnishçd by membrrs of the Sobian Assembly that were kindly made available to us at their 1997 Annual Conference near Philadclphia. Other information derives from his books. and an article published on the occasion of his 90th birthday. a.) Biography Mark Edmund Jones was born on October the 1st 1888 in St. Louis. Missouri. as the first child of his parents. A sister was born nine yrars later. In his early childhood his parents moved to Chicago wherc he grcw up. Although his mother was Protestant and his father Catholic. neither seems to have been orthodox in their belief. Jones remernbcrs therc being a consensus "that we. my sister (Hclen) and 1 were to bc permitted to find Our own way. There was no religion in the fa~nily."~~ He also remembers that his father read a lot. There was apparently some Theosophicai influence in his childhood. as well as Christian Scientism through their immediate *Jonas R. Macber, Tbe Sabipa Wav: a CO-on of tbe P p -. (Levînowo. Penn.: Limited pre-publication edïtion. 1997). condensation of chapter "The Mao." p. 2.

214 neighb~rs.~~ A visit to the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago which was hrld in 1893 (the same year as the World's Parliament of Religion). madr a lasting impression on the Cive year old boy and spurred his interest for detail and perfectionism. Thesc traits revealed themselves later at John Dewey's experirnental high school in Chicago when hc planed away the surface of a board in an attempt to get it just right.% At the agr of 16 he madr a lifelong Christian cornmitment at a Presbyterian church near his home. There he organized a preparatory Bible class for boys his own agr. Later he became involved in the Christian Endeavor movement and eventually practiccd as a pastor in California for a time. He dropprd out of high school when he was about 18 years old to go into business. His father had some connections with the Pullman Company so Jones workrd there in the railroad yards for a short period. before moving to the Western Electric Company. Income was low and he sought other ways to make somc extra money. Jones soon discovered a talent for writing and started writing screen scenarios. the first of which was sold in for $20. This marked the beginning of a 10-year long career in writing scenarios and fiction. He came to know of astrology one evening in 1913 when friends took hirn to the wife of another friend who used to arrange open evenings whrre she gave short but pointed horoscope readings for those who came. The 9 3. ~ ~. 1957) p. 23. Jones. Tbe &&iju~-1: a filypl for livipp Wanwood Wasb.: Sablan Riblishing Society. Y~iana E. Roche. +*A Photo Essay of the Life and Wofk of Dr. Marc Edmund Jones" (Sabian Society Web Page: p. 2.

215 cxperiencr was sufficiently intriguing Cor him to buy himsclf some books on the subje~t.~s He also started to becorne more succcssful in writing scenarios at this tirne. srlling a total of 39 in The following year hr traveled to Bermuda with a film Company. Hz sold 18 scrnarios and becamr "Scenario Editor for Equitabk Motion Picture Corp."% Howevrr. he realizrd thrre was litilr lcgal protection for screen writers after one of his scripts was stolçn. This promptrd him and some other writer friends to found what later bcçame the Screen Writers Guild of America. According to a close associatr of Jones (whom we met at the Sabian Assrmbly Conference in July 1997). his work for the film industry netted him an astrological consultation with Ronald Reagan. then a movir actor. Reagan apparently also sought consultations lrom Jones during his early years as Govrnor before becoming President of the United States. Aftrr his mother died in 1914 Jones pursued his studirs in astrology and philosophy even more intensely. "On October his rxpèrirnce of what occultists usually describe as a 'Master' in the flesh led to his working contacts with Theosophy and then in train with New Thought. Spiritualism and an ever-widening world of transcendental literature and activities."*this meeting with a 'Master' a couple of weeks after his 26th birthday resulted in a lifelong association with Theosophical groups such as the Rosicrucian Fellowship of Max Heindel (a former Theosophist) in 95~ben~meq& Vol Seprloct p. 20, %~iana Roche. ^A Photo Essay." p. 2. '?ME. Jones, The Sab- for I I ~ Society, 1957) p (Stanwood Washington: Sabian Publisbîng

216 California. which he joined the following year. He soon taught classes there as weil.* His diary notes suggest that he m ust have kept in touch with HPB's Masters ovrr a long pcriod of tirne? But Jones' activities were interrupted by army service in World War 1 when hc was drafted into the army and became editor of the camp paper. Aftcr attendin9 Officers Training School he was honorably discharged at the end of He immediately went back to writing scenarios. but aftrr discovering that well known novels were in more popular demand he switched to writing science fiction. mystery storirs etc. Jones was to become an extremely prolific writer in his long life. producing a total of 73 film scenarios. 46 scenarios. 46 pieces of published short fiction. 45 articles on astrology. and 17 books in the astrological and occult field. in addition to numçrous study lessons for the Sabiun Assembly.lm Jones went on to live an rxtremcly busy and eventful Me. and was without a steady home after High school until about 1955 when friends presented hirn with a house in Stanwood (near Seattle) in the state of Washington. "Aside from his pastorate and his early jobs after leaving high school. Marc Edmund Jones never hald a regular job, but earned his living as a free-lance writer and counssl~r."~~~ He first traveled on business but was later almost constantly on the road between giving lectures. particularly on astrology. studying and writing. This left him without a safety net for his *.~iana Roche. "A Photo Essay." p ~anwius, - M p. 46ff. iod.~oaas R. Matber, The S w Way, p. L lol.carnarius. Marc EdmuDd laies p. 6.

217 old agr. though this did not srem to bother hirn or even bc necessary. sincr he kept active throughout his long Me. In Drcembcr 1922 Jones bagan taaching wcekly classes at the Judson Tower in New York. at which hc sought a 'ncw way' of structuring astrology. A ycar latrr he was back again in California whrre he met Manly Palmer Hall. The two men struck up an instant rapport and Jones soon rrsumed his classes at Manly Palmer Hall's Church of the People in Los Angeles. October 1923 is the date Jones marks as the birth of the Sabian Assernblv. a group which still continues to preserve and expand his work (as will be rxplained later in this section). He went through a bricf marriage in but it was while teaching in California in 1923 that he met his life long cornpanion. Priscilla Kennedy Chandler. She was already in pursuit of her own spiritual interests. and was also knowledgrable in astrology. They got married in Shr strongly supported her husband in his work. accompanird him on his lecture tours. and was a critical help in editing his writing. She dird in 1976 after scrious health problems involving a numbrr of operations was also the year he met Elsie W heeler. a psychic and student with whom he workrd intrnsively. One day in 1925 he went with her to Balboa Park in San Diego. and she psychically produced the now famous Sobian Symbols under his guidance. lm Jones was somewhat of a loner even as a child as he himself admits. and was oftrn caught up in his own world. He soon realized that this could be a handicap in dealing with others in the pursuit of common goals. lm~iaaa Roche. "A Photo Essay," p. 5ff.

218 My w hole work in developinp the occult and astrological principlrs started out as individual and at the beginning I never thought of it as anything else. But 1 found it couldn't bc that way. 1 cnjoyed the freedom of my own original way of thinking until 1 discovered the hard way that it was a handicap in communication. So 1 had to take the timr out for formalizing the self-cducating process. to pet the equipment I needed. So that involvcd a very great dcal of work with other people... a range of minds and a range of perspectives... I'l3 It was through tirs with Jennie E. Bollenbacher. a Thsosophist (who incidentally was also among the early members of the AFA). during a series of conferences at the Theosophical community at Halcyon. California in the 1930's. that Jones finally joined the Adyar T.S. of the Columbus Lodgr in Ohio. and remained a member throughout his lifç.la In reading The Secret Doctrine hr found that the ideas forrnulated "by Blavatsky and rhose of the invisible fellowship on whom she draws is a monumental achirvement by any standards of But hr believed that the clearest simplification of her work. which he regarded as rssentially mathematical. "is unquestionably the Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception by Max Weindel."l" Jones attern pts to integrate and reconcila HPB's eclrctic philosophy w ith his own early cornmitment to Christianity spurred his interest for further study. "In he began a three-year program for the Bachelor of Divinity degree at the San Francisco Theological Seminary at San Anselmo."lo7 He had already been ordained before finishing his degres in and served Icn-carnarius. Marc Edmund Soaeg, p. 52. l%. Jones. mian p. 23. wbid p ~d. p. 53. I0I.stan Carnarius, Marc Edmuod Jones, p. 6.

219 as a Pastor in Esparto. California until He thrn moved back to New York to study at Columbia University whrre he graduated with a Ph.D in philosophy in 1948 (his thesis topic was on George Sylvester Morris). In 1957 hr lectured at a workshop in Mexico in Company with the well known authors. D.T. Suzuki and Erich Fromm. "He continued to serve in a ministerial capacity when requested to do so until whrn hc severed his ties with the regular orthodox church."l~ %y this time he was 75 years old and had suffered severe health problems. However. he continued writing and was also soon back on lecture tours to various conferences etc. At Y0 hr published his final book. The Counsrlinq Manual in Astroloev. Despitr occasional hralth set backs. he continurd a busy schrdule of writing and lecturing up to his death from a fa11 in Frbruary Through his many lecture tours. together with his books and articles on astrology. Jones becamr a prom inent namr in astrological circles in North America. He once described his ten year friendship with Paul Clancy. the proprietor of meriean Astroloey, (which played an important part in the spread of astrology at the time). as "a happy. rewarding and at times adventuresorne experience." lm Jones was an original thinker and injected a nurnber of new insights into as trolog y. such as the Sabian S ym bols and the interpretation of planetary patterns. He was also among the founding members of the American Federation of Astrologers. His impact on North American occult pbilosophy has been profound. The existence of the Subiun Assembiy Lœ.~id. p. 6. I?M. E. Jones. Astrolo~v: How and Whv ü Works (Baltimore: Penguin Books. as trology and

220 as an active body of members dedicated to furthering and applying Jones' idras into practice. is itself testimony of his continuing influence on 20th çrntury astrology and occult philosophy at this time. b.) Appraisals by Others In an interview for the magazine Phenornena on the occasion of his 90th hirthday. Jones is introduced as: "One of the brst known authoritiès in modern astr~logy."~~ And an article published in honor of the centennial of his birth s tates that: By his efforts-and the work of others-the state of disarray in which astrology Cound itself at the start of the twrntieth çentury was brought to greater order as the result of his work with rational system S. Because of this he stands out as one of the giants of astrological thought in this century. He helped prepare astrology to meet the times ahead and thus contributed greatly to the oncoming of the whole New Age that is presently upon us... In the 1930's and 40's Jones produced many articles for astrology magazines and published a series of textbooks often ac the insistence of his students. These ten volumes were pivotai in the overall development of modern astrology and are basic tools in the field.11' And the writer goes on to acknowledge Jones' personal qualities by rem arking: In astrology. one may gain recognition as an outstanding speaker (com m unications, public relations). as a counselor (psychology. therapy technique). or as an organizer (group dynarnics, administration). The list of possible ways to shine goes on and on. Mark Edmund Jones was highly skilled in each of these areas ~- Vol SeptembniOFtok p. 19. ll!gavin Kent McClung. uasuology's Centemiai Salute CO Pioneer Marc Eâmunâ Jones." Horoscooe, November p. 34. l%id p. 3 lff.

221 An interna1 publication of the Sabian Assembiy commçnts that the impact of Marc Edmund Jones on astrology "has been to pull astrology in the direction of responsible psychological counseling. Without fortunetrlling. the astrologrr can hèlp the client see the major variables in the life and situation and undtrstand better how they intrract so the power of action rémains with the client." H3 His books have had a considrrablc impact on the perspective and practice of many professional astrolopers. Dana Rudhyar among them. as well as on beginnrrs in the field. regardless of their philosophical or religious backgrounds. Most of Jones' books are still in print; two of thrm are published by the T.S. Publishing House and others are distributed internationally by the AFA and other distributors. Anothar kry factor in his continued influence is the Sabian Assembly. described briefly in what t'ollows. c.) The Sabian Assembly What is the Sabion Assembly? It is esscntially a group of dedicated students that tries to understand the roots and sources of Jones' philosophy. religion and science. It is neither a cult, nor a religion. Anyone can join the Sabian Assembiy who is interested enough to study its astrological or philosophical ideas. A considerable number of its rntmbrrs are also members of the T.S., but even non-theosophical members are to a large drgree familiar with the works of HPB and other Theosophists. The Assembly holds an Annual Surnmer Conference for its mcmbers and a required annual mem bership meeting for the Publishing Society (w hich is incorporated). lu.~mariur Marc Edmund Jones, p. 1 1.

222 During Jones' life timr the Asscmbly counted almost 300 members. but this has steadily declined since his drath and the draths of a number of his followers. The trrm Sabian was adoptrd gradually. Jones had "rmployed the trrm originally in his Kev Truth of Occult Philosoohv (later republishcd as Occult Truth). to identify the fifth Atlantian adoption as a namc for the work. then fairly wrll in progress. was a curiously casual contribution of the students in the California classes." It was astrology that provided the original focus of the Assernbly. but as time went on this base was rxtended to other areas of knowledge. Wr were informrd that about half the prrsent mcmbership take an interest in both astrology and the ' Sabian philosophy:' the remainder are primarily there for the philosophy. As a result attention has baan: dirrcted to the bible. to the world's philosophers... studies of Plato... Aris totle and Plotinus for further devrlopmrn t of Platonic insig hts. to New Thought... the cabala as redeveloped for modern life on the basis of Ibn Gabriel's contribution. to symbolism in its agrlass roots. to Theosophy and Spiritualism for their impact on recent times. and to the occult traditions of the East and West? Jones put together a suggested reading list for al1 mem bers of the Assembiy which contains as essential literature. HPB's Secret Doctrine, the Enneab of Plotinus. The -ose Unsealed. by James M. Pryce. In Tune with. - the I nfin~te by Ralph Waldo Trine. Science and Health with Kev to thç $crimures by Mary Baker Eddy. and an eclectic mixture of other Theosophical and Christian works.

223 The Assernbly includes a range of rituals designed to guide the student through a hierarchy of grades of knowledge. A few of thesa. such as the full moon ceremony. are in part described in the Sabian Manual. others are rrserved for members only as they rvolve in their studics. Jones had bccomr acquaintcd with various ritual practices during his early affiliations with groups such as Max Heindel's Rosicrucian Fellowship. Manly Palmer Hall's Church of the People. and Frremasonry. as wrll as with the T.S. Jones had obsrrvrd the infighting and resulting divisions within the Throsophical Movement. and this left him wary of cstablishing an organization along hierarchical lines. He describes how: "In Theosophical circles 1 began to encounter a vast complex of unconscious charlatanry. and 1 realized that whilr primarily 1 was trying to clarify astrology. 1 had along with it an infinitely more difficult job of clarifying the more grneral popular occult. As a result I have established the Sabian Assem bly..." Il7 The most important principlr: of the Sabian project has therefore "always bren to avoid at al1 costs setting up a central headquarters with corresponding staff. The work of rnaintaining and issuing lesson materials continues now. as then in the hands of dedicated volunteer~."~~ This leads Gavin Kent McClung to believe that Jones' main contribution to astrology may lie in this organizational direction. "for he was deeply concerned with cradicating the intellectual temptation of control over others which abuse of the true astrological tenets may sometimes invite." lis

224 d.) Jones Sabian Astrology In spite of his Christian cornmitment at an rarly agr. it is evident that Jones was drawn more and more into occult thinking as exemplifird in the traditions of Thçosophy. Ncoplatonism and the Kaballah. as time went on. He himself admits as much whrn he writes that: "The whole body of principles. assumptions and facts on which the Sabian activities are based is designated as the OCCULT TRADITION." lm The fact that Jones also had his own cxperiences with HPB's Masters links him even closer to their ideas. How these Theosophical sources have permeated Jones' ideas about astrology are briefly indicated in what follows. Mention will also be made of his own original contribution to astrology. Jones acknowlcdges the influence of Alan Leo "and his attempt in England to use Theosophical principles Cor the greater dignification of the stellar art" in his foreword ro The Esscniials of Astrological Analvsi~.~~ In his Sabian Lecture Lcssons (which he wrote in the early 1930's) he outlines brirf sketches of 10 differcnt approaches to as trology. giving descriptive labels to rach such as Pythagorean. Temple. Arabic. Symbolical. Theosophical. Hermetic. Hegeliao. etc.. al1 of which are part of his total system of "Sabian Astrology." Canarius points out that: "A specific mark of Sabian astrology is a complete lack of discussion of so-called 'malefics* or 'benefics' in a horoscope. The major impact of MEJ's [Marc Edmund Jones'] astrology has been to correct the age-old notion that the power is in the stars. that your chart creates your destiny.""this change to a more ME. Jones, p. 14. ME. loues. Essen<ials of (New York: Sabian Pubiishing Society. 1960) p. Mi. l*.carnarius, Marc Edmuad Joncs, p. 11.

225 person-centeritd astrology. initiated originally by Lro. has since brcome a key tenrt of 20th century astrology. W hat Jones calls Theosophical astrology in this system "is directed to the culture of a real ski11 in the delinration of charactrr. one which eventually will randcr the astrologer wholly independent of the conventional wherl... The contrast here with al1 othrr astrology is that the physical elemrnts of life are pushad into a secondary position." lu The distinction Jones makes between these various approaches to astrology is somrwhat and the texts themsclvrs were never rdited. but the Sabian astrological system as a wholr emphasizes a number of ideas wr have previously had occasion to link with Theosophy. such as karma and reincarnation. a psychological orientation. the Hermetic concept of macrocosm and microcosm. and the idra that astrology is a science. The Christian ernphasis is also m uch in evidence. It is. of course. not always apparent just where he derived his ideas. whethrr directly from his readings of The Secret Doctrinp and other Theosophical works (such as Prysr's Theosophical interpretation of the Book of Revclatioq already mantioned). through othrr occult readings. or indeed directly from his 'Master' (whom hr never identifies by name). We can only discuss his use of the ideas them selves. The most obvious evidrnce of Theosophical influence is the incorporation of the traditional Hindu concepts of karma and reincarnation into his astrology at al1 levels. The Theosophical source for these notions is suggested by his use of other Sanskrit terms commonly found on the pages l?lones, Theoso~cai -(unpubfished lecture lesson for Sabian students. 1932) p. 3. las.~or example he Qclares that; "Sagîttarius becomes tôe foundation of the whole of Theosophical Asmlogy." Theosodîicai Astrology p. 9.

226 of The Secret Doctrine such as 'avatar' (world savior). 'chela' (,s tudent). 'laya crntrr' (potrn tiality of consciousness). r tc. He writrs for rxample. that: "Capricorn seen in its plane of experience is therefore to be known as the powrr of sustainment: cosmic inheritance in the sense of 'overcom ing karma' or uncovering the real heredity of each m an." lzs concept is also rnentioned in other Lecture Lessons and in the more philosophically orientrd books such as his Occult Philosoohv (where thcre is an extensive glossary of tcrms). In addition. he associatrs the seven chakras of Hindu kundalini to srven signs of the zodiac in his Lecture Lessons on Throsoohiçal Astroloq, linking thrm to the nervous system.lt6 Jones naturally cmphasizes the psychological aspects of interprrtation somrwhat more than did HPB. having witnesscd the rapid developmrnts that had raken place in this new discipline since her day. For him: "Astrology is a psychological method for charting or measuring experience. It opcrates through an analysis of character. and a deduction of the probable consrqurnces of a particular individual's situation under a given set OC relations." drstiny' : Jones also agrees with Lro's observation that 'Character is The because. while the circumstances in which a given personality is Cound are responsible for the distribution of its special traits across its own private ground of experiencr. its particular capacities are the basis of its functioning in its own unique fashion. Characteristics l*.theoso~ical Asa- p. 22. Funber inâications of his acccpmce of tbe nmioos of karma and reincarnation can be fouad in the S m (p. 227), Sabiaa (p. 66ff). as weil as in m v : How W ~ (p. K 24-41, 12?~.E. Jones. Lecnuc Lessous: Thcoso- p. 22. A similp nference is founâ in Asmlonv: How and Whv, p l?jones. How aad Wh& p. 33.

227 give a personal implication to evrry rvent in existence. and this fact is the origin of zodiacal mraning. lzb The Hrrmetic concept of the microcosmlmacrocosm also permeatrs Joncs' works. He describes it as the intimacy of relation between the cosmos in its vast reaches and the littlr spark of life working out its destiny on the surface of the éarth-as prrdiçted through the whole development of horoscopic techniques-is know n to philosophers as the microcosm icmacrocosmic doctrine. Man is seen as the little world, or as a complrte if miniature replica of the "Frorn 1924 to 1943 Joncs composed an extensive cornmrntary on the bible in the form of the weekly lessons usrd by the Sabian As~embly."~~ He was inspired in this rnterprisr by his Bible studies. by the study of occultism through the Kaballah. by the Theosophist James Pryse's The A~ocaivasi: Unsealed, rs well as by HPB's Secret Doctrine.131 Jones finds important analogies and correspondences between biblical rvents and somc of the basic tcnets of astrology. The dichotomies of Gcnesis he says. for example. "begin with a distinction between hraven and earth... betwern light and darkness... What is immrdiately at hand is rarth. and what is distant or outside ordinary experience is heaven." ** This distinction corresponds to the basic division of the horoscope into an upper and lowrr hemisphere. in that: "Man may divide up his universe in everyday living. but he cannoc cancel out the relationship of any one part of it with every othrr part. The l?lbid, p lb~ones, Sapian S m p camanus. p. 7-13iJbid, p. 8. lm.jones, How and Wbv, p. 4.

228 whole remains total or cornpiete. The conscious anchorage of astrology in this one all-important Cact is the principal secret of its elfectiveness at its bç~t."l~~ And hr gors on the say: The magic of hemispheres. as astrologically established. lies in the illimitability of their capacity to syrnbolize things. There is not only a basic set given to character at birth. but also a continuous reconstruction of personality throughout lire... and.. Hère is w hrre horoscopy can help man to becorne the director of his fate in a vcry true sense. lm He also agrees with HPB in relating the 12 tribcs of the Jewish faith to the 12 signs of the Zodiac. The twelve apostles are also viewed by both of them as anothrr metaphor for the 12 signs of the ~odiac.~~ In a chapter rntitled "Rhythm and Reality" Joncs also makes referencr to the importance of the cyclic motion of the universe. giving it an interesting non-fatalis tic aspect. by saying that: "The continual recurrence of phenornena in the heavens, the rhythmic reality of the ages in the firmament. are a prophecy of man in his immortal reality. The subtle assurance here transforms risk into Creedorn, while chance takes a néw form of choice." Jones also embraces HPB's notion of astrology as a science. albsit a very sprcial one. He writes: "Let him realize that the successful physician rcquires not only the lcnowledge of the medicine proper but also anatomy, chem is try and basic instruction in m any seem ingly unrelated su bjects. and

229 thar astrology as a science has far greater prerequisites than any othrr known to man." ln Jones also follows HPB in being very concerned about the qualifications of those who would practice astrology. and is quite critical of the trends hr observes.... brçause astrology. in a curious way. is a more refined instrument of analysis than any possible common toque usrd for its description. The principal source of difficulty. w hrn an effort is made to approach astrology critically. but from the outsidc and without an adrquate preparation through an actual experience with its intellectual mechanism. is that thcre are an unending host of distinctions which are very sharp in horoscopic analysis. but definitely hazy whrn expressed in any simple form of words.138 Thus the intellectual preparation of. and the approach adopted by. the astrologer bccomes very important. and Jones bernoans the fact that: "Oftrn the work has saemed to be al1 astrology, and then it has appeared that astrology is altogrther the poor relation of the whole. and in disgrace because of the intellectual uncouthness of its advo~ates."~~ He corn plains that too many astrologers who "want to soak it al1 up in class. take it al1 in notas and get their mind full of it. simply have intellectual constipation. They can't functi~n."~~~ His point is that there is more to astrology than just the basic facts; it is also an art. and not everyone is an artist. Jones is also somewhat critical of those in today's astrological community who seek to prove the validity of astrology through statistical analysis. ln.~oaes. ~eosonbifpiolo~ÿ p '8.i'bid p. ix. 139.~amarius p. 84. la.~henomeoa Vol SeptemberiOctoba 1978, p. 20.

230 such as the attempts dong these lines by Michel Gauquelin. in an interview given at his 90th birthday that: He remarks We're coming to the point where you are going to have a choice in astrology and the choicr is whether you're going to consider the astrologer a rnechanic or an artist. Now we are swinging to the rnechanical... If we understand what statistics are for. that's a horse of a different colour. In it's proper place it's pri~eless.~~ Jones has also contributed at least two major innovations to the astrology fk of the 20th century. the Sabian Symbols and the Seven Tvpes. of Planerary Patterns. The first can be related to his Theosophical background and its insights: the second is definitely the product of his own creative imagination. and has been much valued by astroiogers if the many reprints of his books may be accepted as a criterion. The Sabian Svmbols- developed with and through the psychic capacity of his student Elsie Wheeler. assign a symbol to cach of the 360 degrees of the Zodiac. As an cxample. the symbol Cor 30 degrees Taurus is: "A peacock parading on an ancient lawn." The interpretation of this symbol is explained more fully in several lines of text. and reminds one of the divinatory method followed by the 1 Ching. These symbols have been tested over time and have proved themsrlves quite useful in horoscope interpretation. While Jones was not the first to sym bolize the degrees of the Zodiac his syrn bols. first popularized by Rudhyar. have since corne into widespread use in the astrological community.1" The popularity of the symbols finaily led Jones "l-~ichel Gauquelin is author of a large nutuber of books nporting on his statistical reseuch into the vaiidity of asmlogy. See for example D-CosrniL: Clocb (London: Palladin, 1973); Cosmic flce Be- (New York: ASI. 1978); and "Neo-astrolog y: fony y c of ~ research." - * u F ed. A.T. Mann ( L o b and Syâney: Uowin Hyrmo, 1987). among oihers. 14?~henomena Vol SeptemberlOctober p. 20. "?T'he fust to intioduce sucb symbols was a contemporary of Alan Leo called Joùa Thanas. mey were published under the pen-name 'Chambel' in Leo's & ' I V. Thomas seems to have

231 to publish them with his own original comments in his book. The Sabian Svmbols of Astrolo~v in Jones' enrichment of astrology with his Seven Types of Planetory Patterns has also bren widrly appreciated and adopted by the astrological comrnunity. By looking at the distribution of planets around the horoscope wheel he obsrrved srven basic patterns that he found could be related to seven psychological types. "The division of al1 people into srven basic types is purely psychological screening. The people made distinct from rach other by some clarification rnay be quite alike by some othrr. but this way of sorting has an effective psychological result that is hard to match in irrms of' actual problems solved." Just as the distribution of planets in the four elements givzs a basic indication of a person's temperamont. so Jones discovered that the pattern planets forrn have an additional significancr. providing an "accurate preliminary classification." For exam ple. somrone whosr planets are almost evrnly distributed throughout the wheel is The Splash Type. while someone with a cluster of planets in one particular area. would be The Bundle Type etc. A specific intrrpretation is associated with rach of these patterns. As one of the innovations in astrology introduced since the turn of' the century it is used "for recognizing the whole-factors in a chart before attempting any analysis leaned more toward the fatalistic occultism of the Golden Dm. There were prohbly others before him and they may bave originated in Arabic asuology. Jones himself had ociginally published his S ymbols in a boolrlet in 1931, but distribution must have been low. The breakthrough came witb Rudhyar's publication of them in 1936, ami again witb tbe reiease of -al in 1976 ( iacorporaiing his extended comments). lq.~ones. Tb- <O ~ O S (Wheaton. C Illinois: The ~ Theosophical Publishing House, 1982) p. ai.

232 in dctail." L45 Jones nevrrtheless also cautions the novice in astrology not to oversim plify matters with such methods Dane Rudhyar The lrgacy of Dane Rudhyar. our 'youngest' representative of the Theosophical influence. has greatly enriched the principles and practicrs of twrntieth century astrology in the Western World. He rose to prominence during the sixties and seventies when he becami: sorncthing of a 'renaissance man.' to the disaffected youth of the timr. Apart from his work as philosopher and astrologer he was also recognized in more artistic circles as a musician. paintrr and poet. W hile his enduring passion was music it is his caresr as a writer and lrcturer on astrology for which he is most remembered today. His numerous books and articles on this subject are probably cvrn more widrly read now than they wcre during his lifetime (he died in 1985). While his significance for Our purposes is related more specifically to his role as ;i conduit for Theosophical ideas. he was also the first to incorporate the dcpth psychological ideas of the Swiss psychologist C.G. Jung into astrology. His astrological impact has thus brrn twofold. Theosophical and psychological. though it is the Theosophical influence that will concern us more particularly in what Collows. His case is unusual to the extent that. though closely linked to the Theosophical Movement for most of his life. he is the only one of our four prominent exemplars who was never an actual member of any Theosophical Society or group. On the other hand he has written more

233 about HPB and the purposes of the T.S. than any of the three rzpresrntative astrologers wa have already introduced. His work shows a progressive development from the rarlier psychological w ritings of his Humanistic Astrology tow ards w hat he callcd Transpersonal Astrology-an attem pt to harness as trology as a vrhicle for transcending persona1 ego boundarics. Transpersonal Astrology is essentially a more philosophical application of Theosophical ideas to rxtend the comm on or 'cxotaric' mode of astrological interpretation towards what HPB would undoubtedly have regarded as 'csotrric' as trology. a.) Biography While Rudhyar did write an autobiography in his later years this was reportedly rejected by a publisher as bsing 'too personal.' It has since rcmained with his surviving (fourth) wife. who no doubt feels the samc way. since it has yet to sce the light of day. W hat follows has therefore becn culled from whatever personal statemçnts are to be found in his books. from various biographical and mrmorial articles that have appcared in journals or on the internet. and from persona1 contact and discussion with Dr. Michael Meyer. a devoted longtirne s tudenr of Rudhyar. Rudhyar was born on March in Paris. France. His father was the propriator of a small factoty manufacturing architectural materials and ornamentation. Both parents were Roman Catholics. The fam ily name was Chenneviere but this he exchaaged for Rudhyar around 1917 i46.~arbara Somerfield, 'To Tome Rudhysr: h Memoriurn." in TO SOW, Vol. 3. No. L p. 12.

234 whilc on a visit to North America (linking 'Rudhyar' to the Indian God 'Rudra'). He had a serious kidney operation at the age of 13 the aftermath of which at'fected his health for the rest of his life. On the other hand this did help him avoid bcing drafted into the army during the First World War. "actually saving his life as the rzgiment he would have joined was completely wiped out."147 During his lcngthy stay in the hospital ht! became very introspective. and had experiences which made hirn realize that: "Time is cyclic. and the Law of Cycles controls al1 civilitation as well as al1 r ~istence."~~ This was years before hc became acquaintrd with the teachings of HPB. He was a studious youth and had already passrd his baccalaurdat by the age of L6. But aftrr his fathcr dicd in Rudhyar always had a strugglr to make a living. Aftrr a short attempt to study Law. he wrote his first book on the musician Claude Debussy. which was published in As a musician Rudhyar was largely self-taught. starting on the piano as a young child and composing by the apr of 17. His rnother also had an apprcciation for music and no doubt supported hcr son's efforts in this direction. The publication of his first book probably gave him some recognition in the leading artistic circles of Paris in which he was wont to mingle. He reportedly also worked for a short period for the famous sculptor Rodin. "His interest in music. and cspecially Oriental music. is what first brought Rudhyar to the United States. in The occasion was a gala performance of his syrnphonic work at. - "%mes S here. 1 89%: a brief bio- with of his wo&, (Berkeley, California International Cornmitee for Humanistic Astrology. 1972) p. 3. i"s.ibid, p. 3.

235 the New York Metropolitan Opera."149 It was shortly thereafter. while visiting somr musician friends in Toronto and Montreal over a prriod of some months. that he was first introduced to Theosophy. However. it was in 1920 whilr staying nrar the then hradquarrers of the T.S. at Krotona (Ojai) in California that hr bccame more acquainted with Theosophy and also astrology. After befriending a "Dutch woman Mrs. Van Vliet who was deeply interested in music (Wagner esprcially). thcosophy and astrology. Rudhyar decidrd to investigate astrology and learn its techniques-classes being provided free."*' 11 was ais0 at Krotona that he met Alicr Bailry who later offcred to publish his first book on astrology. He also mat there the Indian Theosophist Mr. B.P. Wadia who left shortly thereafter to join the United Lodge of Theosophists. ls1 Rudhyar's discussions with Wadia apparently made a great impression. leading him io study [sis Unveiled and The Secret Doctrine, where hr found his early ideas about cyclic time greatly cxpanded and clarifird. He latcr wrote how both thcsc works of HPB: "had mrant so much to the developrnent of my historical sanse and rny deeper rni~~d."~~~ His former interest in oriental music was now corn bined with an interest in Hindu philosophy: astrology became more of a side interest. He earned a meager living at this time mainly through writing ljg.~anr Rudhyar. MY Stand on (Pa10 Alto. California: Tbe Seed Ceoter. 1972) p. 5. la.shere. Pane Ru- 189%:, p i.~bid. p. 6. B.F. Wadia was actually sent by Annie Besant to investigaie problems at Headquarters. However the 1920 conveatioa created a split in the T.S. when Mce Bailey left Ktotoaa with her husbaod to create her own school. Mr. Wadia îlimself stayed in North Amerka but joined the United Ludge oftheosophy, founâed as a resuit of a previous split in 1909 by Robert Crosbie and other members of the Adyar T.S.

236 articles on art and the occasional contract to compose music. though as rarly as 1928 he admits to having done charts procr~siona1ly.l~~ A key year in his asrrological carerr was 1930 whrn. in California. he met Jones through his first wifc (whom he married the sarnz year). Thry soon moved back to New York whcre hr received the rnirneographed material on astrology which Jones had heen distributing to the members of his Sabian Assemblv. He lound Jones' philosophical approach to astrology very intriguing. and this inspiritd a renewed interest in the subjcct. though he did not join the group or followed the classes. His continued association with the Adyar T.S. is rvidenced by an advertisemcnt to offer 'Astrological Readings' by Dane Rudhyar in Los Angeles. which appeared in the The Theoso~hical Messen= of May Rudhyar was grnrrally reluctant to join established organizations such as the Theosophical Society. the Sabian Assembfy, or the Arcane School of Alice Bailey. being vrry much an individualist with definite idras of his own. He rather preferred to stay independent and devrlop his own philosophy and approach to astrology. He did. however. bccome a member of the AFA where he recrived a standing ovation on srvrral occasions during his participation in a number of their conventions. l3 This more active involvement with as trology had the unfortunate cffect of alienating a few of his influential musician friends. who were already at odds with him over his style of music. Opportunities in music as a source of income dried up as a result and

237 werr replaced by increasrd writing on astrology. This work was apparently well reccived. It was while staying with a Theosophical couple in New Mexico in 1933 that he became açquainted with the drpth psychology of C.G. Jung. which he Mt. ideally complemented the serious approach to astrology promoted by Jones.1" This prospect not only captured his interest. but lrd to his association with Paul Clancy. editor of the fledgling American Astrologv magazine: Later that same year [1933). I finally met Paul Clancy in New York. He had aiready printrd some lectures 1 had given in Boston in and he gave me carte blanche to write anything along these linrs for publication in his magazine. At that time. Clancy was rager to combine 'popular astrology' with the type of 'psychological astrology* 1 was beginning to expound. For several years. Grant Lewi wrote most of the 'forecasts* and 1 many of the remaining pages of the magazine? The corn bination in Rudhyar's approach to astrology of Theosophical philosophy and depth-psychology made the magazine more successful than ever and. "in 1934 a big distributor was able to place "American Astrology" on many newsstands, and its phenornenal gtowth began... Clancy asked for more articles and Rudhyar began to write two or three long articles monthly for the magazine."fi7 This. in turn. led to his renewed contact with Alice Bailey. On reading some of Rudhyar's articles and liking them. she encouraged him to publish a number of them as a book. which she offered to publish through her Lucis Trust Publishing house. The result was Rudhyar's first and most. - ls.~udhyar. ^Foreword,'* in MaMa Moae lad Mark Douglas. m i v u e Sci- p. xü. l".ibid p. ui. I%here. Dane Rudbvv 189S:, p. 10. He also wfote subsequenlly for Horoscog magazine.

238 famous work The Astrolo~v of Persanalitv, which rernains a bestseller to this day. This book also containrd a short form of the Sabian Sym bols made possible through the generous agreement of Jones. Althouph Lryla Rael. Rudhyar's fourth wife. later rrmarked somrw hat sarcas tically that: "if it weren' t for Rudhyar's reques t to publish the Sabian Symbols in Astrology of the Prrsonality. the index cards containing these valuable. intriguing (and sometimes maddeningly cryptic) rcvelations might have lain indrfinitely in Marc Joncs's safe deposit box."ls8 Rudhyar obviously had the right intuition. since thesr symbols became vrry popular. and as already mrntioned. Jones finally published them himself in the 1950's. Rudhyar's lifc-style was somcwhat similar to that of Jones: no steady job and much moving about. However Rudhyar's pcrsonal lire seems to have beèn rather more turbulent than that of his former mentor. Rudhyar married a total of four women and attempted to pursuc a varirty of artistic careers-music. painting and poetry. He was talrnted and interested in many subjects. His main interest. as wc have already had occasion to mention. was playing and composing music. He returned to music again and again durinp the course of his life. composing various pieces with occasional success. but his style was çlrarly too avant-guarde for the times. preventing him from making it a career and a livelihood. It therefore fell to astrology to become his real career. Ironically. it was oaly with his growing popularity and success as an astrologer. w hich started in the late 50's. that his musical compositions slowly became more accepted. M.The Astrological Journal, Vol. 27. No , p. 77.

239 His first marriage broke off around 1942 and around 1945 he married Eya Fechin. daughter of the famous Russian painter Nicolai Fechin. It was during the period of this marriagc that he himself also becamr known as a painter.lj9 His new wife began studying in New York with Dr. Jacob Moreno. foundrr of Psycho-drama. She was highly capable and arnbitious. and finally took a position as head of a department of Psychodrama in Iowa (also for financial reasons). Therr she fell in love with an assistant and asked Rudhyar for a divorce in Rudhyar thrreaftrr wcnt through another difficult period and finally moved to California where he lived for a whilr in "relative isolation in a small Hollywood apartmrnt". He ncvertheless continued to write articles and give lectures. In 1958 he was invited to Switzerland by an elderly lady who wished to support his astrological approach. This European visit started a new chapter in Rudhyar's life. He gave lectures and made nrw friends and studrnts there. as wcll as in France. The Netherlands and England. At P lecture in the Netherlands ht! met a publisher who offered to publish one of his books at a time when he was having difficulties publishing in the United States. This soon became a fruitful relationship which promoted Rudhyar's fortunes in Europe. He was twice received as a guest of honor in England. where he gave lectures at the Astrological Lodge of the Theosophical Society. He returned to Europe several 159.~he followiog aewspaper art review gives some idea of bis success in this field: "It is seldom that an artist briogs to his paintings as unusual a background of creative activity as Dane Rudhyar. A noted composer, author, philosopber, he bas alteady reached a focal point in his fmt attempts with a plastic medium. The result is an important expression of Me experience which is univefsaily symbolic yet fulty consciou of inner self." (Marie Ewing in the New M~xico Examiner, October 2,1938)- The passage is quoted in: A M Moraag. Pioae~er in Crave S m (New York: Lucis Pubiishing Company, 1939) p. 24. l*~umm Dimeasioq, Vol. 4, No ?. p. 6.

240 timts between 1958 and the summer of visiting the samr places and drepening his contacts. Alexander Ruperti. an older student of his whom he met at this tirne. continues to promotr his ideas in Europe to this day. "Ruperti has organized over a dozen groups in France. Spain and Switzerland which study the works of Rudhyar..." Rudhyar returned to the United States in the sum mer of 1963 w here. in riarly he marricd his third wife Tana. a Canadian. This marriagr: Lastrd approximatrly 10 years during which he was highly productive and well supported by his wife. with a number of his books being published in the Netheriands. To provide additional backing for his efforts Rudhyar established the Inrernarional Commilee for o Humanistic Astrology in 1969 "to focus the attention upon a humanistic in-depth approach to this ancient. yat ever-changing method of attunrment to the rhythmic order of the universe." though on a 'non-organizational' ba~is.l~~ This initiative however. did not survive and his memory is krpt alive today largely through the work of dedicatrd students such as Ruperti in Europe and othrrs in North Amrrica. as wrll as by his publishers. Rudhyar also maintained good reiations with leaders of the Esalen Institute in California (a well- known Institute for Psychotherapy) and was often invited to pive lectures there. M. Meyer has reported that on one occasion in the 70's Rudhyar reflected that a particular invitation to the Esalen Institute to talk on HPB's Secret Doctrine, was an optimistic portend for the t6!leff lawer. "Rudhyar," in A T m to D~prRuâhyar (The Hague: Stichting 'Asiro-Kring.' 1995) p. 13. Ruperti. who bad previously studied un&r Alice Bailey and Charles Carter, subsequendy fuuy endorsecl Rudhyar's appoach. 162~ane Rudhyar. "uiternatioaal Commitee for a Humanistic AFQology," Vol. 2 No. 5, May 1969, p. 10. His experiences witb the T.S. may bave had a deterrent effect. as was the case with Jones.

241 Cuturr.163 He had been cautious about mentioning Thcosophy in his earlier lectures. Rudhyar was never quite sure whether he was understood by his various audiences. remarking on one occasion: "1 very often had cause to wonder how much rny so appreciativr and obviously very moved readers understood of what I had tried to tat te."'^^ And his friend in Holland in whom he confided his suspicion. admitted that: "In Holland most people just don't understand Rudhyar's work at al1 and tïnd it difficult to read and I am afraid that we are as a nation too crudely honrst and just say so if we think that way."lb5 This is no doubt the reason why many of his latrr more philosophical books have not had the same measure of succcss as his first. His book The Planetarization of Consciousness for example is almost pure philosophy. Rudhyar wrote between 30 and 40 books and booklats during his lifi timr. not al1 of them focused on astrology. Around 1976 Rudhyar married Lryla Rael. his fourth and final wife. and he continued to write and lecture untii his death in b.) Appraisals Though Rudhyar's International Comrnittee for Humanistic Astrology did not survive. his legacy in the field of astrology and his standing in the astrological cornmunity will long be remembered. We can offer hare only a brief selection of opinion on how much Rudhyar's efforts 163~ichael Meyer. nrudhyar: Friend, Exemply and Sage," - A T p. 33. l%joyce Hoeu. -Rudhyar and the Meanîng of bis Astrology." A Tribu CO p l'ba p. 5.

242 have brrn apprrciatrd and appropriatcd by those who came in contact with him. either prrsonally or through his books. In the foreword to his book Horarv Astrolou Joncs himsclf acknowlrdgrs the initiative of his studsnt Dane Rudhyar. who early took an interest in the mimcopraphed materials and w ho insisted upon giving credit in print to the wholr research project and thereby unwittingly destroyed the anonymity that the author has felt would bettsr serve the purposes in view. It is thanks to Rudhyar primarily. who through the years has remained a lricnd in his own maturing as the philosopher as wrll as the artis t. that the astrological materials convrnicntly labrlrd Sabian in their totality wrre brought to the attention of the general astrological public. 166 Jones also commented enthusiastically on Rudhyar's first book The Astrolo~v of Personalitv published in saying that: "Here is pioneer work of a fine and convincing order. blazing the way into totally unexplored forests of the human mind... a primary exposition in a unique and really scientific approach to the nature of symbolism: a book that no symbolist of discernment can afford to negle~t."'~~ Paul Clancy. proprietor of American went even further. cnthusiastically acclaiming the book as "the greatest step Corward in Astrolopy since the time of Ptolemy. It represenrs the birth of a new cpoch." This first book did indeed break new ground. in rather the same way as Leo's books had done in his time. &trolqgv of thg 166.~arc p. 8. Edm~d Jones. H m &&&gy (Berkeley& London: Sbambhaia Publications. Inc ) lgi.= ~oraag. m a r : ~io-e Company, 1939) p. 27. S w m e w la.paul Clancy. The Astrolorical Vol. 27. No. 2. Spring p.77. ~oric: ~ucis ~ibüsûing

243 Personalitv was not written as a trxt-book but was a new interprrration of " 'Astrological Concepts and Ideals in Trrms of Contrmporary Psychology and Philosophy.' He is more concerned with establishing the rationale of astrological techniques than with drmonstrating the techniques [hem selves." A later studcnt of Rudhyar's works apparently also feels that "Rudhyar transformad astrology's landscapr and inspircd us to go to the highest in ourselves rather than remain trapprd in our ancient w orld-view." Alexander Ruperti. a close associate and long time student of the Theosophical orientation in astrology as well as an author in his own right. remarks: "1 have bern in contact with him [Rudhyar] since the publication of 'ASTROLOGY OF THE PERSONALITY' in He has enriched my life and my understanding immensely." 1'1 In Ruprrti's opinion "Rudhyar usrd astrology as a vehiclç to reach the greatest number of people. just as Blavatsky used spiritualism to do the same thing. His message is not astrological in itself... The aim of as trological counseling became that of revealing meaning. rather than predicting events." ln And Rudhyar's last wife rnay well be right in stating that: "virtually no astrologer practicing today is unaffected by Rudhyar's work. Ideas Los.~onald C. Davison. review of Astmlo~~ of Personalitÿ in Asmlonv, Vol. 38. No. 1. 1%4. p. '?Jeff lawer. "Rudhyar." A Tfibvte to Dane W. (The Hague: Stichting 'Asuo-Knog.' 1995). 17i.~exander Ruperti. -&A lr.ruperti. ibid. Seed-Man fa rk new Em." to. - D

244 which hr was the Cirst to formulate (and oftrn the only one to develop i'ully. consistrntly. and coherrntly) have been 'in the air' Cor nearly hall a crntury. during which time he wrote and lrctured prolifically." 173 The widrly read and influential astrologer and author Stephrn Arroyo. who corresponded with Rudhyar while with CRCS Publications (a publishing house). is one of a number of contemporary astrologers who have followed Rudhyar's psychological apptoach to astrology. As Ieff Jawer States: "The writings of Strphen Arroyo. to give one example. are full of Rudhyar's understanding of the relarionship betwren sou1 and psychology. In fact the whole of modern psychological rsrrology owes a debt to Rudhyar." 174 We çoncluds with an appraisal of Rudhyar as a composer. to providr both a measurr of the scope of his talents and a pithy summary of his m ultifaceted character: No composer who ever lived in Los Angeles has ever excited the intrrest. curiosity and fear that D. Rudhyar has called into being among Our cognoscenti. The reason is obvious: Rudhyar is zrudite. full of talent. fearless and uncornpromising... In his knowledge and sincerity. his strength and his industry. he is the musical prer of many celebrities who have gained real support and attention in our country. 175 la.~ryla Rael. Wappy Binhôay, Rudhyar and Thanks," Jle SyLplpUrd 10- Vol. 27. No. 2. Spfiag p. 77. L74.~eff Jawer, "Rudhyar." L7s..lose Rodnguez writing in the Los Anneies Record, Quoted in Mred Mor~ng, Dane Rudhvar: Pioneer in Creative Svnthesi~ p. 24.

245 c.) Rudhyar's Astrology Rudhyar's astrology is permratrd with HPB's ideas as prrsentcd in hrr major works. for which he has such high praise. He even devoted one whole book in his later life (1975). Qccult Pre~aration for a New &. to HPB's lifr story and her teachings. and cxplains his idcas of time. the theory of cycles and transpsrsoniil living within the frame of Theosophical teachings. Furthrrmore. in his book The Planetarization gf Consciousness. hz discusses some of the main Theosophical principles. such as karma and reincarnation in detail. Rudhyar went through sevrral stages in his astrological devrlopmcnt (which may have corresponded. in part. with his own persona1 developmrnt) unril hr first arrived at his concept of Humanistic Astrology which hr later hoprd would be rcplaced by a Transpcrsonal Astrology. For Rudhyar. the validity of astrology is found in the praçtical application of its mctaphysical framcwork. and this frarnework owed much to Theosophy. Howevsr he felt that the "ordinary astrologer is unaware of. or uninterested in such a metaphysical Coundation..." i76 In other words. the major purposr of astrology for him. "is not to predict rvents in trrms of statistical probability. but to bring to confused. rager. often distraught persons a message of order. of "form." of the meaning of individual Iifr and individual struggles in the process of self-actualization." Ln Marcia Moore and Mark Douglas provide a good summary of Rudhyar's main ~wlhyar. The Sun is &p a Star tkwc D m a of &jtf&gy (New York: Dutum & Co. Inc ) p ln.~udbyar. t T Astrolonvd tb enonalitv.tion(new Yoik York: Doubleday Paperback, 19701, p. xv.

246 principles. particularly his philosophy of holism which he adapted from General Smuts' Holism and Evolution. According to Rudhyar. the solar system is roughly analogous to a vas1 clock. with many hands which revolve at different specds. Each hand measures a particular kind of cycle. but is an indicator. not an instigator of rvents. Rudhyar rxpounds his theorirs in the context of a philosophy of holism which posits that the structure in space and timr of large wholes is retatrd to the structural developrnent of lesser wholes (in individual group. or evrnt). He insists that astrology is not a study of direct influences exerted by celestial bodies upon earth-grown entities. but is a technique for understanding the arrangement and unfoldrnrnt of the creative functions which exist in every organizrd system of activities. Rudhyar also develops the gnostic concept that an Eon is a cosmic being and that al1 cycles have an inherent life of their own. 178 Thesr principirs tie in with his Theosophical convictions and thus brcome extrrmrly important to his own work. Howevcr. Rudhyar regards his so called Humanistic Astrology only as a stepping Stone to what he calls Transpersonal Astrology. founded on the principle of 'galacticity'. By this he means that the astrologer should have a clearer concept of the nature of man. his destiny and purpose or meaning in life. That Rudhyar's vision of astrology might seem quite futuristic to somr people is not surprising in light. for example. of the following statements: The zodiacal concept should therefore be reinterpreted. even if at present for practical reasons. the astrologer cannot dispense lm.~arcia Moore and Mark hgias. qgyplp~v the D. - i v m (YorkHarüor,Maiw: Arcane Publications, 1971) p Tbe symbol of the ciock seems to be a favorite among Theosophists. Marcia Moore has also been a close friend of Rudhyar, occasîonally organizing lectures for bim in Boston.

247 with it. It is a basic frame of reference:... it would lose much of its importance in a truly "person-centrred" type of astrology in w hich thrce-dimcnsional "birth globe"[s J would replace our present two-dimensional birth charts. Here again a carrful distinction br tween w hat we rather am biguously cal1 today the zodiac and a grneral division of any cycle into twelvr phases. each of which has a characteristic meaning. is imperative.lx The theory of planetary cycles is a major cornerstone of his philosophy. running through almost al1 his books like the proverbial Ariadne's thread. In sum. he sees human consciousness davrloping in cycles, though in a spiral rather than a circle. His vision of human 'galactization' is akin to. and probably influenced by. similar Theosophical ideas of human potential. He writrs: Al1 that a consideration of the potentiality of "galactization" of human consciousnrss adds to the picture is a new and repolarized intrrpretation of the meaning to be attributed to (1 1 the Sun: (2) the trans-saturnian planets. Uranus. Neptune and Pluto: and (3) the stars. lm Rudhyar emphasizes the role of the 'outcr planrts' as doorways to the Cosmos w hich lead us on the path towards this 'galactic' consciousness. meaning a more global or universal vision that transcends our narrow ego-centrred attitude. 181 This is pure Thsosophy only in different terms. in.~udhyar. The Sun is &O a Sm p L841bid p ~bid p LQ.~cowmisis now taik of a 'global economy' in whîch individuals iue affected more thao ever before by events Wing place elsewbete on the globe. This has already promoted a more 'global coasciousness' among forward-thinking poli ticians and business leaders, tbough it bas not ye t fdtered down to the man in the Street, However, this 'global consciousness' is stiu a far cry from Rudhyar's idea of 'galactic coosciousness'.

248 Rudhyar thinks that therc is unfortunately. as yct. insufficient knowledge to practicr such a galactic. transpersonal type of astrology. and his own idras may not easily be acceptrd at However. ht: is the etrrnal optimist and quite content to await the judgmcnt of history. When Uranus. Neptune and Pluto have done their work. the boundarirs of the heliocosrn-the protective but isolating outer layers of the disciples aura-have become translucent. Galactic light can pour through them without any resistancr. The chernical energies of "life" have bern transmuted into the nuclear forces of "spirit". Man though still "in" the world. is no longer "of" the world. la It is because of our ignorance alone. he continues that people rnay Say that the vsry concept of galacticity is prem ature. But so are all social u topias and philosophical-e thical dreams! They announce and attempt to formulate in broad terms w hat sooner or later must corne. By imprinting the ideal upon the consciousness of human beings and small groups or corn m unities. these dreams make possible the seem ingly impossible. They gradually permeate and transform the personal practices. In an interview Rudhyar gave to the American Theoso~hist hs again expresses his optimism for the future by reference to the Hindu notion: that with the death of an Avatar-a Divine Manifestation in w hatever form it takes place-a new cycle begins. because then ls.~udbyar. The Sypydso a Sm p ~udhyar. The Sun is &O a Sm p. 43. is.~udhyar, The Sun is dso a Star, p. 181.

249 the enrrgy which was impsrsonated or locked in that bring brçomes released. Iesus said, "1 must die so that the Holy Ghost can pervade you." Blavatsky died in Baha'u'llah dird in 1892: the people who started the Communist movement died in 1883 and In addition to his strong philosophical leanings. Rudhyar also enriched astrology with two new technical practices. He inventrd a mrthod of forecasting by a sort of 'directional technique'. w hich he called 'the point of self'. It is like "a symbolic clockwork hand that moves through the houses and ovcr the natal angles and planets once every twenty-eight years. seven years per quadrant regardless of the numbrr of zodiacal degrees between horizon and meridian." lgt This m ay also have brrn an attrmpt to neutralize some of the problams surrounding the debate about the validity of the various house systems. His second contribution was another rnethod of progressing the horoscope. the Lunation Cycle. Meyer comments on this in the lollowing terms: But what most impressed me about "The Lunation Cycle" was its theosophical foundation. Not that Rudhyar quoted Blavatsky's "Secret Doctrine" or that he drew attention to the theosophical basis of his approach to astrology. he didn't.... Rudhyar's description of the structure of the lunation cyclewith its involutionary hemicycles and its 8 soli-lunar phaseswas rooted in the theosophical worldview... lm 18a.~ül Qh. *'An Interview wirb Dane Rudhyar," September 1977, p Thenican~~~h&, Vol. 65. No. 9, lq~e~fa Rael. ^Happy Binhday, Rudbyar and Tbanks*" p. 79. l*.~ichael Meyer. 'Ttudbyar: Friend Exemplar and Sap.* A Tribute to Dane Rudhvar.

250 In his first book Rudhyar also drew attention again to the sub-aspects. such as semi-sextiles. srptiles. quintiles etc. which had previously been neglectrd. and endowzd thrm with new roles and meaning. W ith respect to the status of astrology as a science. Rudhyar is of the opinion that:... astrology can be considered. broadly speaking. a 'science.' A science is a method of gaining a knowledge of what is around us. and of predicting what is going to happen when various factors in our environment act upon cach other - for instance. w hen certain chemicals corn bine to produce accurately foreserable reactions. Such knowledge. if it has proven reliablr in a large num ber of carefully identified and rneasured instances. can br called 'scientifid whatever the method to gain the knowledge has bern.1b9 This issue is further rxplored by Rudhyar in the interview with The Amsrican Theosoohis~, whcre he points to the mataphysical underpinning of as trology by saying : W hen one is draling with the occult type of astrology one has to presuppose a number of things which are. to some rxtent. implied in theosophy. yet which are not nrcessarily connectrd with the original teachings of theosophy. However. it might be said that one of the basic ways in which astrology and the validity of astrology has been explained is by the doctrine of correspondence and the so-callçd Hermetic principle of 'As above. so below.' lm Because Rudhyar favors a different. more philosophical and 'transcendent' approach to astrology. as discussed above. he tends to L89.~udhyar. Pets011 c-d Astrology (Lakemount. GA: CSA Press. 1971) p. 7. l%~ill Quinn, 'An interview with Dane Rudùyar." p. 248.

251 be wary of the purely quantitative approach favored by certain astrologers. such as M. Gauquelin. The strictly scientilic approach is perfecrty legitimate. It satisfirs the analytical mind and m ay lead to m any valuablr conclusions. provided it is intellipently applird and does not violate the inhrrent characteristics of as trology. There are. however. many pitfalls in such an approach. Since it is analytical rathzr than holistic. it deals with rvents rather than with whole pzrsons. It singles out specific illnesses or specific carrrrs as entities in themselves. This in turn implirs a dualistic. çither-or. yes-or-no approach which is the vcry oppositr of the holistic viewpoint. 19i Rudhyar makes his point even clcarer when he remarks that Humanistic astrology is "an astrology aiming at the Culfillment of the individual person. It is not mrant to appeal to intellrctual curiosity or evr n to the so-called scien tific men tally engrossed by quantitative statistical research."l* During talks and lectures to his mainly younger audiences in the 60's and 70's Rudhyar realized ihat the 'scirntific' analytical approach could never respond to their needs. Rudhyar is certainly in agreement with HPB that an astrologcr should also be a psychologist. and even a serr. In this way "he can help the person to get a more objective picture of the possibilitics inhcrent in his Me-situation." lg3 HLs book. An Astrological Stydv of PsvcholQOical Corgalexes and E m w P r o b b (1966) also offzrs lgl.~anc: Ruâhyar. "Foieworâ," in Marcia MOOR aod Mark Douglas. D i v b S c i s p. xiii. l*.~ane Rudhyar. "Iiiteniarioaal Commitw for a Humanistic Astrology." m, VOL 2 No. 5. May 1%9. p. 11. IB.~iJl Quion. *'An interview wip Dane Ruâhyiu." p. 251.

252 ample rvidence of the importance Rudhyar gives to the contribution of astroiogy to psychological counseiing: in his opinion the psychologist cannot ser the entire lifc of the person with a whole viaw. whereas the astrologer has before him an abstract picturr of the whole life in its seed porentiality... In other words the psychologist has eristential knowledge but doesn't know anything about orchetypal knowledge: and 1 must add that what Jung calls 'archetypes' is something entirely diffrrent from what I speak of as archetype 1%. It is not Our task hera to explore his differences with Jung in respect to the definition of 'archetypes.' Sufficc it to Say that Rudhyar adopted and adapted many ideas and concepts coming out of the psychological ideas and vocabulary of various contem porary theoris ts. including Jung. Ira Progoff. Maslow and Assagioli. al1 of which he sees as advocating purposive approachcs to hum an development. Rudhyar also agrees with the moral relativism of HPB and Theosophy. and indeed with Vedantic notions, when he States that: we cannot Say that any event is good or bad: only whether or not it served the purpose of the life or dharma of the person. In a certain sense. traumatic events always do serve the purpose of the dharma. but the individual may not be able to ser that it is so. He may be so completely shocked and depressed by the event that he simply is not able to use it constructively.". This agreement also extends to the rejection of the old astrological 'fatalisrn' in favor of the more modern consensus, originally sponsored by HPB. that, "the stars impel: they do not compel."

253 8.5 Summary and brief Analysis of our four Astrologers The order in which wr: have discussrd our four prominent Theosophicallyoriented astrologers in this thrsis is first of al1 an ordrr dictatrd by thrir age and position in the history of astrology. Wa want to briefly recall here the dates of their Me-span. since these periods have been vital to their çreative influence in the field of as trology. A. Leo 1860-lY 17: C. E.O. Carter : M.E. Jones : D. Rudhyar Looking at these dates. what becomrs immcdiately obvious. is the tàct that the two British representatives bo th antedate their North Am erican colleagues. This serves to highlig ht the historical precedence and importance of the British heritage with respect to astrology in North America. to which Mr. G.I. McCormack also drew attention in a 1933 speech to the Annual Convention of the AFA (as mentionrd rarlier). Jones also acknowledgrs that "the lean on AIan Leo. and his attempt in England to use Theosophical principles for the greater dignification of the stellar art" set cxamplrs for the treatment and practice of astrology in North America. The appraisals included for each of Our representatives. however incomplete. demonstrate their impact not only on the local astrological corn m unity but also internationally. In the section drscribing their specific brand of astrology we offered evidence of the penetrating influence of Theosophical teachings. derived from their affiliations with various Theosophical groups and their readings of HPB's major works as well as L96~oaer The Essentials of Astrolocical Aaalvsis, p. vii.

254 other important Theosophical literature (tg. The Mahatma Lettrrs). In addition we mcntioned the original contributions made by thesr reprrsrntatives to the field of astrology. A. Leo The testimony and appraisals given to Leo's work çlearly show thai: "Alan Léo was the foreronncr of a nrw breed of as trologcrs who werr to regard astrology not only as a predictive science but as a way of finding meaning and significance in life. To him. the zodiac was the cvolutionary pathway of the sout" Jones also acknowledges Leo's role as the forerunner of modern astrology. saying: "his fourtesn rn anuals (London ) his dictionary and other books and pamphlets. complstely revolutionizrd astrological literaturs." Jones also mentions Vivian E. Robson (a Theosophist. and author of many books and subsrqucnt editor of Modern Astroloav). and Charles E.O. Carter in the same context as important and competent writers in astrology. l* Rudhyar also acknowledges the pivota1 role of Leo and his work in introducing Theosophical ideas into modern astrology saying: Alan Leo. a devoted student of the modified theosophy that grew from the teachings of leaders w ho succeeded Madame Blavatsky. but personalized her original instructions. has been the most influential person in dirccting modern astrology towards the condition of a spiritual science. W hile accepting the basis of Ptolem aic astrology. lrn.~arcia Moore ami Mark Douglas. a o r v the Div- p l?joner Astrolonv: How and Wiq, p. 344.

255 hc strove to lift the whole structure of astrological thoupht by linking it to his understanding of Hindu philosophy.lg9 Rudhyar hrrr fails to acknowlrdga that Leo still knew HPB personally. though Lro may have been somewhat influenced by his wifr who was apparently quite devoted to Besant and her entourage. However. the statemrnts of both Jones and Rudhyar amphasize (as many others have also done) the importance of Leo with respect to the revival of astrology. as well as the significant changes hr has brought to the field of astrology in reneral. particularly his introduction of Theosophical teachings. C Unfortunately. Leo's short lifr prevented him from dcveloping his ideas éven further. We can thercfore only speculate what a prrson of his capabilities might have achieved had he lived as long as Carter. Joncs or Rudhyar. Lro did not witness the discovery of Pluto. as did the others. and we do not know how this would have affected his astrological views. Furthermore. the developrnent of psychology was sri11 in its infancy at the timr of his drath in Thus he was never cxposed to the psychological throries available to Carter. Jones or Rudhyar. He dird at the relatively young age of 57. much rarlier than any of his thrae colleagues. But despite his short life. Leo is clearly regarded as the pioneer of 20th century astrology. He not only gave astrology a philosophical foundation draw n from his Theosophical convictions (los t since the Renaissance). he also put it on a commercial footing by popularizing it as none other had done bef0re.m Thus he gave astrology a new level of public and commercial feasibility and respectability, an example that was quickly F~eo, who wimessed only the begin~img of the commercialization of asuology, was critical of some of its trends.

256 copied by othrrs. mostly though to the detriment of astrology. However. Lro's main intrrest was to anchor astrology firmly to the Theosophical teachings of HPB. Thus hr left a heritage which served as an rxample. and also a stcpping Stone. Cor those who followed him and improved upon it. such as Carter. Jones. and Rudhyar who made successful use of the grounds Leo had prepared. C.E.O. Carter Carter's significance to the revival and improvrmrnt of 20th century astrology lies rnainly in his long and successful presidrncy of the A.L.T.S. in London and the founding of the journal Astrolo~v whiçh. from small beginnings. has sinçe becorne a respectable international journal. Carter had a talent for kecping a delicate balance betwren the Astrological Lodgr and the T.S. organization. However. hr ais0 reaffirms in his writings a close connection between astrology and the four major Theosophical teachinps described in chapter 5. Under Carter's administrative leadership the Lodge became an important stabilizing factor for the devclopment of astrology in Britain and abroad. He kept the focus on astrology (in this he followed Leo's aim) and succreded in creating an atmosphere conducive to the training of a num ber of respected and capable astrologers who latrr went on to found their own organizations. This served to broaden the scope of astrology and extendrd its reach far beyond the borders of Britain. This new breed of astrologers has since made many valuable contributions to astrology in the form of books, articles and lectures.

257 In this mannrr the Lodge becamr a cradlr for important nrw offspring in the torm of both ideas and institutions. For examplr Leo's idea of an rducational institution for astrology was successfully realized by Carter many years later through his support for the creation of the Faculty of Astrology. This institution is still active in educating astrologers worldw ide. Also still active is the internationally recognizrd Astrological Association. anothrr offspring. w hich has created an as trological s tudy çenter. a Library and a successful journal. And a third major offspring. the Company of Astrologers. is also still playing a major role in the dcvelopment and dissrmination of astrology today. Al1 three of these important bodies owe thrir origins to Carter and the Lodgr he hcadrd for so rnany years. In training and development the Lodge has thus providrd a degree of stability and rcspcctability that has not bern seen since astrology was banned from the universities. In sum. the credit for the London Lodge's survival and extraordinary impact on modern astrology in this ccntury. must go to Carter and his loyal band of hrlpcrs in the inter-war years and after (these devslopments were outlined in section 7.3). It is apparent that Carter corresponded with a num ber of Theosophistl astrologers in the United States and Canada. in part as a mcm ber of the AFA. However. there seems to be no evidence of any correspondence brtwern Carter and Jones. who were contemporarics. both members of the AFA and fellow Theosophists. 201.~owever. this is oot siapnsing since aside frm macerial in Asaobpv and Jouduring the latter's visits to the Lodge in 1958 and Whatever privately-heid information there may be on this has not yet been made available. biographical information on Carter is difficult to corne by. Carter must also have met Rudb yar

258 M.E,Jones The role of Jones in 20th century astrology was quite different from that of Carter. The two apparently never met. since neither of them travelrd abroad (though Jones travcled extrnsivrly throughout the United States). Though also a contemporary of Rudhyar. Jones was never really interestrd in depth psychology cither. He rcstricted himstlf-as Carter also did. to what Rudhyar called the 'old-fashioned kind of psychology.'" However. Jonrs and Rudhyar were predominantly philosophically orisntrd in thcir astrology since both were steeped in Theosophy. and the universal dimension of astrology appealed to them. In his 'Sabian Astrology' and his work practicr Joncs corn binrd his Christian faith with Theosophy. This to most Christians. but sspecially to traditional theologians srerns rather contradictory (after al1 the Church tried to discredit HPB. as mentionrd in chaptrr 3-4). Jonrs however. discovered a deep conncction between the two. probably as a result of his readinps of Christian Theosophists likr James Pryse. This synthrsis rnabled him to reach out to many people who otherwise m ight never have considered Theosophy. let alone astrology. He also reached large audiences. since he was on the lecture circuit Cor most of his life throughout North Amrrica. Although there are more parallels between Jones and Rudhyar than with rither Carter or Lco there are also significant differences. as pointed out in the respective biographical sections. But Rudhyar. w ho was inspired by Jones. also acknowledges Jones importance to contemporary astrology. saying that: "Marc Edrnund Jonrs has brought astrology to the level of a most abstract system of knowledge pervaded by relativism and deeply m.~aibara Smerfield -An interview with DaDc Rudhyar on His 89th Binhday". p. 13.

259 rm bedded in intrllrctual speculation. though also most keenly effective in a regenerated 'horary' system."m D. Rudhyar Rudhyar is the youngest and most unorthodox OC the Cour astrologrrs wr have introduced. being something of a 'New Age' figure even before this became recognized as a 'movement'. He Celt more at home arnongst the crowd of young 'hippies' who followed him in the 60's and 70's than among contrrnporaries such as Carter or Jones. Rudhyar always had a strong inclination toward philosophy and astrology. but hr remaincd an artist at heart. and favored composing and playing music. Though it was Jones who inspired Rudhyar's interest in astrology. he reveals that he "wasn't taken with the approaches of Alan Lco or Max Hrindel. There were a couple of other groups. too. like C.C. Zain's Brotherhood of Light... astrology was not considered a profession in those groups... In some cases you were not supposed to recrive money Cor a rrading."m The above statement on Leo appears a trifle unfair given that Leo was the first astrologer to successcully corn mercialize astrology. Rudhyar's memory at 89 years of age may be responsible for this "faux pas". since wr have him praising Leo in another passage. mentioned prrviously. And after all. his own mentor Jones had learned from Leo. Apart from Theosop hy. Rudhyar's major contributions to astrology were twofold. The first was his interest in the outer planetary cycles. their historical relevance. and their relation to the universal cycles. His second contribution was to introduce Jungian depth-psychology to as trology. Since m.~udhyar. *Whence. Why and Whithef'. p. 8. n#jhd p.13.

260 Rudhyar is the youngcst of our four astrologers. it is in part his age which hzlped him focus on thesr new developments. Ha has therefore also writtrn more than any of the others on these subjects. For rxamplr Leo never had a chance to explore the pariodicity of great conjunctions such as thosr of PlutolLrranus or Pluto/Neptune. and their historical significance. And even during Carter's main productive Me. research into the meanings of Pluto had not yet reached the developrnents attained in the 1970's and the 1!J8C)'s.m It w as only after Carter's death that the astrological irn plications of Pluto were more fully understood and incorporated into the astrological literature. And since Jones did not occupy himself much with rither area of astrology (cycles or depth-psychology) it was Ieft to Rudhyar to explore them. Rudhyar believed we were at the threshold of a 'New Age' that involved a radical change in consciousness since today. an extraordinary amouat of confusion prevails not only in astroiogy. but in psychology, medicine and nearly al1 intellectual pursuits. the arts included. This is so because we are living through a transitional period. We still cling cmotionally and often fearfully. to the past and to agosaving devices... Im In conclusion. though each of the above astrologers made his own unique contribution to the revival and enrichment of astrology. they also have a num ber of ideas in common. In the first place. al1 were united in their goal to elevate the status of astrology and bring it back to the level of respectability they believed it *-~hen was stiiï discussion about the sign rulenhip of Pluto in the 1960's as inâicated in: Wuto in the Nativity (discussion of a Lodge Forwn)," Vol. 38, No. 4, p 145ff. m.~udhyar. Mv Stmd ai Asrmlow, p. 19.

261 drservrd in an age which had uncovered so many mystrrirs. and had penetratrd furthrr into the universe as nrver before. In addition. they al1 idrally required that the astrologer be a combination of philosopher and psychologist. and that the true practice of astrology br: considered a Corm of art? Thesc considerations are important in that they ernphasize the faculties of perception. intuition and clairvoyance as being rssential rndowments of a 'good' astrologer. It is also interesting to notr that al1 four werc quite critical toward a purely rmpirical or statistical approach to astrology. or towards any attempt to standardize astroiogy to make it acceptable to modern science (although Leo did not experiencr this trend to the same extent as did the others). Al1 thrsr views are in line with HPB's attitude to professionalkm in astrology. as already described. Finally. we notr that they were al1 apparently somewhat critical of the T.S. organization in the latrr post-hpb-rra. and show Little interes t in the writings of othrr prominent figures in the movement such as Besant. ludge. Sinnett. de Purucker or Leadbeater. Their attraction to Theosophy was primarily linked to the writings of HPB. since it was there that they round inspiration and support for their astrology. This is not surprising since. as indicated more particularly in the first two sections of chapter 6. the post-hpb-era of T.S. leaders was not much concerned with astrologyhence our own focus here on the writings of HPB. We might also mention that Leo and Rudhyar traveled to different countries and spread their influence personally. Leo for instance had offices in 2m.~ven Roger Bacon considmd astrology as a science and an art and a most powerfui indeed. (W.Firaion, p.49).

262 France. the Nrtherlands. New York (Ci nitrd S tatrs) and India. Rudhyar gathrrcid students around him in North Amrrica as wcll as in Switzerland. France. the Nrtherlands and England. W hile Jones traveled rxtrnsively throughout North America. he somewhat surprisingly never vrntured to Europe. Carter nrver visited North America though he apparrntly had intensive correspondence with a number of astrologers living there. Al1 four werr also highly prolific and left an abundance of books. most of which are sri11 available in print and are rrad and appreciated by a large world-w ide readership. Finally. al1 their activities have focused on improving astrological counsrling. which leads us to conclude with the Collowing words of Lryla Racl. (Rudhyar's last wife). Today. rven the most event-oriented astrologer (a term Rudhyar himself coined in contrast to his person-centred approach) counseis clients- that is to Say. points out the client's responsibility. indeed purposç in Me. to grow and learn from whatevçr happens. howevcr dire or sublime. This in itself marks a departure from traditional astrological practice? MB.~eyla Rael. The Astmlogicai Journal, p. 77.

263 9, CONCLUSION Western astrology undoubtedly cxpcrienced a declinr with the onset of the Enlightrnrnrnt. During the 19th century it had rrachrd a particularly low rbb. A lack of inxgrity and profrssionaiism among most of the astrological community was partly responsiblr. Howrvrr. this situation started to chanse at the turn of the century and astrology has since rxpcriencrd an impressivr comrback. The purposr of' this thesis has brrn to illustrate the part played by the T.S. Movemrnt in initiating and furthering this procrss of revival. The accumularrd cvidence suggrsts that the T.S. Movrment provided the impetus for this revival at two distinct levels. theoretical and practical. On the theoretical lcvel it was a major factor in reintroducing Western astrology to its own occult roots in Hermeticisrn and Neoplatonism. and in injecting certain 'Eastern' lratures derivrd from its own affiliations in the Indian subcontinsnt (a major repository of the Ancirnt Wisdom according to HPB). This more philosophical influence is rxemplified by the increasing accep tance and attention given by contem porary as trolog y to four major themes. m icrocosrn/rnacrocosm. karm akeincarnation. planetary cycles. and the emphasis of HPB and the later T.S.Movemrnt on a 'psychology of the so~l.'~ On the more practical Ievel we have shown that astrology has benefitted to a marked extent : a) from the astrological activities undertaken by the many Thesosphical Lodges spread throughout North America and Great Britain. and: b) through the Theosophical backgrounds of prominent astrolopers. four of whom we selected to!hpb also thought of this psychology as king essentiai to astrology. and her ideas were relatively close to Jungiaa depth psyctiology, and to Maslow's Hiimanistic psychology.

264 illustratr the profound influence of their lives and work on modern astrology. Both levels are closely intrrconnrcted and equally important. In devçloping our argument we continuously encountered tbe following questions. Why was astrology in need of revival? And to what rnight be attributrd the hostility. and even outright repression. that has punciuated its history'? While a satisfactory answer would have takcn us wcll beyond the scope of this present enquiry. wr do wish. howevrr. to sum up our thoughts on thrse issues. albeit clarifying thrm only to the extent they appear relevant to our topic. We showed how astrology was an important ingredirnt in the cultural lifc of society in the past. having bern practiced iit the courts of emperors and Popes. and acceptrd by much of the nobility. This practicr does not appear to have changed with the passage of tirne. Astrological counsel is still sought after by leaders of countries throughout the world. though this is kept hidden from public scrutiny as much as possible in modern Western society. Astrology has certainly lost the high standing in society it rnjoyed in the past (r.g. in Antiquity and in the Renaissance). Our own enquiry suggests a twofold reason for the mixed reception of this agc-old practice that. w hile O fficially frowned upon. is nevertheless still with us today. In the first place wr mentioned the Church. Our discussion served to highlight the arguments made by the Catholic Church. for rxam ple in defending 'Free W ill' against the alleged 'fatalism ' of astrology. This was the extension of an argument originally mounted against the Stoics by 'pagan' philosophers. and was later used against the Renaissance astrologers. The second reason is the rise of modern scientific

265 materialism which denirs the reality of rralms beyond the reach of the five senses. However. astrology was never complctely bannrd. and this. we think. can br attributed in part to the parallel existence of two lcvels of astrology. a more learned or philosophical type and a vulgar or 'popular' variety. The lrarned or philosophical type of astrology as practiced by the priest class in ancient times was still being practiced in later centuries by learned astronomers/astrologers such as Kepler and Galileo. It was also taught at the major European univcrsities for centuries. and even at Harvard and Yale in the United States until the mid 18th century (mainly in the medical field). The vulgar type on the other hand was usually practicrd for the comm on people by unschooled professionals. or by charlatans who often m ixed different eso teric means. It is also this more vulgar. superficial. type of astrology. rncountered today in popular newspapers and magazines. which is largely responsible. wr believe. for once again giving astrology a bad reputation. and for the persistent reluctance on the part of the acadrmic comrnunity to undertake serious studies on the subject. The Theosophical teachings of HPB helped revive an ailing astrology. shorn of its ancient philosophy. which had slowly faded away during the 18th and 19th centuries? HPB herself demanded a high professional 7 -.However, there were and still are well educated asuologers-for example John Worsedale in England, who was highly skilled in mathematics and well read. He may evea have ken clairvoyant, yet bis interpretation of astrology was fatalistic (Curry, 1989, p132ff). Worsdaie's test of accuracy was to predict a person's death (a practice stiii very much alive in India today). However, modem Western practice has shifted the emphasis towards counseiiing, and how best to deal with a difficult situation, as weil as predictiag as accurately as possible the begiming and end of a difficutt penod, mentioaing the type of potential event. Uoless an astrologer can tap into the chah of a person's pst Lives Lhrougb clairvoyance (concealed in wbat Edgar Cayce, a famous Amencan medium and Theosophist called the "-hic records," to which W B hints in the Se), the asttologer cm only mention a certain range of possibilities; not a specific eveot. Exceptions are possible if the astrologer has a detailed howledge of the person's life. Thea inferences can be ma& on the basis of past eveots, based on Leo's dictum bat: "character is destin y".

266 standard for the astrologrr and ais0 made a distinction bctween what shr callrd 'quacks' who merely dabble in astrology in an attempt to impress othrrs. and the earnrst student of astrology. Althoueh HPB stated that the kry to the 'true esoteric astrology' was lost. she still thought of the astrology of hcr timr as valuable. Shc might be evzn more pleased with the astrology practiced by many astrologers in the West today given the 'Throsophical trend* introduced by Theosophisll astrologrrs such as Lro. Carter. Jones and Rudhyar who applied HPB's trachings to astrology. Faivre. a modern authority on esotericism. has since attributed the practice of an rsoteric astrology to Leo and Rudhyar.3 That we rxprrirncr a new 'renaissance' of astrology was also observed in a recrnt article in Life Manazine. providing the results of a survey stating that: It turns out that astrology is experiencing its biggest boom in JO0 years. According to a rrcrnt poll. just 20 percent of Amçricans are flat-out nonbelievers: 48 percent Say astrology is probably or definitely valid... Twanty yrars ago there were an sstirn ated 1 O00 professional astrologers in the United States: today there are something likc In 1968, when Linda Goodman's Sun Signs becarne the first astrological best-seller. the annual market for astrology books was around five million. Today. it is closer to 20 million. Netnicks can surf thousands of Web sites...d This figure of 5000 must include only those professional astrologers in the United States who actually earn their full livelihood from the practice of 3.Faivre. Access to Western Esoten-.. p. 95. He may not be as famiiiar with the other two we mention. Kenwth Miller. -Star Smck: a joumey to the new fkootim of the ztodic,** "fe hippazjoç. July p. 40. An earlier article on the subject was written in the September 26, 1969 issue by Anne Bayer. entitled: "Astroiogy for Devotees and Doubters".

267 astrology. because Broughton a hundred years ago. had obsrrved that evrn though there were only?o professionals in thrrr wrre already many thousands of astrologers (or would be astrologers) at the turn of the century.j Today. Lens of thousands more practice astrology on a part-tirne basis. in çonjunction with psychology or otherwisa. Wr know from diable sources for exarnple. that we have around 300 practicing astrologers in the widcr MontrCal area alone. However. only a handful are able to support them selves fully through astrology. And whilr wr do not assume. or daim here. that al1 practicing astrologers subscribr to the four major concepts introducrd by Theosophy. a survèy on astrologrrs in North America mentioned by Ronald Davison. a former student of Carter. showed thar: "... about seventy-five percent of astrologers belirved in Karma. a universal law best summed up as-'as you sow. so shall you reap.' The same proportion also accepted the idca of Reincarnati~n."~ We do not have similar figures for the situation in Great Britain. although the anrcdotal rvidence suggrs ts that the situation there is likrly to be sirnilar. The impact of depth psychology on astrology. judged by the amount and quality of literature. is equally impressivc. A suitablr topic for a future rcsearch project might include a social survey and analysis of the reasons why people consult astrologers today. the ways in which thsy tend to integrate the results of their consultations into their daily lives. and the effects this might have on the wider society. Algeo certainly seem s to have captured the general im pact of Theosophical ideas thus far quite well by saying that they were once exceptional but "are now 5.Gordoa Meltm p ~oaaid Davison, Astro Ioav. The C- Guide to Unders- vour Horoscm, (Sebastopo1 California, CRCS Publications, 1987) p. 12.

268 corn monplace in contcm porary th~ught."~ And most informrd obsrrvers today would agree wirh his daim that Theosophy has brcomr an integral part of the Zeitgeist-the 'spirit of the times.' 'John Algeo. "Theosophy and the Zritgrist." The Amencan Theos~r?~ Vo1.75. No. 10. November 1987, p. 3Zf.

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286 APPENDICES Apprndix A: Appcndix B: Appendix C: Appendix D: Appendix E: Apprndix F: Apprndix G: Apprndix H: Zodiacal Man with rach sign depicting a cosmic. terrestrial and organic function: Different rxamples of horoscope designs through the centuries: Exampies of covcr papes Crom two old Atmanacs: Portrait of H.P. Blavatsky (above) and with Olcott (brlow): Engraving showing the Latin. Greek and Egyp tian versions of the zodiac The Faces of Hermes Trismegistus; Astrology Classes in Thcosophical Lodges (Listing): Threr cxamples of advertisements in the Gstroloev i&u~l& V No. 3.

287 APPENDIX A Zodiacal Man with rach sign depicting a cosmic. terresrriai and organic funcrion


289 i Zodiacal man. from MS.. Gzrrnany. 14C.. Bayerische Staatsbibliothzk. Munich. > The great cclcstiül mari with his body ma& up of the zodiac bas il syrithesis of working principlcs, cach sign depicting a cosrnic. terres trial and organic function. Events above wzre rnatchsd by rzsponse bdow. although not always in ihs most obvious way. Thus Mars iri his positive sign. Arizs. might givz one miin a kad ~kound. or impel another to impulse: on a litrgsr sciile it could initiate a daring commercial enterprise. or prrcipitiita a wür. Everyoiie was part of Adam. and he was a reflsçtiori of the heavsnly man.

290 APPENDIX B Different exam ples of horoscope designs through the centuries

291 ri.. ~-~ai.ples =if Hor9.s cgpes Horoskopdarstellungen aeispiele sind die beiden griechschen Horoskope. das Horoskopscherna Katser Hadrians und das Ndliensteins (nach O Neugebauer und F H Cramer)

292 APPENDIX C Examples of cover pages from two old Almanacs

293 THE SHAKESPEARE ASSOCIATION FACOIMILES A scries of rare texts illustrating life and thought in, Shakcspcarc's England, undcr thé general editodhip of Dr. G. B. Harrison, (1) A Didognc Concer~~ing Wirchcs and Wirchcra/~cs. BY Ceo~ae CIFFORD. I 593. With an Introduction by Biw~nicm Wni~a. I Skia~etheia; or a shadow of 7'nd in Certaiuc ; Epipum und Sap. By EVEMRD GUILPIN , With an Introduction by Ge B. HARRISON. I r A Heaith to the Ccntlenanly Pro/s~ior o/ SCPVI*II~- ' Mette By I.M With an Introduction ;in LO&t WILLIAMS UNIVERSITY l LIBH ARY 1 SHAKESPEARE ASSOCIATION FAC~IMILBS No. 8 4 An Almanack and Pr~gn~~ti~ati~n for the Year I 598 THOMAS BUCKMINSTER by A. V. JUDGES. i 1598 Yicirritudo Rcrum. By JOHN NORDEM With an Introduction by D. C. COLLINS.! $ '9, (5) A- Shm Trratisr O/ HunU~g. By Sm THOMAS COCKAI NE. I ~g 1. With an Introduction &y W. R. ; HALLI DAY. (6) Paradoxes o/dc/cnrc. By GEORGE SILVER With an introduction by J. DOVER WILSON. 1 WlTH AN INTRODUCTION DY E USTACE F. BOSANQUET (7) Prc~eut Rcmedicr again~t zhe Phgne, etc. With, an Introduction by W. P. BARR^. I (8) An AInronark and Proguortication /or the year r 598. ' Made by THOMAS BUCKMINSTER. duction by EUSTACE F. BOSANQU~. I With an lntro- (9) The Batth Niruport. i 600. Two News Pamphlets and a Bal ad, with an Introduction on News in Elizabethan England by D. C. COLLINS. (10) Tb Lijr and Dcarb o/ GamaIieI Xlitrey, and Hotds GAOSA With an Introduction by S. W. ATKINS. TI~E SHAKESPEARE ASSOCIATION SY H umphrey Milford, Oxford University Prcss Amen House, Warwick Square, E.C.


295 APPENDIX O Portrait of H.P. Blavatsky (above) and with OIcott (below)

296 r Madame Blavatskv t. Maloney and jack, the chums

297 Engraving showing Latin. Greek and Egyptian Versions of the Zodiac


299 APPENDIX F The Faces of Hcrmes Trismegistus

300 THE FACES OF HERMES TRISMEGISTUS Plate 33. Tobias Schütze, Harmonio macrocosmi cum microcosmo, Frankfurt, 16%. Based on Croll (see Plate 17) and on illustrations of the Utriusque cosmi historia ( 161 7) of Robert Fludd.

301 THE.\CES UF ff ERhIEE TRIShIECISTUS Plate 12A and 12B. Painting on a column of the Salone Sistine ;Vatican Libraryl. The series of column-paintings in that room is mributed to Luca Horfei ( and represents the "inventors" of scripts and alphabets. Here, Mercurius Thoth is the inventor of the E,gyptian "Mercurius Thoyt hegyptiis sacras Litteras conscripsit"i. Above Hermes, an Egyptian alphabet. Professor Frans A. Janssen kindly called my attention to this document.

302 Astrology Classes in Theosophical Lodges (Listing)

303 Appendix G Astrology Classes in Theosophical Lodges Indianapolis Lodge - Astrology classes. sponsored by Ch. Luntz (T.M.. Vol.XV1. No.7. p Drcember. 1928). Buffalo Lodge. Astrology classes sponsored by Ch. Luntz (T.M.. Vol. XVI. No.7. p Drcernbcr 1928). Minneapolis Lodge. Astrology classes sponsored by Ch.Luntz (T.M. Vol.XVI1. No. 1. p.7. January. 1929). Central Lodge. New York city. hçld Astrology classes sponsored by Ch.Luntz (T.M. Vol.XVII. No.J.6. p ). Atlanta Lodge. (T.M. Vol. XVII. No.6. p ). Annie Besant Lodge. San Diego. (T.M. Vol XX. No.3. p.68: A.T.Vo1. XXII. No.7. p.16). Brsani Lodge. Boston. classes conductrd by Isabelle Hickey (shr published. a few valuable books) (A.T. Vol-XXX. No.5 p.113. May. 1942: Vol.XXX1. p May. 1943). Besant Lodge, Seotle. (A.T. Vol.XXI1. No. 12. p.280. Decem ber. 1934). Birmingham Lodge. (T.M. Vol.XVIII. NOS. p.102. May. 1930). Minneapolis Lodge. (T.M.. Vol.XVI1. No. 1. p.7. January. 1929). Peoria Lodge. (T.M. Vol.XX. No.3. p.67. March. 1932). Washington D.C. Lodge. (T.M. Vol-XX. No.2. p.40. February No.% p.114. May. 1932: A.T. Vol.XXX. No.11. Novernber, 1942). Pasadena Lodge. (T.M. Vol.XIX. No. 10. p.522. October. 1931). Headquarter Staff. (T.M. Vol.XIX. No.3. p.359, March. 1931). lndianapolis Lodge. (T.M. Vol.XV1. No. 12. p Decem ber. 1928). New Orleans Lodge. (A.T. Vol.XXVII1. No.7. p July 1940).

304 Kansas Cirv Lodge. "Astrological Chic". (A.T. Vol.XXVII. No.7. p.235. July. 1939). Maryland Lodge. Baltimore. (A.T. Vol.XXII1. No.7. p July. 1935). Hartford-Capitol Lodge. (A.T. Vol. XXIII. N0.6.p.137. June. 1935). Ojai Valley Oaka Lodge. (A.T. VolXXII. p.90. Apri1.1934). San Francisco Lodge. (A.T. Vol.XX1. NO. 12. p.284, 1933). Crescenr Bay Lodge. Santa Monica. (A.T. Vol.XX1. No.7. p July. 1933). Sr. Paul Lodge. (T.M.. Vol. XX. No. 12. p.283. Decrmber. 1932). Chicago Lodge. activities in astrology were reported to be very succrssful. (A.T.. VOIS 1. No.-!. 1977). p.7. April p.74. also Vol. 65. Nr. Y. Srptember. Long Beach Lodge: public lectures were given in Novem ber containing: "Cycles of Things to corne (Astrologically speaking)". by Dr. Lowe11 Paul Wadlr: and "Astro-Psychology as related to Throsophy". by Walter Haeg. Questions and answer sessions on astrology as well as lectures wrre frequently hrld under the guidance of Mr. W. Harg. (A.T..Vol 5 1. No. 1.p. 16. January. 1963). Besant Lodge in Hollywood. Questions and answer sessions on astrology as well as lectures were frequently held under the guidance of Mr. W.Haeg (A.T..Vol.51.No.2, February A.T. Vol. 65. Nr.9. September. 1977). Vancouver Lodge. (T.M. Supplement. Vol IV. No.8. p. Mf. August. 1916). The T.S. of8altimore. lectures on astrology (A.T.. Vo1.66. p.162. lune ). Phoenix Arizona, San Mareo Study Center. Series of lectures on esoteric subjects including astrology (A.T..Vol.66. p June. 1978).

305 APPENDIX H Three exam ples of Advertisernents in the Astroiogv Ouarteriy. Vol. 67. No. 3.

306 Al1 ashoiogical work undertaken includ,hg character ennlyma, relatioruhlps, forlosta, ipcdfi~'~ues~<lns..., Mowbray Court, Mowbiiy flomd. London, SE10 2RL ASTROLOGlCAL ASSOCIATION of Great Brtitain Memhcrstiip heiicfits iiicli~ilc Thc I)i-irioi,iIil~ Astrolagiç;il.toiirnal & Newstetter. Annual Confersnre: 1997 iiii~i'r.reiirc al Circnceslcr Confercnrc ('asteties: Hc*ciiritcd leciures nn audio cassette by mail iirder. 5 4,., l (Ikgtntcred Educrttonrl Chmrity) Fourteenth History of Astrology Seminar Saturday. 1st November 1997 ai a.m. to 5.30 p.m. (Doore opcn far coffee at 9.31) ii 50 Cloucee~er Placc, London W 1 (nearest Undsrground stations: Marblo Arch & Baker.' Nick Carnpion Silkc Ackermann Tomas Gazis Panel Session Rudolf Hess's flight ta Scotland was on 10 May 194 1, under the loi1 awaikd ahgnment of planets in Taurus and Scorpio; his aim, to nipeace between Britain and Gerrnany. The latest evidence euggests astrologers in both countries had lured him over. Astrology and Scicntific Instruments. Dr Ackermann curates the instruments in the Briti~h Museum. Coffee Our contributor from Athens concludes his discussion of Byzantii astrology, begun last year. Notes from the panel; questions from the flwr. Data Callectinri: Access III flic AA's large and cnnstaiiily updaicd collection of daia ai disciiuiii Tiir iiiriirhcrs For dciails coiiturt: Aslroli~gicrl Association, 396 Calrdoriian Road, lnndon NI IDN Tcl: (01 71) 7ûû Far: (0171) 700 Qualifyitig olorar y aiplorna Course ceslabiished since 1384 aivia CJ3arclay $Principal --. i xongeham %dge Co1ia8u i.,... Greai p(an0eham, cgcaf,... ".. "Christian Astrology" by William Lilly Piolcmy Manilius Ilonalus Iberiin 'Ilorary Aslrology Rcdiscovcred" by O. narclay and morc. The original arldprovcn coursefrom which morc recrnt courses ure dcrived. For serious nrid ahanced sludcnrs worlhuide 7ko year course - f 350 or Dollar equivalcnr \ 8 Judith Kolbas Annabella Kitsan Caroline Gerard Panel Session Luiuh 1.00 io 2.00 Soler Supremacy or Royal Iconography in 12th and 13th c. Mid, Dr Kolbas, expert on Ceritral Aeiatic coins, seee over-enthusinhi identificat~on of aetrological ayrnboliem ae a diassrvice to our si Lilly's 'Mock Suns' and 'World's Catas~rophe' Callection (1647) 1 readers, tlicn and now, with tlieir own rneane af politicsl piwrlic Teo 3.20 The Lauriston Horoscope: at Lauriston Castle, Edinburgh, thcr horoscope carved in atone. What can this tell ua about Scottish the period? Some astrological artefacts from India and the European Renai Hiatory of the History Seminar - astrologically handled by Mikt A brief asrrological entertainment. The Panel includes Nick Carnpion, Bernard Eccles, Mike Edwrrdr, Annabellr Kitson and Dmvid Select Reading Liet Hir~ory of Antrology - tloakr by our rpalikerr fltstory and Astrology Clio oiid Uraiiia Co~i/tr. EJ Kition, brntd on talki liven rt tbeie mrninari. contributcil, Applcby. Nick Cmrnpion. Prudence Joncr. Patrick Curry, Annrlicllr Kitnon, et il Mnemoryne Preas. Midheaveii Booh:, Crle~loniin Road. bndon NI 1DN nie Crza~ )'cor NIC~ Campion. Arkanr. A Con/urioii o/prophcts, Patrick Curry C/irrsiiaii Aiimlogy Hegulur Campany. / Nonie... Addrcss... I EIILIOW cheq~ic~~f1 O piiyalh 10 'Astrcilii) I ~dgc id laiiiioii' (iidiidrh kas etc ) for f ((Ilcnjkii~i: f~iiiii Septemlwr onwards) ludpc niciiibers illi(t(~ Nori.oicmt~crs f l'mi io A L Id iiistory Srrninilr. 50 Gluiicrsii~i l'laçt* London W 1 3HJ enclosing r mnlp!! a t j d r ~ (nr ~ tickcia n ~ will ~ he ~ hcld ~ nt thc door) 01 Iiiiv RI A IW~~III~~ 011 terni tiiiic hfo~id~iys iit 7 1) ni.ii.i IJrrsn above Ilwking oii ilil* day. 6paCC perniiiiirlg Cticqiics p,iy,,l~li~ 11, $ Il.A,, S.,{.

307 '1.,-- Astrolabe launches exciting new software in _ Leq. _.- -. THE ASTROLOGY SHOP COVENT GARDEN kntncrn Artn,Iopy's "Bcsl Astrological Prograin" is now cvcn hdtcr Il now includes al1 your fevouriie Version 3 fcsiures plus: dynarnic tranniting and transits to midpinis; morc chsri styles. many technical tshlcs on chart papes; design your own pages and charts; graphic ephcmcridts; chan files with biographies; export la ASCII;. 38 morc rsteroids; ncw diala with pinter; up to 12 charîr an e page; plus msny ol I thosc dehiled changes you askd for. ~IE- r~ ~ i &ter m t ~a 7 Winifows 95's miilii-tasking ïaciliiics..wh~n, fiw ~ncirnr / Rcnni.rv)ncc. CI ~.un)hri P/I gy Oraninn.,.%in 111w-1, A \horoughly rtvbul and iiphid version of hoih fuh AtLscq. caniaining an-crincl cnines. Thuc wül interface 4th most cithcr aam.wftwarr. Hnvc the laied and Ihe Iwsi Special discount with!mar Fireon,%lar Mips for glarious asiro rnapping, Jigsnw for visual interactive rcciificaiion. fainilv nancrns and rcsearch and Sler Spark wiih Sahian Oraclc Asîrology Books OCCI One Ttiousaiid Asird~igtcal 'TiiIcs UK and Inieriiatic~iial Mail Ordcr Servicc availahlt: trrtiii ilic Sliop Astrological Video & Audio Cassette Tapes Astro* intelligence Liz Grccnc'r, Psychnlogical Horoscope Analysis Availahlc in Engli5h. Cirrman. Frcnch. Spanish. Iialian, Duich or Norwtgian Ast ro-maps A3 Colour World Rclocaiion Maps Chart Calculation Service Equinox Chart Interpretations Clmicc of Porlraii, Year Transit Forecasi. Chitd Profile or Canipaiihility Profile. Each rcpori is annoiaied with asiralogical symhols Chart Blanks, Posters & Unusual Gifts TIIE ASTRO1.OGY SHOP 78 Ncal Slrcet Coveiit Gardcii lmadon WC211 9PA

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